- 1 Tomato Farming Introduction, Process and Profit Guide
- 2 Health Benefits of Tomato
- 3 Major Tomato Producer
- 4 High Yielding Tomato Varieties
- 5 Agro-climatic Requirement for Tomato Farming
- 6 Soil Requirement For Tomato Farming
- 7 How to Start Tomato Plantation
- 8 How to Grow Tomato Seedlings
- 9 Irrigation in Tomato Farming
- 10 Application of Manure & Fertilizers in Tomato Farming
- 11 Pests & Diseases in Tomato Farming
- 12 Harvesting Tomatoes
Tomato Farming Introduction, Process and Profit Guide
Tomatoes are also one the most eaten fruits and vegetable that has acquired an antique place in the kitchen of each and every people throughout the world. And because of which, tomatoes are the topmost vegetable and fruit crop that is grown across the world. Currently, after potato and sweet potatoes, tomatoes are the worlds largest vegetable and fruit crops which also leads the list of canned vegetables.
Basically, tomatoes are native to Peruvian land and the region around Mexico. Tomato farming is much successful crop over the other fruits and vegetable crops with sharp and instant income.
Basically, this is a sprawling and herbaceous plant which grows up to 3 meters in height bearing yellow flowers. The tomato fruit quality depends on the variety or cultivar chosen for cultivation since there many kinds of hybrid varieties are present in the local market in the different portion of the world. They are the warm season crop which thrives it best under warm atmosphere and cool climate conditions but this crop is not able to resist frost and high humidity conditions during the growing period. Also, in growing tomatoes, the intensity of light also affects pigmentation and color of fruit along with fruit setting density on plants. A bright sunlight at the time of fruit set may yield fruits with attractive color.
The main benefits of tomato farming include:
- They can be grown all over the world on all kinds of soils.
- They can be grown from pots and containers to a large-scale commercial field.
- Favourable climate conditions and weather throughout the world.
- Great market potential throughout the world along with onion and potatoes.
Tomato | Scientific Name & Botanical Name
The scientific name or botanical name of tomato is “Solanum Lycopersicum” which belongs to the family “Solanaceae” and to the genus “Lycopersicon”.
Besides growing on the large-scale commercial field, these vegetables can also be grown as greenhouse tomatoes, poly house tomatoes, hydroponic tomatoes, along with pots and containers.
Health Benefits of Tomato
Tomatoes are considered as fruits and vegetables. There plenty of health benefits of tomatoes. However, the following is the list of the some of the health benefits of eating tomatoes:
- Tomatoes contain a significant amount of the lycopene, an antioxidant which is highly beneficial in scavenging of cancer via reducing free radicals content. This
- The significant amount of the lycopene in tomatoes also provide protection against heart-related diseases.
- They are rich in almost all kinds of minerals and vitamins including vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin A, Iron, vitamin B6, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, copper along with good dietary fiber content.
- The coumaric acid & chlorogenic acid content of tomatoes is found to be beneficial in fighting against nitrosamines.
- They are helpful in improving the vision and eye health.
- They also keep digestive system happy and healthy by preventing us from diarrhea and constipation problem.
- Tomatoes help in maintaining healthy bones, teeth, hair, and skin. It is also an anti-aging agent.
- It prevents us from many kinds of cancer including bladder cancer, breast cancer, etc
- Tomatoes are also effectual blood purifiers which also clear up the urinary tract & infections.
- They also have higher fiber content which is pretty beneficial for good weight management.
Major Tomato Producer
Tomato can be grown all over the world with varying climate conditions and soil type but when it comes production, China tops the list of production all over the world followed by India and United States.
- The United States
- Russia Federation
Other Names of Tomatoes
Tomato & Tamaatar (India), とまと (Japanese), Xihongshi(Chinese), Kamatis (Filipino), Kha Yan Khin Thee (Burmese), Thakkali (Sinhalese or Sri Lanka), Fan Qie (Mandarin), Ca Chua (Vietnamese), Goujeh Farangii(Persian), Kam’afbit(Taiwanese), الطماطم (Arabic), Beenbo (Cambodian), Makhuea Thet (Thai), Vartki (Sanskrit), Domates (Turkish), Tameta (Gujarati), Ulaan lool (Mongolian), 토마토 (Korean), Ruwangum (Kashmiri), etc.
High Yielding Tomato Varieties
There are many types of improved variety of tomato created for commercial tomato cultivation. Here is below is a list of some tomato variety which is popular for high yielding capacity.
|Tomato Variety||Tomato Variety||Tomato Variety||Tomato Variety|
|Big Rainbow||Cherokee purple||Black Krim||Japanese Black Trifele|
|Garden Peach||Early Girl||Jubilee||Great White|
|Super Sweet 100||Kumato||Matt’s Wild Cherry||Green Zebra|
|M creamy||Tomaccio||Santorini||Lillian’s Yellow|
|San Marzano||Roma||Sasha Altai|
Agro-climatic Requirement for Tomato Farming
They are the warm & humid season crop which thrives theirs best under warm atmosphere and cool climate conditions but this crop is not able to resist frost and high humidity conditions during the growing period. Also, in growing tomatoes, the intensity of light also affects pigmentation and color of fruit along with fruit setting density on plants. A bright sunlight at the time of fruit set may yield fruits with attractive color. They are able to grow well up to an elevation of 1650 meters and little more in the tropical and subtropical climate conditions.
It requires a varying climate condition during the seedling growth, seed germination, flowering stage and fruit set on the plants. The quality of fruits is also impacted by the climate and growing temp. Make sure of heavy rains, excessive hot winds along with high humidity since such conditions may lead to complete destruction of this fruit crop.
Note that these plants these plants are highly affected by the adverse climatic and weather conditions. A temp below 15 °C and above 35 °C negatively affects the plant tissues via slower down the physiological activities of plants. A temp ranging between 18 °C and 30 °C is considered as the best suitable for growing tomatoes along with medium rainfall ranging from 50 to 170 cm. However, in growing tomatoes water stress and a long dry spell may result in cracking of tomato fruits.
Soil Requirement For Tomato Farming
They can be raised over a wide range of soil including sandy soils to heavy clayey soils. However, light sandy soils are preferred for early crop whereas clayey loamy soils and silt loamy soil are best suitable for the maximum production of vegetables. For maximum production of tomatoes, soils should have a facility of good drainage and it should be rich in all the essential organic matter. Soils with good aeration, water holding capacity, and free from salts are best suitable for tomato production.
However, avoid tomato plantation of more acidic soils along with fair nutrient content since are not proper for higher production. They also do not perform well with soils having extreme organic matter content because of high moisture and some nutrient deficiencies in them. Since the addition of organic matter is helpful in achieving higher yield.
Tomatoes also required good soil pH ranging from 5.8 to 7.3 for excellent plant growth, quality, and quantity of fruits.
How to Start Tomato Plantation
Land Preparation for Tomato Plantation
The cultivating land should be free from the extra material including weeds, rocks, etc and should have fine tilth form and friable conditions. Bring the cultivating soil in fine and tilth form by giving about 3 deep plowing. Try to add 10 tonnes of farmyard manure along with 2000 gms of neem cake or 10 kg of carbofuran granules per hectare to increase the soil fertility and productivity. For planting tomatoes on alkaline soil, the acidic character should be corrected by adding an appropriate amount of lime.
Seed Rate in Tomato Farming
In tomato production, seedlings are raised in the nursery beds and for raising tomato seedlings, about 500 to 550 gm of seeds are needed per hectare land.
Tomato Planting Season
Tomato farming can be done throughout the year with the facility of enough irrigation during the complete growing periods. One can easily cultivate tomato for about three times in a year with no frost conditions during the growing period.
However, the best tomato planting season for growing tomatoes 3 times a year are
- For the 1st crop, transplanting of seedling should be done from Dec to Jan.
- For the 2nd crop, transplanting of seedling should be done from June to July.
- For the 3rd crop, transplanting of seedling should be done from Sept to Oct.
Transplantation should be done on the basis of availability of irrigation facilities.
Propagation in Tomato Farming
In tomato production, propagation is mainly done with the help of seeds. Always select high yielding and fast growing for growing seedlings of tomatoes for commercial cultivation.
How to Grow Tomato Seedlings
Seeds are raised before one month of planting seedlings on the ground with 60 to 90 cm width spacing with convenient length. For obtaining high-quality seedlings, the raise nursery beds soil should be solarized before sowing seeds. For soil solarization, the nursery beds should be covered by transparent and microthin polythene film for about 30 to 50 days. Since this is the effective way of controlling weed growth, bacteria, fungus, nematode, pests, insects, and diseases in tomato plants.
For raising seedling on nursery beds, add about 5 kg of farmyard manure along with 25 kg of Nitrogen, 20 kg of Potassium and 20 kg of Phosphorous, 250 gm neem cake and 20 gm of Trichoderma as a part of land preparation. Also, incorporate the neem leaf or neem cake caster leaf or caster cake @ 400 gm per sq. meter to protect nematodes effectively.
Mulching by green leaves should be done after sowing seeds on nursery beds. And irrigation should be done on daily basis in every morning through rose-can. But, when germination starts in beds, mulching should be discarded immediately and the beds are covered by using fine nylon net to avoid virus transmitting insects and diseases.
Seed Treatment in Tomato farming
To minimize the pests and diseases occurrence in tomato seedlings, seed treatment should be done well by carbendazim @ 2.5 gm per kg or Trichoderma @ 10 gm per kg of seeds. After seed treatment, seeds should be drained off in a shade for about 40 to 50 minutes & sow directly on beds at about 0.5 cm to 0.6 depth followed by soil covering.
When to Plant Tomato Seedlings?
When seedlings reach their age of one-month older, they should be planted on the field. Planting of seedlings should be done into shallow furrow & small lat bed depending on the facility of irrigation and on the ridge for heavy soils.
Stacking with bamboo sticks having length 2 meters should be done to provide support to the plants.
Tomato Planting Spacing
The prescribed spacing for the autumn to winter season crop is 60 cm X 75 cm whereas for the spring to summer crop 45 cm X 75 cm.
Irrigation in Tomato Farming
Irrigation in tomato production is quite important for healthy growth of plants, quality and quantity of fruits. It is important to maintain good moisture level during its growing period. However, irrigation should be done on the basis of plant requirements. In hot and dry climate conditions, irrigation should be done on weekly base whereas it should be done at an interval of 10 days during cold and cool climate conditions. But, take care that the water need of plants depends on soil moisture level, soil type, and climate conditions.
Note that a long spell of drought situation followed by immediate heavy watering at the time of fruit set may result in fruit cracking problem.
When it comes to the way of irrigation, irrigating with drip irrigation method is more preferred by farmers since it saves times and used water the best way, especially in those areas where there is water scarcity problem. Irrigate the crop @ every 3 to 4 days to this crop.
Application of Manure & Fertilizers in Tomato Farming
Tomatoes respond very well to the application of manure and fertilizers and timely application of suitable manure and fertilizer in good proportion multiplies the yield of fruits many times. Application of balanced fertilizer on requirement basis is essential to obtain desirable yield.
The availability of Nitrogen in fair amount is found to be beneficial in increasing the fruit size, color, taste, quality, and quantity. It is also helpful in achieving desirable acidic fruits flavor. The availability of adequate potassium is also required for healthy plant growth, quality and quantity of fruits. Mono Ammonium Phosphate can be applied as initial fertilizer to meet the phosphorus requirement during germination stage and seedling stages. Whereas the calcium content is also beneficial in controlling soil pH and organic nutrient content.
But, take care that sandy soils require fertilizer at a higher rate. Also, incorporate about 30 tonnes of farmyard manure at the time of the last plowing and spray the seedling with a suitable starter micronutrient solution.
Generally, about 125 kg of Nitrogen, 50 kg of Potassium and 50 kg of Phosphorous is essential for commercial tomato cultivation. Try to give Nitrogen in a split of doses. The first one should be given at the time of transplanting seedlings on the ground whereas the 2nd and 3rd one should be given after about one month and two months of seedling transplanting.
Pests & Diseases in Tomato Farming
Tomato | Insect & Pests
The main insects and pests in tomato crop are
- Serpentine leaf miner
- Gram pod borer and
- Root-Knot Nematode
- Tobacco caterpillar
Controlling Measures of Pests & Insects
To control the major pests and insects in tomato cultivation effectively, learn the following controlling measure
- Spraying of neem seed extract @ 5 % can found to beneficial in killing early stages of various kinds of larvae.
- Growing 2 to 3 rows internally between each of 15 tomato rows is beneficial in minimizing the pests and disease occurrence since marigold flowers various egg laying pests and insects.
- Adding 250 gm of neem cake and 20 gm of Trichoderma as a part of land preparation is helpful in pests protection.
- Also, incorporate the neem cake or neem leaf or caster leaf or caster cake @ 400 gm per sq. meter to protect nematodes effectively.
Tomato | Diseases
The following are major diseases of tomatoes
- Damping Off
- Bacterial leaf spot
- Septoria leaf spot
- Early blight
- Bacterial stem
- Late blight
- Fruit canker
- Leaf curl
- Bacterial Wilt
- Buckeye rot
- Septoria leaf blight
- Fusarium wilt
- Tomato spotted wilt disease
- Bacterial Canker
- Powdery mildew
- Fusarium blight
Control Measures of Tomatoes Diseases
Tomatoes are very prone to disease and are mainly attacked by bacteria, fungus, and viruses, however, soil solarization before sowing of seedling on the ground is the best way of controlling all kinds of diseases effectively. Seed treatment of selected seeds is another an effective way to minimize the occurrence of all kinds of bacterial, fungal and virus diseases.
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Crop rotation is another task to perform to minimize the occurrence of the various kinds of disease in tomato cultivation. However, uprooting of the heavily infected plants and burning at a distant point is to be carried out, as soon as infection appears in the crop. Sanitation is also helpful in reducing the disease incidence.
Note: If your crop is being infected heavily by any specific disease, please pray suitable liquid fertilizer to minimize the loss of fruits production on the basis of the recommended doses.
Within a time span of three months of planting on the main field or about one month of flowering stage, tomatoes attain their maturity to become ready for harvesting. Picking should be done at a different interval of the time span to obtain maximum fruits production.
When to harvest tomatoes? Start harvesting matured and healthy fruits when they attain red color and ripened stage. The picking of fruits varies according to the purpose. First 6 to 8 picking is should be carried out the obtain healthy and high-quality seeds. Whereas for the vegetable purpose, harvesting should be done as soon as they start maturity and red color.
Avoid any type of damage to the plants while fruit picking. Grading of fruits should be done on the basis of quality; size, color, and weight after collecting them from the field. Storing of fruits should be done at a proper place and are sent off for sold to the nearby market.
Yield in Tomato Farming
Yields of tomato cultivation depend on numbers of key factors including soil type, variety, the way of irrigation, intercultural activities, pests, and diseases control practiced during the growing periods. Tomato production also vary according to the growing method:
|Farming Method||Minimum Yield (Expect)||Maximum Yield (Expect)|
|Commercial farming or Open field Farming||25 tonnes per hectare||35 tonnes per hectare|
|Greenhouse tomato farming||75 tonnes per hectare||100 tonnes per hectare|
|Hydroponics farming||175 tonnes per hectare||200 tonnes per hectare|
Tomato farming or tomato cultivation is an easy job and anyone can create a huge income in a very short time period with little farm management practices. Just grow the suitable one and produce optimum.