- 1 Vermicompost Preparation Process and Profit guide 2018
- 2 Advantages and Benefits of Vermicompost
- 3 Chemical composition of vermicompost
- 4 Importance of Earthworms in Agriculture
- 5 How to prepare vermicompost
- 6 Vermicompost preparation
- 6.1 Vermicomposting worms
- 6.2 Site selection for vermiculture
- 6.3 Container for vermicompost or composting bins
- 6.4 Vermicompost bed
- 6.5 Worm food
- 6.6 Common worms food
- 6.7 Selection of raw material for vermicomposting
- 6.8 Preparing of vermicompost in the container or in composting bins
- 6.9 Watering on the bed
- 7 Precautions while Vermicomposting
- 8 How to compost or Compost collection
- 9 How to Make Vermicompost at Home
Vermicompost Preparation Process and Profit guide 2018
Hello, friends! Want to start your own Vermiculture Business and does not have much knowledge of Vermiculture? Then, don’t worry friends, today I am going to Inform you about How to Start a Profitable Vermiculture Business In India or anywhere all over the world.
Today we will learn How to Compost or Prepare your own compost, a step by step guide on vermicompost preparation method, What does it nutrient content and it NPK ratio and also how to make vermicompost at home.
So, let us move ahead and learn how to start vermiculture business.
We all are familiar well with the earthworms found in the land are the multifaceted organism for the humans being. Earthworm converts the residue of crop and other organic matter of trees fallen on the field of land to the small pellets which act as native manure for plants.
Earthworms are also helpful in produces a better crop with the help of tractor which is not possible with the other system without disturbing the plants. Earthworm also helps in maintaining long-term sustainability of physical, chemical and biological properties of soil along with the fertility power of the soil.
Earthworm used decomposable organic wastes as their food, from which about 5 to 10 percent of the consumed food is absorbed by the body cell of the earthworm and the rest of their food is excreted in the form of pellets which is known as Vermi- compost. In the present time, the rearing of earthworm in known as the Vermiculture and in the controlled condition, the method of producing the fertilizer by rearing the earthworm is known as the vermicompost.
Synthetically, it is prepared by the mixing up the dead remnant, eggs, cocoons, microbial organism etc in the controlled system and is called the wormy compost.
Advantages and Benefits of Vermicompost
Here below is a list of some advantages of using vermicompost in your farm.
- Worm compost is rich in all the essential plant nutrients and provides excellent plant growth and encourages the growth of new leaves and improves the quality and shelf life of the produce.
- Encourage the plant to develop well along with the new plant.
- Improve the growth and quality of plant
- It is easy to handle vermicompost and apply, and does not have any bad odor.
- It promotes the fertility power of soil along with the soil structure.
- It improves the drainage power (water holding capacity) of soil.
- Worm compost is full of earthworms cocoons, which helps in increasing worm activity in soil and is also raise the population of worms in the soil.
- Worms are helpful in neutralizing the soil fertility.
- Vermicompost is totally free from the weed seed, toxic element, pathogens, and such like factors
- Vermicompost is rich in enzymes, valuable vitamins, and hormones like auxins, gibberellins, and more.
- Use of vermicompost is helpful in preventing soil from erosion.
- Nutrient content of vermicompost is higher when compared to traditional composts.
- Vermicompost harbors certain microbial populations that help in Nitrogen fixation in the soil and ‘P’ solubilization.
- Use of worm comps
- Percentage of N: P: K content is more in vermicompost when compared to traditional or bacterial compost.
So, using vermicompost in your farm is too beneficial to increase your production; quality and also quantity. Try it!!!
Chemical composition of vermicompost
The chemical composition mainly depends on the wastes, water, their sources of raw material and the method which is used to the preparation of it. Basically, In vermicompost, NPK ratio is more than the ordinary manure and Also, the vermicompost nutrient content. It contains all the nutrient which is needed for the good growth of plant like it contains 5 times more Nitrogen than in the farm yard manure, 8 times more Phosphorous, 11 times more potash and 3 times magnesium and many like such nutrient in greater quantity than the farm yard manure. So the use of it is better preferred than the farm yard manure commonly known as the dung manure in locals.
Vermicompost nutrient content
The nutrient contained in it is fully depended on the degradable waste, used for the preparation of compost. Better the waste used, better is the quality of compost. The heterogeneous waste material is preferred than the homogeneous waste since they provide the wide range of nutrient.
Here is a list of some common nutrient which is available in this wormy compost.
|Organic carbon||9.5 – 17.98 %|
|Nitrogen||0.5 – 1.50 %|
|Phosphorous||0.1 – 0.30 %|
|Potassium||0.15 – 0.56 %|
|Sodium||0.06 – 0.30 %|
|Calcium and Magnesium||22.67 to 47.60 meq per 100 gm|
|Copper||2 – 9.50 mg per 1 kg|
|Iron||2 – 9.30 mg per 1 kg|
|Zinc||5.70 – 11.50 mg per 1 kg|
|Sulphur||128 – 548 mg per 1kg|
Which are to much higher than the ordinary compost like the chicken manure and so.
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Importance of Earthworms in Agriculture
From ancient times, earthworms are known as the integral friend of farmers. Considering the importance of earthworm in maintaining the fertility by the reversal of the land.
Earthworms are very helpful to the smaller and medium farmers by playing the vital role of supplying fertilizers which are multiple in quantity than the dung manure. In soil, annually earthworm build thick surface of 1 to 5 mm as fertilizer using their body cell.
So the earthworms are useful and beneficial to the land as follows:
Improve physical quality of land
Earthworms feed on the available crop residue and carry that residue along with them on the ground, of which 5 to 10 percent of their food is used up by them and the rest is excreted through their body cell as compost in the night time. This unused excreted material is so much benefit to the soil which is fine structure pellet. These pellets help in raising the fertility power of soil and also increase the air efficiency of soil. Research on vermiculture has reported that at every year, earthworms reverses 2 to 250 tons of soil which result as 1 to 5 mm thick surface of the land, increasing annually by the earthworms.
- permanent pellets like soil particle are generated because of regular plowing of land by farmer and reversal of soil by the earthworms. These pellets like soil particle improve the soil structure and air circulation which further help the soil to do some biological activity, humus formation and the nitrogen fixation of the soil on which they are implemented.
- This improvement in the structure of land increase the storage capacity and also help to better the drainage power of soil which finally result in increasing the groundwater levels of land.
- Vermi compost also provides favorable soil climate for the crop, since there is the availability of heat and microenvironment.
Improving Chemical Quality and Fertility of the Land
Soil fertility provides all the nutrient required for the growth of the plant, which basic potential of any soil to cultivate any crop. Higher the fertility power of soil, greater is the production as yield. Soil collect that nutrient from the crop residue on the field of land and from the microorganism, whose combined system result as the nutrient for the plant. Micro-organism first decomposes all the biological residue to the degraded remnant and then that semi degraded remnant is converted to the vermicompost by the earthworms. So in this way, by incorporating micro-organism and earthworms turns the biological substance to the optimum fine pellet like compost by decomposing them which is highly beneficial is raising the soil fertility.
Improve the organic quality of the land
Basically, any land has some specific organic matter present in that land along with the micro-organism. The quantity may differ from land to land and region to region. The presence of earthworms is the indication of the fertile land. The fertility depends on the number and quantity of these earthworms along with their species. There are various species of earthworms found in different areas.
One can easily measure the biological properties of any land by measuring the numbers of earthworms, their diversity and their rate of activation along with the complex series of microorganism present found in that land. The activity of earthworm with the dissection of the crop residue is the major feature of the land fertility. Earthworms, with the help of the crop residue available on the field of land, can provide carbon to the crop as an energy source and supply sustainable nutrient to the plant or to the soil by creating enzymes, vitamins, amino acids and the humus in the soil.
In this way, earthworm plays a vital role in maintaining the fertility power of soil, since earthworms are the best ever friends of the farmers.
How to prepare vermicompost
Any type of biodegradable waste can be used as raw material for preparing this compost. Here is a list of some commonly used waste: –
- Crop residue
- Weed biomass
- Waste from the agro-industries
- Waste from the plant
- Waste from vegetable
- Waste from the hotels
- A biodegradable waste.
Different stages of Vermicomposting
Pre-preparation including the collection of wastes of the degradable waste from the undegradable waste.
Digestion of collected waste for about month till the heaping of along with the cow dung slurry, this digested material is fit for earthworms consumption.
A cement base is needed for putting the waste for compost preparation. Allow worms to go inside the soil for loosening the soil with watering.
Collect the worms from the concrete base after collection of the prepared compost.
Storage of prepare compost in the appropriate place so that moisture can be maintained along with the growth of micro-organism.
What do earthworms need to survive?
Earthworms need five essential basic things. Those five basic things are Bedding, A food source, Adequate moisture which contains more than 50% water by weight, Adequate aeration, and Avoids extreme temperature as it is harmful to worms.
Here is a step by step guide on Vermicompost preparation method. Do follow them for preparing this compost.
Commonly found worms have not much capacity so that they are less used for preparing compost purpose at huge scale. From all species of worms, African earthworms are preferred than the other because they produce the higher quantity of compost in a short interval of time.
Site selection for vermiculture
A suitable place is needed for Vermicomposting. You can choose a shady place which has high humidity and cool weather.
Container for vermicompost or composting bins
To collect the production or compost, you should have an open place like container or Composting bins to place the prepared compost and give some time so that micro-organism can activate on the manure and makes it more fertile than the previous one. Since humidity must be maintained during this period so that the growth of microorganism becomes more.
One can also prepare a cement open block which is 3 feet higher and has the same or wider. The room should be sloppy so that water can be collected at one end and can be reused.
If you are preparing compost with the help of worms then, you must have to take care of them. But how? and what should be Vermicompost bed size? So, prepare a bed for them by placing saw dust, sugarcane trash, husk, coir waste in the prepared container. The thickness should be or can keep up to 3-5 cm. Then after, a layer of fine sand of the same thickness is to be spread over that which is followed by the garden soil, most of the same size.
Take care that all layer must be moistened with water.
Composting worms are big eaters. Records have shown that compost worm eats more than their body weight each a day and they can eat anything like the plant and the degradable waste. These worms prefer to some food than the other basically the dung manure are their best favorable food including the dairy waste. As much they eat, higher is the amount of their production. Research has been shown that the rabbit manure is the best food for the composting worms as possible as natural.
Common worms food
Manures are the best and preferred food for the compost worms which include the cattle manure, poultry manure, sheep or goat manure, hog manure, rabbit manure, fresh food scraps like peels, leftover commercial food processing waste, pre-composted food waste, biosolids as human waste, seaweed, legume hays, corrugated cardboard, fish and poultry offal like animal mortalities.
Selection of raw material for vermicomposting
All the food used by the compost worm is the raw material since all food, eaten by them is not used by the worms. Only 5 to 10 percent of them is used by them and all the remaining extra food is excreted through their body cell. You can use everything as raw material which can be biodegradable. Since worms used only the degradable waste as their food, letting the remaining.
Idle Conditions for Earthworms in Compost Material
Here below are some idle condition for preparing vermicompost
- A pH range should be between 6.5 and 7.5 along with moisture content of 60-70% below and above range mortality of worms taking place.
- Suitable aeration should be 50% from the total pore space.
- Temperature range of 19 to 35°C is suitable for best production.
Preparing of vermicompost in the container or in composting bins
For preparing this compost, use the predigested material (mention earlier) and Mix that material well with 30% cattle dung, by weight or volume and keep the prepared container (composting bins). must take care of the moisture, it should not be lower than the 60%. Then over that material, place selected earthworms, uniformly throughout the mixture. There is no need of placing worms inside the mixture, they automatically move inside by themselves.
Watering on the bed
To prepare compost using the worms, it is necessary to maintain the moisture of mixture so that microorganism can grow rapidly for better compost. There is no need of daily watering on the mixture. But, the only thing to do is to maintain the moisture of mixture, not less than 60%. you can water the mixture through various way like sprinkling. Do not water, when you are going to take out the produced compost.
Precautions while Vermicomposting
Here below are some points to consider, for profitable vermiculture business.
- The compost pit should be protected from direct sunlight and a certain temperature has to be maintained.
- Make sure that the addition of higher quantities of acid rich substances such citrus wastes should be avoided.
- Make sure to have a drainage channel around the heap to avoid stagnation of water particularly in high rainfall areas in rainy season.
- Always maintain the moisture level by watering.
- Avoid worms predator like a crane. As they will lessen your profit
- The worms should be protected from the natural predators
- Make sure that compost beds/heaps are not covered plastic sheets/material since this can trap the heat and gases.
- Should not overload the vermicompost heap to avoid high temperature that adversely affects their population.
- Water stress or dry conditions kill the earthworms. Make sure to water daily in summer and every third day in rainy and winter season to supply the continuous moisture to the beds.
- Use organic materials in composting which is free from materials such as stones, glass pieces, plastics, ceramic tubes.
So, these are the main precaution for a profitable vermiculture business. Take care of them.
How to compost or Compost collection
From the container (composting bins), you can take out the prepared compost at same interval of time like at a week or a gap of 10 days. Take care of the worms should not come with the compost. Check the quality of compost and prepared compost must be taken out when it is prepared so that worms yield more and more compost.
Many asked that how long does it take to make compost? You can collect that prepare compost from composting bin after about three to four month of starting this composting process.
Harvesting of earthworms
A collection of worms after the compost production is essential so that you can use them for the next batch for preparing the compost. It will help you to reduce the cost for the next time planning of composting. So always try to collect all the worms from the bed.
You can collect these worms with the help of cow dung ball. Prepare a cow dung ball of size as possible by you. Then put that dung ball into the bed and let it remains the ball for about 24 hrs. Take out the dung ball on the next day. You will find that all worms stick to the ball. You can separate them by placing that dung ball in a bucket, full of water. They will separate from the dung ball in the water. Used them for the next batch.
Storing and packing of vermicompost
Compost should be stored in dark and cool place with maintaining moisture about 40%. prevent that compost from sunlight because it will lead to nutrient loss along with lowering the moisture of the compost. It is preferred that try to keep store the compost in open dark room rather than closed sector.
Must take care of maintaining the moisture level of prepared compost.
How to Make Vermicompost at Home
How to make your own vermicompost at home? Anyone can make it small quantity (as per need) at home with the following steps. Do follow to make vermicompost at home.
First of all, prepare a composting bed and then after adding organic waste to it about 5 to 6 cm in the composting bed, avoid inorganic material from your organic waste as they lessen your compost quality. After adding the organic waste and some earthworms to it, composting worms as easily available in the market. Maintain the moisture level of bed (> 50%), since it helps the worms fast composting. Do not let the bin too dry or over water as it will kill your worms. Check the moisture level of your composting bin on a reguler basis and always avoid sunlight from it or keep it close. Water your composting bin on the basis of need to maintain the moisture level. Nearly about three to four month of starting this process, collect the
Maintain the moisture level of bed (> 50%), since it helps the worms fast composting. Do not let the bin too dry or over water as it will kill your worms. Check the moisture level of your composting bin on a regular basis and always avoid sunlight from it or keep it close. Water your composting bin on the basis of need to maintain the moisture level. Nearly about three to four month of starting this process, collect the
Nearly about three to four month of starting this process, collect the prepared compost from the composting bin and store it proper place. Take care while storing, keep it in a cool and shady place so that you obtain a quality compost.Hence, your vermicompost is ready for use. Use it and get benefits of it.
Hence, your vermicompost is ready for use. Use it and get benefits of it.
Application of vermicompost in agriculture in Various Crops
Give only sufficient amount of compost to any crop. As the application of it in proper will definitely raise the amount of production in any crop. So, here below is a guide on some suggested doses. However, wormy compost can be applied to your soil at any stage, just mix it well in soil.
- About 6 to 7 tonnes of vermicompost per hectare is enough for any crop to grows well.
- Apply about 11 to 12 tonnes for a vegetable crop.
- Apply about 100 to 250 gm per sq. feet for flower plants.
- Apply about 6 to 12 kg of compost per tree if you are farming commercial tree