What affects agriculture


  1. Physical Factors Physical factors affecting agriculture are: (i) climate (ii) soil and (iii) topography. (i) Climate. …
  2. Economic Factors The most important economic factors affecting agriculture are: (a) market (b) transport facilities (c) labour (d) capital (e) Government policies. (a) Market. …
  3. Other Factors

Environmental factors that influence the extent of crop agriculture are terrain, climate, soil properties, and soil water. It is the combination of these four factors that allow specific crops to be grown in certain areas.Aug 2, 2011


What are factors influencing agriculture?

  • Lowlands, such as flood plains, are good for crops.
  • Steep slopes hinder machinery and have thinner soils; lower, more gentle slopes are less prone to soil erosion.
  • Tea and coffee crops prefer the well-drained soil on hill slopes.
  • Temperature decreases by 6.5°C for every 1000 metres gained in height.
  • South-facing slopes receive more sunlight.

What are current issues that are affecting agriculture?

  • Climate change.
  • The ongoing trade war between the United States and China.
  • Rapidly depleting reserves of freshwater around the world.
  • The looming food crisis.
  • Economic insecurity in the United States.
  • Ongoing closures of food processing facilities and local businesses due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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What are three effects of the development of Agriculture?

Issues by region

  • Hedgerow removal in the United Kingdom.
  • Soil salinisation, especially in Australia.
  • Phosphate mining in Nauru
  • Methane emissions from livestock in New Zealand. …
  • Environmentalists attribute the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico as being encouraged by nitrogen fertilization of the algae bloom.

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How does agriculture affect the US economy?

agriculture therefore spurs the growth of entire economies and stimulates demand for U.S. exports. Exports and Jobs In 2018, U.S. agricultural exports totaled $140 billion, with developing countries accounting for $90 billion, or nearly two-thirds of total agricultural exports.


What are the factors affect agriculture?

Different factors which influence agriculture are soil, climate, monsoon, irrigation facilities, availability or adoption of different technology.

What affects agriculture the most?

Agriculture and fisheries are highly dependent on the climate. Increases in temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) can increase some crop yields in some places. But to realize these benefits, nutrient levels, soil moisture, water availability, and other conditions must also be met.

What are 3 effects of agriculture?

Agriculture contributes to a number larger of environmental issues that cause environmental degradation including: climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, dead zones, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

What are the challenges in agriculture?

Indian agriculture is plagued by several problems; some of them are natural and some others are manmade.Small and fragmented land-holdings: … Seeds: … Manures, Fertilizers and Biocides: … Irrigation: … Lack of mechanisation: … Soil erosion: … Agricultural Marketing: … Inadequate storage facilities:More items…

How does climate affect agriculture?

Agriculture emits an estimated 10.5 percent of total U.S. greenhouse gases; however, agriculture also provides opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

How does human activities affect agriculture?

The change in land use through clearing forested or grassland for cultivation, changes in agricultural practices such as crop rotation and mixes, grazing practices, residue management, irrigation and drainage all affect the soil environment and change the range of habitats and foods for soil organisms.

How does agriculture affect the economy?

What is agriculture’s share of the overall U.S. economy? Agriculture, food, and related industries contributed $1.055 trillion to the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020, a 5.0-percent share. The output of America’s farms contributed $134.7 billion of this sum—about 0.6 percent of GDP.

What is the impact of agriculture and society?

The result is that agriculture globally exerts increasing pressure on the land and water resources of the earth, which often results in land degradation (such as soil erosion and salinization), and eutrophication. Agriculture is also associated with greenhouse gas emissions (Kirchmann and Thorvaldsson 2000).

Why is it so hard to meet the demand for accelerated agricultural productivity?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible.

How do cattle damage soil?

Cattle and other large grazing animals can even damage soil by trampling on it. Bare, compacted land can bring about soil erosion and destruction of topsoil quality due to the runoff of nutrients. These and other impacts can destabilize a variety of fragile ecosystems and wildlife habitats. Chemical Fertilizer.

What is the effect of nitrogen on soil?

In addition, fertilizer application in soil leads to the formation and release of nitrous oxide, one of the most harmful greenhouse gases.

How does irrigation affect water?

Irrigation causes increases in water evaporation, impacting both surface air temperature and pressure as well as atmospheric moisture conditions . Recent studies have confirmed that cropland irrigation can influence rainfall patterns not only over the irrigated area but even thousands of miles away.

What is irrigation related to?

Irrigation has also been connected to the erosion of coastlines and other kinds of long-term ecological and habitat destruction. A huge amount of agricultural territory is used primarily as pasture for cattle and other livestock.

What causes algae blooms in China?

Nutrient pollution is a causal factor in toxic algae blooms affecting lakes in China, the United States, and elsewhere. As excessive amounts of organic matter decompose in aquatic environments, they can bring about oxygen depletion and create “dead zones” within bodies of water, where nothing can survive.

What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.

How does drought affect pasture?

[1] More extreme temperature and precipitation can prevent crops from growing. Extreme events, especially floods and droughts, can harm crops and reduce yields.

What are the challenges of droughts?

Changes in the frequency and severity of droughts and floods could pose challenges for farmers and ranchers and threaten food safety. [3] . Meanwhile, warmer water temperatures are likely to cause the habitat ranges of many fish and shellfish species to shift, which could disrupt ecosystems. Overall, climate change could make it more difficult …

What are the potential changes in veterinary practices?

Potential changes in veterinary practices, including an increase in the use of parasiticides and other animal health treatments, are likely to be adopted to maintain livestock health in response to climate-induced changes in pests, parasites, and microbes.

How does heat affect livestock?

Drought may threaten pasture and feed supplies. Drought reduces the amount of quality forage available to grazing livestock.

How does acidification affect the ocean?

Carbon dioxide is absorbed by oceans, resulting in ocean acidification. Acidification reduces the size and abundance of shellfish, which in turn leads to decreased harvest and eventually to changes in prices for consumers. Source: US EPA (2015). Climate Change in the United States: Benefits of Global Action.

What are the stresses that fisheries face?

Many fisheries already face multiple stresses, including overfishing and water pollution. Climate change may worsen these stresses. In particular, temperature changes could lead to significant impacts. This map shows the annual centers of biomass for three species in the northeastern United States from 1968 to 2015.

Does temperature affect crops?

For any particular crop, the effect of increased temperature will depend on the crop’s optimal temperature for growth and reproduction. [1] . In some areas, warming may benefit the types of crops that are typically planted there, or allow farmers to shift to crops that are currently grown in warmer areas.

What are the factors that affect farming?

Their decisions are based upon a range of social, economic and environmental factors. The farmers’ attitudes and level of knowledge are also important.

How does the government influence the crops farmers grow?

Government. Governments influence the crops farmers grow through regulations, subsidies and quotas. Governments offer advice, training and finance to farmers and, in new farming areas, may build the infrastructure of roads and drainage, e.g. Amazonia.

What are the factors that influence the growth of crops?

Climate. Temperature (minimum 6°C for crops to grow) and rainfall (at least 250mm to 500mm) influence the types of crops that can be grown, e.g. hot, wet tropical areas favour rice, while cooler, drier areas favour wheat. The length of the growing season also influences the crops grown, e.g. wheat needs 90 days.

What is capital in farming?

Capital (finance) Capital, the money the farmer has to invest in the farm, can be used to increase the amount of inputs into the farm, e.g. machinery, fences, seeds, fertiliser and renewing buildings. If a farmer can afford to invest capital, yields will rise and can create greater profits which can be used for more investment.

What are the social and economic factors?

Social and economic factors#N#These are human factors and include labour, capital, technology, markets and government ( political). The importance of each factor varies from farm to farm. Note how each influences farms near to you.

What are two types of technology that can increase yields?

Machines and irrigation are two types of technology that can increase yields. Greenhouses, with computer-controlled technology, provide ideal conditions for high quality crops. The computer controls the temperature, moisture level and amount of feed for the plants.

Why is agriculture important?

Agriculture is vital to our lives. We need to eat. Irrespective of where you live, agriculture sustains life but is one of the most climate-sensitive activities. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) issued a report in 2013 called, ” Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States ” ( read it here ).

Can corn be harvested sustainably?

Crop residue harvest, particularly from corn, has the potential to provide additional income streams to producers and rural communities, but the impact on soil carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions indicates that only part of the residue can be harvested sustainably.

How does mechanisation affect agriculture?

The mechanisation of agriculture require various energy resources such as diesel, electricity, petrol etc. Moreover, higher use of fertilizers as well, has negative impact on the ecology of the country by air pollution.

What are the impacts of deforestation?

The impacts are:- 1. Degradation of Land 2. Deforestation 3. Biodiversity 4. Pest Problem 5. Disposal of Industrial & Agricultural Wastes. Impact # 1. Degradation of Land: The degradation of land in one form or the other is matter of serious concern endangering sustainability of agriculture.

What is the pest problem?

Pest Problem: With the shift in crop pattern, increase in area under irrigation and higher cropping intensity, the pest problem has become very severe. The seriousness of pests has further increased by way of indiscriminate and increased use of pesticides.

What are the causes of toxicity in plants and animals?

Affluent water, smoke and un-degradable solid waste from industries and domestic uses have also been responsible for toxicity in plant and animal particularly fish and unbalanced soil nutrients which needs to be checked through treatment plants. Impact, Agriculture, Environment, Impact of Agriculture.

What are the main reasons for decline in forest wealth?

The main reasons for decline in forest wealth are: 1. Increase in population resulting in more demand for fuel wood and timber. 3. Indiscriminate siting of development projects.

Why has the forest area in the recent past not changed much?

5. The forest area in the recent past has not changed much because its diversion for non-forestry purposes has been more or less compensated by afforestation. “The annual withdrawal of fuel wood is estimated at 235 million cubic meters against a sustainable capacity of about 48 million cubic meters.

Why do agricultural households suffer from declining income from off-farm jobs?

Agricultural households also suffer from declining income from off-farm jobs, as the economic recession in the U.S. ripples through to rural-based businesses and loss of tax revenue puts pressure on rural government employment and social services. Because the U.S. farm sector went into the crisis with record-high exports, prices and farm income, …

How will economic growth affect livestock?

Effects on the livestock sector will be positive because of the economic growth but negative because of rising costs for feed and energy.

How did the 2008-2009 world economic crisis affect agriculture?

Declining incomes around the world as a result of the evolving worldwide recession combined with the short-term appreciation of the dollar result in significant declines in U.S. agricultural exports and sharply lower agricultural prices, farm income and employment,

How much did farm income increase in 2013?

With a weaker dollar, projected net farm income will increase by 19% to $106 billion in 2013 and to $118 billion in 2017, while agricultural exports will rise to $120 billion in 2013 and $134 billion in 2017.

What was the net farm income in 2007?

In 2007 and 2008, U.S. net farm income equaled $87 billion and $89 billion, respectively, with each year establishing a new nominal record. Even when adjusted for inflation, these amounts reflect the highest net farm incomes since the early 1970s.

How much was the U.S. farm income in 2008?

agriculture than for many other sectors of the U.S. economy. In 2007 and 2008, U.S. net farm income equaled $87 billion and $89 billion, respectively, …

Will the decline in farm income in 2009 affect land values?

The projected decline in farm income in 2009 is not expected to have much effect on national agricultural land values. Land value trends that emerged in 2008 could continue in states that showed the largest declines in rural housing values and abate in states that enjoyed double-digit increases in land values due to strong crop receipts.



Impacts on Crops

  • Despite technological improvements that increase corn yields, extreme weather events have caused significant yield reductions in some years. Source: USGCRP (2009) Click the image to view a larger version. Crops grown in the United States are critical for the food supply here and around the world. U.S. farms supply nearly 25% of all grains (such as wheat, corn, and rice) on the globa…

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Impacts on Livestock

  • Livestock locations in the continental United States. Source: USGCRP (2016) Click the image to view a larger version.Americans consume more than 36 million metric tons of meat and poultry annually. Livestock and poultry account for over half of U.S. agricultural cash receipts, often over $100 billion per year.Changes in climate could affect animals both directly and indirectly. 1. Hea…

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Impacts on Fisheries

  • American fishermen catch or harvest five million metric tons of fish and shellfish each year. U.S. fisheries contribute more than $1.55 billion to the economy annually (as of 2012).Many fisheries already face multiple stresses, including overfishing and water pollution. Climate change may worsen these stresses. In particular, temperature changes could lead to significant impacts. Thi…

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International Impacts

  • Climate change is very likely to affect food security at the global, regional, and local level. Climate change can disrupt food availability, reduce access to food, and affect food quality.For example, projected increases in temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, changes in extreme weather events, and reductions in water availability may …

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