Since 1949 China’s political leaders have tried a variety of large-scale social experiments to boost agricultural production. First, a massive land reform program eliminated landlords and gave land to those who farmed it. Next, farm families were progressively organized into cooperatives, collectives, and finally people’s communes.
How has farming contributed to the development of China?
The development of farming over the course of China’s history has played a key role in supporting the growth of what is now the largest population in the world.
What drives the transition of Agricultural Technology in China?
Societal structures, political concentrations, economic development and the frequency of war were identified by many studies as key drivers of transition of agricultural technology, and the shift of an agricultural centre from the Yellow River region to the Yangtze River region (Wong, 1997; Zhang, 2015 ).
How did agriculture help the Chinese to pay taxes?
In addition, Chinese farmers grew new crops such as cotton efficiently. From processed cotton fiber, clothes and other goods were produced. The production of tea increased as well. All of these new agricultural advances allowed people to raise a surplus, or more food than was needed. These agricultural surpluses helped pay taxes to the government.
When did the Chinese government introduce major reform in agriculture?
At the end of 1978, the Chinese central government decided to introduce major reform in agriculture, in large part because of poor agricultural performance over the preceding 20-year period. A “pro-
When did agriculture develop in China?
some 11,000 years agoThe Origins of Agriculture in China: From Hunting and Gathering to Early Farming. The transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation of wild plants was initiated by semi-sedentary communities some 11,000 years ago.
How did China develop agriculture?
Since China’s founding, agricultural production recovered rapidly and developed continuously. Production capacity has risen greatly. In 1978, total output of grain and cotton reached 304.47 million tonnes and 2.167 million tonnes respectively, increasing by 1.69 and 3.88 times over 1949.
How did agricultural advancements affect China’s population?
How did agricultural advancements affect China’s population? Farms became more productive which made more food. Because food was plentiful, China’s population increased.
How did improvements to farming change life in China?
Results of Agricultural Changes The shift to growing rice was an important development for medieval China. First, it increased food production. The new abundance of food helped to support a larger population. For the first time, China’s population grew to more than 100 million people.
Why is agriculture important to China?
Agriculture is at the basis of China’s national economy. Only with sustainable agriculture and rural development can overall sustainable development in China be ensured, therefore it deserves high priority. Chinese agriculture, which can be traced back 10,000 years, and has a wealth of good traditions.
What is China’s main agriculture?
Rice, China’s most important crop, is dominant in the southern provinces, many of which yield two harvests per year. In North China wheat is of the greatest importance, while in the central provinces wheat and rice vie with each other for the top place.
Which of the following developments helped increase the Chinese population under the Tang and Song dynasties?
Population grew rapidly, from 50 million-60 million people during the Tang dynasty to 120 million by 1200, spurred in part by a remarkable growth in agricultural production.
How did changes in agriculture contribute to the change in the population of China’s cities during the Song Dynasty?
Over the next three centuries, with the expansion of rice cultivation in central and south China, the country’s food supply steadily grew, allowing its population to grow as well. By 1100, the population reached 100 million.
What Big 4 inventions came from China?
Ancient Chinese Inventions Power Point 18 slide Power Point covers the “BIG 4” (paper, moveable type, gunpowder & the compass).
What agricultural advances took place in China during the Song dynasty?
Farmers developed many varieties of rice, including drought resistant and early ripening varieties, as well as rice suited for special purposes such as brewing. They also remade the landscape by terracing hilly land, so that rice could be grown on it.
What are two ways China was able to feed its rapidly growing population?
What practices allowed China to feed it’s growing population? They imported fast ripening rice so farmers got two harvests a year instead of one. What impact did improvements in transportation have on Tang and Song China? Relied heavily on Ocean trade and sailing.
How did the improvements affect China’s economy and ability to explore the world?
Technological advances of China? Since more food was available, their population grew. New areas were settled, which developed into cities. Increased trade routes by roads, waterways and sea ports increased trade for Chines merchants, to other parts of the world.
Why is farming so labor intensive in China?
Due to China’s status as a developing country and its severe shortage of arable land , farming in China has always been very labor-intensive. However, throughout its history, various methods have been developed or imported that enabled greater farming production and efficiency. They also utilized the seed drill to help improve on row farming.
Who took control of the farmlands in China?
Following the Communist Party of China ‘s victory in the Chinese Civil War, control of the farmlands was taken away from landlords and redistributed to the 300 million peasant farmers, including mass killings of landlords under Mao Zedong.
What is the most important crop in China?
About 75% of China’s cultivated area is used for food crops. Rice is China’s most important crop, raised on about 25% of the cultivated area. The majority of rice is grown south of the Huai River, in the Zhu Jiang delta, and in the Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan provinces.
What were the improvements in the Tang Dynasty?
Improvements in farming machinery during this era included the moldboard plow and watermill. Later during the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), cotton planting and weaving technology were extensively adopted and improved.
How much of China’s land is arable?
China’s arable land, which represents 10% of the total arable land in the world, supports over 20% of the world’s population. Of this approximately 1.4 million square kilometers of arable land, only about 1.2% (116,580 square kilometers) permanently supports crops and 525,800 square kilometers are irrigated.
When did the government stop rationing?
In 1984, the government replaced mandatory procurement with voluntary contracts between farmers and the government. Later, in 1993, the government abolished the 40-year-old grain rationing system, leading to more than 90 percent of all annual agricultural produce to be sold at market-determined prices.
Where was rice first discovered?
Excavations at Kuahuqiao, the earliest known Neolithic site in eastern China, have documented rice cultivation 7,700 years ago. Approximately half of the plant remains belonged to domesticated japonica species, whilst the other half were wild types of rice.
How did China improve its agricultural production?
Since 1949 China’s political leaders have tried a variety of large-scale social experiments to boost agricultural production. First, a massive land reform program eliminated landlords and gave land to those who farmed it. Next, farm families were progressively organized into cooperatives, collectives, and finally people’s communes. After more than twenty-five years of experience with communes, officials abolished these institutions, which had become too bureaucratic and rigid to respond to the flexible requirements of agricultural production. Also, farm production incentives languished in the commune system. In 1978 China’s leaders began a program of far-reaching agricultural reforms. Townships and villages were organized, and new incentives were incorporated into contractual relationships tying farmers to economic cooperatives and businesses.
What was the agricultural economy in China in the 1980s?
Reform of the agricultural economy in the 1980s. In the late 1980s, China remained a predominantly agricultural country. As of 1985 about 63% [percent] of the population lived in rural areas, and nearly 63 percent of the national labor force was engaged in agriculture (see Migration in China ).
How is modern agriculture used?
All of these elements of modern agriculture are used in the context of the traditional intensive cropping patterns. To maximize year-round use of the land, two or more crops are planted each year where possible. Rice, wheat, cotton, vegetable, and other crop seedlings are sometimes raised in special seedbeds and then transplanted to fields. Transplanting shortens the time required for a crop to mature, which allows farmers the opportunity to squeeze in an additional crop each growing season. Another method to make optimum use of scarce land is to plant seedlings in a mature stand of another crop. For example, when planting winter wheat in October, farmers in the north leave spaces among the rows so that cotton seedlings can be planted or transplanted in April and May. Without intercropping, farmers could raise only one crop a year. Mechanization supports this intensive cropping pattern. Despite a huge rural labor force, labor shortages occur each season when farmers are required to harvest one crop and plant another in its place, all within the space of a few weeks. In the 1980s farmers invested in harvesting and planting machinery to overcome the shortage of labor. Seed breeders also supported intensive cropping patterns by selecting and breeding varieties that had shorter growing seasons.
What percentage of the national labor force was employed in agriculture in the 1980s?
At the same time, more than 60 percent of the national labor force was employed in agriculture. China in the late 1980s was thus poised to confront growing demands for agricultural production with a combination of time-tested farming methods and modern agro-technology.
What was the Qing era?
Qing era 1644-1911. In the pre 1949 era 90% of the population lived by agriculture, from poor tenant farmers to rich landlords. Many were very poor tenants or day laborers, others especially in the southern provinces were better off and more secure by owning their land.
How long has China been a farmer?
For 4,000 years China has been a nation of farmers. By the time the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949, virtually all arable land was under cultivation; irrigation and drainage systems constructed centuries earlier and intensive farming practices already produced relatively high yields. But little prime virgin land was available to support population growth and economic development. However, after a decline in production as a result of the Great Leap Forward (1958–60), agricultural reforms implemented in the 1980s increased yields and promised even greater future production from existing cultivated land.
What were the new crops in the Ming-Qing period?
The population doubled as new lands were settled in Fujian, Guangzhou, and Guangxi provinces, new crops were introduced, and irrigation systems were improved. The mountainous areas in southeastern China were developed in the Ming-Qing period by migrants from overcrowded areas. They specialized in new crops such as (such as corn), and the rapid increase in demand for certain crops (such as tea) in foreign markets.
What is China’s growth?
Along the way, China is igniting new growth across Asia, Latin America, Africa and even the industrial West, thanks to the country’s colossal demand for raw materials, energy, trade and capital flows. China’s rapid growth has puzzled many people, including economists.
What is China’s most important industry?
Thirty-five years ago, China’s per capita income was only one-third of that of sub-Sahara Africa. Today, China is the world’s largest manufacturing powerhouse: It produces nearly 50 percent of the world’s major industrial goods, including crude steel (800 percent of the U.S. level and 50 percent of global supply), cement (60 percent of the world’s production), coal (50 percent of the world’s production), vehicles (more than 25 percent of global supply) and industrial patent applications (about 150 percent of the U.S. level). China is also the world’s largest producer of ships, high-speed trains, robots, tunnels, bridges, highways, chemical fibers, machine tools, computers, cellphones, etc.
What year did China become a poor country?
But 40 years passed, and China remained one of the poorest nations on earth. In 1949, the republic was defeated by the Communist peasant army. The new government initiated the third ambitious attempt to industrialize China—this time by mimicking the Soviet Union’s central planning model.
Why did the Revolutionaries of the educated elite believe that the monarchy’s failure to industrialize and China’
The revolutionaries of the educated elite believed that the monarchy’s failure to industrialize and China’s overall backwardness were due to its lack of democracy, political inclusiveness and pluralism (exactly as the modern institutionalism theory has argued).
What percentage of the world’s population is fully industrialized?
The reason is simple: Less than 10 percent of the world’s population is fully industrialized; if China can successfully finish its industrialization, an additional 20 percent of the world’s population will be entering modern times.
When did China start its fourth economic reform?
China’s fourth attempt started in 1978 under leader Deng Xiaoping. The country refused to take advice from Western economists (unlike what Russia did in the 1990s) and instead took a very humble, gradualist, experimental approach with its economic reforms. The keys to this approach have been to:
When did China become the No. 1 industrial powerhouse?
level. About 1980, China’s manufacturing started to take off, surpassing the industrial powers one by one, overtaking the U.S. in 2010 to become the No. 1 industrial powerhouse.
What is the classification of ancient Chinese agricultural technology?
The classification of ancient Chinese agricultural technology was developed based on the Chinese Classified Thesaurus (CCT) (China, 2010 ). The CCT was initially developed as an indexing thesaurus in 1996 and edited and digitised in 2005.
When did agriculture start?
Originating between 10,000 and 8000 years ago, agriculture has been considered one of the most important stage developments in human history (Holdren and Ehrlich, 1974 ). Agriculture is the primary food source for our society (Conway, 1987 ).
What were the two pre-development stages of the Neolithic and XSZ periods?
The Neolithic and XSZ periods were the pre-development stages for the two regions, with stone and wooden Leisi, axes and limited copper containers used for farming, mainly in the North-western region.
What were the main crops in the Neolithic period?
4f ). Both food crops and cash crops were actively domesticated. The main crops planted were millet and its varieties. Rice planting was discovered at approximately the same time, mainly in the southern parts of China. There were also cash crops such as beans, ramie, and melons planted during this period. During the XSZ and CQZG periods, crops for dryland farming were dominant, including varieties of millet, barley, wheat, and soy beans.
What were primitive tools made of?
Primitive tools made of stone, bone and wood from the ‘agricultural engineering’ subsystem, slash-and-burn farming methods from the ‘agricultural practices’ subsystem , and the primitive millets from the ‘agricultural crop’ pre-developed in the Yellow River region during the Neolithic Period. These technologies formed the early stages of the agricultural technology system in the Yellow River region.
What was the agricultural practice of the Neolithic period?
4d ). All newly developed technologies focused on ‘furrowing’, which formed a standard procedure for farming: slashing the forests and burning them to fertilise the soil. The soil was then loosened before planting using Leisi or animals and then sickles were used to harvest and process the crops. However, lands that were not sufficiently fertilised were abandoned after a few years of farming when soil fertility was exhausted.
What is level 1 in agriculture?
Level 1 was referred to as ‘agriculture’ in general, with Levels 2 to 4 containing the theoretical understandings, engineering, practices, protection measures and crop varieties of the agricultural technology subsystems.
What is China’s economic growth?
A brief history of China’s economic growth. China’s meteoric rise over the past half century is one of the most striking examples of the impact of opening an economy up to global markets. Over that period the country has undergone a shift from a largely agrarian society to an industrial powerhouse. In the process it has seen sharp increases in …
When did China reopen its stock market?
It eventually allowed for the reopening of the Shanghai stock exchange in December 1990 for the first time in over 40 years and, ultimately, to China’s accession to the World Trade Organisation. These reforms had a significant impact both on per …
Will China expand its domestic demand?
Instead of allowing low-cost exports to drive growth, China will increasingly have to rely on expanding its own domestic demand to meet the government’s ambitious growth targets. Achieving this, however, will require further reforms to release Chinese consumers’ spending power and build the foundations of a more balanced economy.
What do farmers do in developing countries?
Farming households in developing countries balance a portfolio of crops, livestock, and nonfarm work. Because they feed their families with some of the farm output as well as sell into markets, they make decisions based on their potential profit, risk, and cash flow across family food consumption as well as sales.
Which countries have doubled their agricultural output?
Recent examples include Brazil, China, and Vietnam, each of which at least doubled the value of its agriculture sector within 20 years of starting its transformation. Many other countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are earlier on the path of transformation.
How does a PMO help in agricultural transformation?
Our experience suggests that creating a project management office (PMO) can greatly increase the chances of carrying out a successful large-scale change program. A PMO can concentrate talent, monitor implementation, act as a source of truth, and, in general, help get things done. The office can apply accepted project management technologies to break the transformation into discrete initiatives, each with specific goals, timing, and responsibility. A PMO is also charged with engaging relevant stakeholders when problems arise.
What are the SDGs for agriculture?
In addition to traditional economic development and poverty reduction goals, governments are also focusing their agricultural transformation plans on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by considering, for example, climate-smart strategies, women’s economic empowerment, and biodiversity.
How does change affect agriculture?
For example, improvements in agricultural extension and seed systems might enable farmers to switch to a more productive hybrid seed, but lack of access to fertilizer (upon which the hybrid depends) could prevent productivity increases and leave the farmer unwilling to buy hybrid seed next time. As in any complex economic system, when so many elements are interrelated, any one of them can become a constraint and stall progress.
How can we improve the lives of millions of people in poverty?
The most effective way to improve the lives of millions in poverty is to support agriculture in developing countries. Most of the world’s poor are farmers, and those who are not spend much of their income on food. Transforming a country’s agriculture sector can create jobs, raise incomes, reduce malnutrition, and kick-start …
Is high value farming a viable option?
In some cases, high-value crops or livestock will not be a viable opportunity for farmers, and promoting the intensification of row crops makes more sense. Even then, the focus should be profitability for the farmer, including attention to sustainability, quality, storage, and processing.
China primarily produces rice, wheat, potatoes, tomato, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, corn and soybeans.
Major agricultural products
In its first fifty years, the People’s Republic of China greatly increased agricultural production through organizational and technological improvements.
However, since 2000 the depletion of China’s main aquifers has led to an overall decrease in grain production, turning China into a net importer. The trend of Chinese dependence on imported food is expected to accelerate as the water shortage worsens. Despite their potential, desalination pla…
• History of China
• History of agriculture
• Population history of China
• History of canals in China
• Lettuce production in China
• Chai, Joseph C. H. An economic history of modern China (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011).
• Perkins, Dwight H. Agricultural development in China, 1368-1968 (1969). pmline
• The Dragon and the Elephant: Agricultural and Rural Reforms in China and India Edited by Ashok Gulati and Shenggen Fan (2007), Johns Hopkins University Press
Since 1949 China’s political leaders have tried a variety of large-scale social experiments to boost agricultural production. First, a massive land reform program eliminated landlords and gave land to those who farmed it. Next, farm families were progressively organized into cooperatives, collectives, and finally people’s communes. After more than twenty-five years of experience with communes, officials abolished these institutions, which had become too bureaucratic and rigid t…
History before 1949
Wheat likely “appeared in the lower Yellow River around 2600 Before Common Era (BCE), followed by Gansu and Xinjiang around 1900 BCE and finally occurred in the middle Yellow River and Tibet regions by 1600 BCE”.
The population doubled as new lands were settled in Fujian, Guangzhou, and Guangxi provinces, new crops were introduced, and irrigation systems were improved. The mountainous areas in so…
Reform of the agricultural economy in the 1980s
In the late 1980s, China remained a predominantly agricultural country. As of 1985 about 63% [percent] of the population lived in rural areas, and nearly 63 percent of the national labor force was engaged in agriculture (see Migration in China). Modern technology had spread slowly in the vast farm areas, and the availability of modern supplies was less than adequate, causing growth in agricultural output to lag behind production increases in the rest of the economy. The proporti…
Arable land in China was particularly scarce; little more than 10 percent of the total land area, most of it in the eastern third of the country, can be cultivated. This compares with more than 20 percent for the continental United States, which is around the same size as China, despite having one billion fewer people. Further agricultural expansion was relatively difficult because almost no land that could be profitably cultivated remained unused and because, despite intensive cultivati…
Agricultural policy has gone through three broad phases: the 1950s, when agriculture was collectivized, ending with the Great Leap Forward (1958–60); the period from 1961 to the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, when more agricultural progress came to depend on the supply of capital and modern inputs; and the period under the post-Mao leadership, which has been characterized by greater reliance on markets, prices, and incentives to boost production and to diversify output. (…
Planning and organization
The state’s role in the mid-1980s was chiefly to plan production and manage resources. Among state institutions at the national level, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Fishery was primarily responsible for coordinating agricultural programs. Other central bodies of importance in agricultural policy matters included the State Economic Commission; the State Planning Commission; the ministries of commerce, forestry, and the chemical industry; the State …
Operational methods and inputs
China’s farmers have long used techniques such as fertilization and irrigation to increase the productivity of their scarce land. Over time, many farming techniques have been modernized: chemical fertilizers have supplemented organic fertilizers, and mechanical pumps have come into use in irrigation. Government planners in the 1980s emphasized increased use of fertilizer, improved irrigation, mechanization of agriculture, and extension of improved seed varieties as lea…