- Hydraulic Engineering. A Mesopotamian relief showing the agricultural importance of the rivers. …
- The Chariot. Scale model of a simple two-wheeled chariot which was invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia. …
- The Plow. Imitation of a Sumerian plow. According to Kramer, the Sumerians invented the plow, a vital technology in farming.
- Textile Mills. A Mesopotamian woman weaving. While other cultures in the Middle East gathered wool and used it to weave fabric for clothing, the Sumerians were the first to do …
How did the invention of Agriculture in Mesopotamia impact society?
It was here that agriculture began. Irrigation and farming were commonplace in this area because of the fertile land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The invention of agriculture made it possible for humans to stay in the same place for a longer period of time without depending on hunting.
What are the main agricultural products of Mesopotamia?
Other agricultural products include sesame (derived from the Akkadian word šamaššammu ), which was widely cultivated and used to make oil. Olive oil was produced in the mountains. Flax was used to make linen cloth. Peas were cultivated in Mesopotamia, while lentils were preferred in Palestine.
What are some of the Great Inventions of Mesopotamia?
Another great invention of Mesopotamia people was a law system. When there was enough advancement in almost every field of life, crimes and misunderstandings began to happen. People who used to live in urban areas and other places had a different mindset. That’s why conflict started.
What inventions came from Mesopotamia?
Among the many inventions of the Mesopotamians were:The wheel.Mass-produced ceramics.Mathematics.Time.Writing.Cylinder seals and envelopes.Mass-produced bricks.Cities.More items…•
What are two agricultural innovations that the Mesopotamians are known for?
Key Ideas- Agricultural InnovationsMesopotamians invented a seeder plow. It allowed them to plow and plant at the same time.Mesopotamians tamed and raised animals. The animals were used for food and farm work.Producing extra food meant that not everyone had to farm. People could do other things for work.
What did Mesopotamia innovate?
The two Mesopotamian inventions considered most important are writing and the wheel. Although some scholars contend that the wheel originated in Central Asia (because the oldest wheel in the world was found there), it is generally accepted that the concept originated in Sumer because of the production of ceramics.
What were 10 Mesopotamian inventions?
10 Mesopotamian Inventions That Will Surprise YouBricks. The ‘Striding Lion’ Brick Mosaic from the Ishtar Gate, 604-562 BC, via The University of Chicago Oriental Institute. … Cities. … Beer. … Board Games. … Sailing. … Cartography. … Time. … Writing And Literature.More items…•
How did agriculture develop in Mesopotamia?
The regular flooding along the Tigris and the Euphrates made the land around them especially fertile and ideal for growing crops for food. That made it a prime spot for the Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, that began to take place almost 12,000 years ago.
What did the Mesopotamians invent to increase agricultural yield?
3 Ans- To increase agricultural yield, Mesopotamian invented the ox-drawn plough.
What are 12 things that were invented in Mesopotamia?
10 Mesopotamia Inventions You Should KnowCuneiform writing. Source: Brendan Aanes/Flickr. … Currency. Source: CNG/Wikimedia Commons. … Wheel. Source: Daderot/Wikimedia Commons. … Mathematics and the sexagesimal system.Astrology. … Astronomy. … Calendar. … Sailboat.More items…•
What was Mesopotamia famous for?
Its history is marked by many important inventions that changed the world, including the concept of time, math, the wheel, sailboats, maps and writing. Mesopotamia is also defined by a changing succession of ruling bodies from different areas and cities that seized control over a period of thousands of years.
What was the main economic activity in ancient Mesopotamia?
Agriculture is the ratio main economic activity in ancient Mesopotamia. Operating under harsh constraints, notably the arid climate, the Mesopotamian farmers developed effective strategies that enabled them to support the development of the first states, the first cities, and then the first known empires, under the supervision of the institutions which dominated the economy: the royal and provincial palaces, the temples, and the domains of the elites. They focused above all on the cultivation of cereals (particularly barley) and sheep farming, but also farmed legumes, as well as date palms in the south and grapes in the north.
Why were cattle important to Mesopotamia?
They were an essential part of Mesopotamian agriculture, notably because of their role as beasts of burden. Their importance is shown by the fact that they are the only domestic animals that were sometimes given names by their owners. Several texts relating to institutional estates inform us of the care taken of them. Weaned calves were fed on fodder composed of grain and reeds, and could be used to pull ploughs once they reached three years of age. Unlike smaller animals, working cattle could not survive off the meagre Mesopotamian pasture land and thus they had to receive rations, like humans, and thus were more expensive to maintain. Some cattle were raised for their meat and cows were valued for their milk.
What was the biggest problem for farmers in the South?
The largest problem for farmers in the south seems to have been the salinisation of the soil. Thorkild Jacobsen and Robert McC. Adams have argued that this caused an ecological crisis in Babylonia in the 18th-17th centuries BC. If this problem was really caused by the high salt content of the soil and their irrigation system brought a rising amount of salt-carrying water to the surface, then the ancient Mesopotamians seem to have developed techniques that ameliorated this issue: control of the quantity of water discharged into the field, soil leaching to remove salt, and the practice of leaving land to lie fallow. It is not certain that the salinisation of land in southern Mesopotamia actually did lead to a fall in output and crisis in the long-term, but it did constitute a constant year-to-year problem.
What is the terrain of Mesopotamia?
The terrain of Mesopotamia is mostly flat, consisting of floodplains and plateaus. It is bordered by high mountains on the eastern side – the Zagros range, which is pierced by deep valleys and canyons with a northwest-southeast orientation (Great Zab, Little Zab, Diyala) – and by smaller mountains and volcanoes in Upper Mesopotamia (Kawkab, Tur Abdin, Jebel Abd-el-Aziz, Sinjar, Mount Kirkuk). Essentially, Upper Mesopotamia consists of plateaus which are slightly inclined to the east, rising from 200–500 m in altitude, and which are now known as Jazirah (from the Arabic, al-jazayra, ‘the island’). Thus, the rivers flow through valleys which are 1–10 km wide. The southern half of Mesopotamia, which is the part properly called Mesopotamia from a geophysical point of view, since it is where the Tigris and Euphrates flow close to one another, is a vast plain, which is 150–200 km wide and has only a very slight incline, decreasing to the south until it is nearly non-existent. This encourages the development of river braiding, sudden changes of course, and the establishment of marshy areas.
What were the major changes in Mesopotamia during the second agricultural revolution?
Mesopotamia had been on the margin of developments in the Neolithic and the origins of agriculture and pastoralism took place in Mount Taurus, the Levant, and the Zagros, but it clearly participated in the second phase of major changes which took place in the Near East over the course of the 4th millennium BC, which are referred to as the ‘second agricultural revolution’ or the ‘revolution of secondary products’ in the case of pastoralism. These changes were characterised by the expansion of cereal cultivation following the invention of the plough and irrigation; the expansion of pastoralism, especially the raising of sheep for wool, but also beasts of burden such as cattle and donkeys, and dairy animals; and cultivation of fruit trees, such as date palms, olives, grapes, etc. They were accompanied by the establishment of the first states, the first cities, and these institutions possessed vast fields of cereals and great herds of sheep.
When were horses introduced to Mesopotamia?
Equids were domesticated late in Mesopotamian history, with the donkey ( ANŠE / imēru (o) ) only appearing clearly in the 4th millennium BC and the horse ( ANŠE.KUR.RA / sīsu (m)) arriving from elsewhere around the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. They were joined by the onager which could be tamed, and the mule. The donkey rapidly came to play an essential role as a beast of burden, allowing the development of a system of caravans for long-distance transportation. The horse rapidly became a highly valued animal among the elites, especially warriors. The training of horses was the focus of a great deal of attention. The large areas of pasture in Mesopotamia are located in the north, but pale beside the areas available outside Mesopotamia in western Iran and the Caucasus. Starting around 2000 BC and especially in the 1st millennium BC, the dromedary and the camel ( ANŠE.A.AB.BA / ibilu) were introduced and came to play an important role as beasts of burden and transport. Their meat and milk was also consumed.
What are the two rivers that flow through Mesopotamia?
Other watercourses in Mesopotamia are the rivers that flow into the Tigris and Euphrates. The tributaries of the former originate in the Zagros; from north to south they are the Great Zab, the Little Zab, and Diyala. Their courses have a rapid flow, on account of the steep relief and the gorges through which they flow, as well as the snowmelt in spring which leads to large floods in April/May. They carry a large amount of the alluvium which ends up in the Tigris. The Euphrates has two tributaries which meet it in southern Jazirah: the Balikh and the Khabur .
What did the ancient Mesopotamian farmers use to plow the ground?
Ancient Mesopotamian farmers cultivated wheat, barley, cucumbers, and other different foods and vegetables. They used stone hoes to plow the ground before the invention of the plow. The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers that surrounded Mesopotamia made irrigation and farming a lot easier and more convenient.
How did the invention of the plow in Mesopotamia help the hunter-gatherer groups?
The invention of the plow in Mesopotamia helped the hunter-gatherer groups to stay in the same place and use agriculture for food rather than hun ting. 7. Time. The Mesopotamians developed the concept of time, dividing time units into 60 parts, which eventually led to 60-second minutes and 60-minute hours.
How did humans learn to domesticate animals?
Humans learned to domesticate animals and use them to make daily life easier. In Mesopotamia, man first harnessed the ox and developed the first plow called the “ard.” The earliest plow was made of wood and was very heavy. The major problem with the plow was that the dirt would stick to it and needed to be removed manually. It also did not work in thick grass. The invention of the plow in Mesopotamia helped the hunter-gatherer groups to stay in the same place and use agriculture for food rather than hunting.
How long did it take to learn cuneiform?
The writer had to drag the tip of a stylus across wet clay to create a shape. It was hard to remember every character and it would take 12 years for a person to learn to write in cuneiform.
Why was agriculture commonplace in the Euphrates?
It was here that agriculture began. Irrigation and farming were commonplace in this area because of the fertile land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The invention of agriculture made it possible for humans to stay in the same place for a longer period of time without depending on hunting.
What is the cradle of civilization?
Urban Civilization. Often known as the cradle of civilization, Mesopotamian developed the concept of urbanization. For the first time in a history, humans started to settle in a specific place. The invention of agriculture made it possible to feed more people and animals living in a single location.
Who were the first people to use the counting system?
When the civilization began to flourish, people started to trade and they needed an accurate system to count the goods that they gave and received. The Sumerians were the first people on earth to develop the concept of counting.
When did agriculture start in Mesopotamia?
Early Agriculture in Mesopotamia. In Mesopotamia, which today is part of Iraq, food production began around 8000 BC having been introduced by settlers from the Iranian plateau. Jarmo in the Kurdish foothills represents the earliest stage of Agriculture. As men went hunting and gathering, the women they left behind may have experimented …
What were the factors that facilitated the development of law in Mesopotamia?
Explain two main factors that facilitated development of law in Mesopotamia. Advances in religious practices. Mesopotamians had many gods, most of who were connected to agriculture, e.g. Ninurta the god of floods. Compilation of cords of law to limit conflict in their civilization, e.g. Hamurabi‟s law.
Why did the Sumerians dig canals?
But the Sumerians skilfully dug canals to channel water from the two rivers to summer, boosted by the Shadoof or Bucket method of irrigation.
What are some farming implements?
Invention and use of farming implements like the ox-drawn plough and the seed-drill in place of digging sticks and stone hoes fastened with sticky earth onto a short wooden handle for tilling the land as well as baked clay sickles, baskets and pots in reaping and storing the harvest.
What were the main causes of the invention of the calendar?
Development in astronomy, arising from the need to predict rains, floods and eclipses, which led to the invention of the calendar. Development of law: Discovery and use of metals to make farm tools, which revolutionized agriculture. Bronze tools were made and used in Mesopotamia as early as 3000BC.
How many cities were there in Sumerian civilization?
The Sumerian civilization, which was thriving in Mesopotamia by around 3000 BC comprised twelve separate city states. Farming, fishing, crafts making and keeping of livestock were most practiced. The city states were surrounded with walls, outside of which were farming fields, on which the urban people depended.
How is reclamation used for agricultural purposes?
Reclamation of more land for agricultural purposes by skilfully draining and directing water through dykes, ditches and canals from swampy land to the dry land , making both cultivable.
Where did farming occur in Mesopotamia?
While talking about the sites where there was evidence of farming, we should not forget to mention places like Zawi Chemi Shanidar, Shanidar itself, Karim Shahir, Qal’at Jarmo, Jericho, Catalhuyuk and many others appearing to be locations where agricultural settlements occurred in the Ancient kingdom of Mesopotamia.
How did irrigation affect agriculture in Mesopotamia?
The use of irrigation made at the same good and harm to agricultural activity in Mesopotamia in a sense that there was fast and good food production, but the activity was becoming more and more complex because of salt accumulation due to irrigation. However, cultivation also had its own consequences both positive and negative.
Why was irrigation important in Mesopotamia?
Even though the Mesopotamian soil was fertile in a way that agriculture was very easy, there was a problem linked to the scarcity of rains. Nevertheless, they knew how to overcome the issue by the use of methods such as irrigation. In Fact, irrigation is the fact to bring additional water supply to a dry area in order to help crops growth. Certainly, the land consisted in its interior of wide rivers such as the Euphrates and the Tigris representing the most important ones from where water could be drawn to the cultivation’s fields and surrounded by Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Aral Sea, Arabian Sea and Caspian Sea also (“Ancient Mesopotamia”, Encarta). Mesopotamia was totally dependent on irrigation and its two big rivers because of the scarcity of rains and the article wrote and posted by Larry Mays on the site Water Encyclopedia says: “Irrigation was extremely vital to Mesopotamia (Mays, “Ancient Irrigation systems,” waterencyclopedia.com)”. The method of water flow control was first practiced in the two world’s first civilizations respectively Egypt and Mesopotamia. The application of the method needed a lot of physical work, correspondingly building. Activities such as building canals, ditches, tunnels, wide gaps where the water would come and stay and the maintenance of the infrastructures were constant in the area and it took them a lot of time to realize all this. Presently, according to waterencyclopedia.com, some abandoned canals and ditches still remain in the area but not intact, the farming activity of Mesopotamia started declining overtime caused by the accumulation of salt in the soil and in 1258, Mongols took over the empire and damaged the irrigation systems. By still dealing with Mays’ article on Water Encyclopedia, we got to know that the soil of the empire was full of silt, a major factor of soil fertility but constituted a continuous agent causing problems in the irrigation systems. Therefore, as there was not enough rainfall, the soil was kept its fertility because irrigation method could not wash a soil until removing its minerals components favoring good food production. Nevertheless, the Mesopotamian agricultural activity knew many problems such as flooding of water coming from the melting of snows in summer from the Turkish mountains according to the web page historylink.com and an unpredictable water flood from its two principle rivers respectively the Euphrates and Tigris according to the article of Louis and Jenifer posted on best.berkley.edu. However, irrigation carried many consequences on the farming activity in Mesopotamia. Irrigation maintained the fertility of soils because it did not deepen or sink the minerals as the way rainfall usually does. Minerals inside a soil are very important and help a fast and good food production at the end of an agricultural session. “The topsoil did not wash away as it does on sloping land, and minerals did not leach deep into the soil as they do under heavy rainfall. Hence, the fertility could be maintained indefinitely by the use of fairly simple soil-management practices (“Farming in Mesopotamia”)” said the web site historylink.com about the impacts of irrigation. Socially, the development of irrigation was helpful to citizens in a sense that it was a physical and intellectual work helping for additional knowledge and body welfare. A fertile soil combined with irrigation result to good and fast food production as we all know.
Why did the farming activity of Mesopotamia decline?
Presently, according to waterencyclopedia.com, some abandoned canals and ditches still remain in the area but not intact, the farming activity of Mesopotamia started declining overtime caused by the accumulation of salt in the soil and in 1258, Mongols took over the empire and damaged the irrigation systems.
Why was Mesopotamia dependent on irrigation?
Mesopotamia was totally dependent on irrigation and its two big rivers because of the scarcity of rains and the article wrote and posted by Larry Mays on the site Water Encyclopedia says: “Irrigation was extremely vital to Mesopotamia (Mays, “Ancient Irrigation systems,” waterencyclopedia.com)”. The method of water flow control was first practiced …
What seas did Mesopotamia have?
It consisted of two principal seas such as the Euphrates and the Tigris and was surrounded by many vast seas where they could draw water for additional supply. Despite the arid climate and scarcity of rains in Mesopotamia, they made use of irrigation as principal method to water their crops.
What was the first place where agriculture began?
The ancient kingdom possessed a very fertile soil favoring the development of cultivation’s activity. Precisely, as the ancient kingdom is located in the Middle East, it appears to be the first place where agriculture began in a general way.
What are some of the inventions that were made in Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamia inventions include concepts like writing, maps, sailboat, math, and time. Besides, it is characterized by the shifting succession of ruling bodies from various regions and cities that have taken control over hundreds of years.
What are some of the most important inventions of Mesopotamia?
Top Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia 1 Top Inventions and Discoveries of Mesopotamia#N#Agriculture and Irrigation#N#Writing and Mathematic#N#Concept of Cartography, Astrology, and Astronomy#N#Chariot#N#Map#N#Metal fabrication#N#Concept of urbanization#N#Time#N#Board games#N#Soap#N#Law system 2 Conclusion
What were the main sources of irrigation in Mesopotamia?
Before the invention of the plow, Ancient Mesopotamian farmers used stone hoes to the plow the fields. The rivers Euphrates and Tigris, which gave rise to the name Mesopotamia, made it convenient and easy for irrigation.
What was the fertile crescent?
The Fertile Crescent in Mesopotamia. Under the harsh constraints of desert climate, ancient Mesopotamians developed systems and strategies that helped them develop the first known monarchy, empire, and city dominated by institutions led by provincial palaces and other elites.
What does the name Mesopotamia mean?
Conclusion. The root words ” Meso ” meaning ” in the middle or between ” and ” Patmos ,” meaning ” river ,” forms the name Mesopotamia. Therefore, the title describes the land, which is between rivers. Mesopotamia is home to modern-day Syria, Turkey, Kuwait, and Iraq.
What was the first work of engineering in ancient Mesopotamia?
The Sumerians of ancient Mesopotamia did the world first works of engineering by building temples, city walls, and dug canals. Irrigation was essential to ancient Mesopotamians.
Why did conflict start in Mesopotamia?
That’s why conflict started. Crimes began due to the uncommon resource distribution among the people. To handle this situation, Mesopotamia people invented a system which they named as law system. This was the complete method of handling crimes and misunderstanding.
What did the Sumerians do in Mesopotamia?
In what the Greeks later called Mesopotamia, Sumerians invented new technologies and perfected the large-scale use of existing ones. In the process, they transformed how humans cultivated food, built dwellings, communicated and kept track of information and time.
What did the Sumerians use to make their pottery?
That forced them to make ingenious use of materials such as clay—the plastic of the ancient world. They used it to make everything from bricks to pottery to tablets for writing. But the Sumerians’ real genius may have been organizational.
How did the Sumerians collect and channel the overflow of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers?
The Sumerians figured out how to collect and channel the overflow of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers—and the rich silt that it contained—and then use it to water and fertilize their farm fields. They designed complex systems of canals, with dams constructed of reeds, palm trunks and mud whose gates could be opened or closed to regulate the flow of water.
What did the Sumerians do?
The Sumerians’ innovations gradually spread and led to the development of the modern technologically advanced world that we live in today. Here are some of the areas where the Sumerians left their mark.
Why did the Sumerians make bricks?
To make up for a shortage of stones and timber for building houses and temples, the Sumerians created molds for making bricks out of clay, according to Kramer. While they weren’t the first to use clay as a building material, “the innovation is the ability to produce bricks in large amounts, and put them together on a large scale,” Jones explains. Their buildings might not have been as durable as stone ones, but they were able to build more of them, and create larger cities.
What were the Sumerians’ civilizations?
Mass-Produced Bricks. Metallurgy. Mathematics. The ancient Sumerians, who flourished thousands of years ago between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what today is southern Iraq, built a civilization that in some ways was the ancient equivalent of Silicon Valley.
What is the lion-headed eagle made of?
The lion-headed eagle made of copper, gold, and lapis lazuli by Sumerian civilization.
What were the main products of Mesopotamia?
The farmers of ancient Mesopotamia cultivated many foods and vegetables from an early age. The major products were wheat, cucumber, barley, and rice. Out of all these agricultural products, wheat and barley are considered to be the most important invention of its time and today.
What is the most significant invention in Mesopotamia?
Wheels: The most significant invention. Axle is oldest wooden wheel yet discovered dating to Copper Age. Creative Common Copyright: Petar Milošević. Wheels are one of the most significant inventions of Mesopotamia Civilization for being used to shape the clay pots by the potters as art crafts.
What is the name of the ancient civilization that was located between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers?
Mesopotamia civilization was a historical region with fertile land situated between Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers which is in modern-day Iraq and Kuwait. The word ‘Mesopotamia’ meaning ‘between two rivers in Greek. The civilization started fostering significant innovations and inventions since an early age which became the building block for …
Why were chariots invented?
During that period, there used to be issues of claiming lands. So, the chariots were developed to maintain a claim on their lands.
What is the most thoughtful invention?
The invention of wheels, out of all inventions, is taken as one of the most thoughtful inventions to date due to its importance. They were used by the wealthy groups for luxurious purposes as well as lower groups for irrigation, milling, and pottery making. 7. Astrology and Astronomy: Connection of fate and stars.
Why is curiosity important to civilization?
The curiosity and creativity made it possible for the people of this civilization to invent and develop such significant creations. They have been useful and reliable since the time of their invention until today.
What made it possible to harvest and invent the agricultural products used until today?
The fertile soil and steady supply of freshwater made it possible to harvest and invent the agricultural products used until today. Also, the curiosity and skilled mindset led to developing numerous other inventions which have a positive impact in today’s world as well.
The Origins of Agriculture
Geography of The Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent is an ancient geographic region comprised of three primary geographic zones: 1. Mesopotamia, mostly located in modern-day Iraq, defined by the alluvial plain of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris 2. Upper Mesopotamia in the foothills of the Taurus and Zagros mountains in the north 3. The Levant, in modern-day Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and Palestin…
The main types of grain that were used for agriculture were barley, wheat, millet, and emmer. Rye and oats were not yet known for agricultural use. In Babylonia, Assyria, and the Hittite lands, barley was the main grain for human use, primarily because it is reasonably salt-tolerant (an important consideration when irrigating crops in the summer heat). It was a widely-used form o…
Harvest & Storage
Harvest required significant manpower, as there was immense time pressure on completing the harvest before winter set in. Grain was cut with a sickle, dried in shacks, and threshed by driving animals over it to “tread out” the grain. After threshing, the grain was separated from the chaff by winnowing, which was only possible in windy weather. The grain was then either stored in granar…
Agriculture is the ratio main economic activity in ancient Mesopotamia. Operating under harsh constraints, notably the arid climate, the Mesopotamian farmers developed effective strategies that enabled them to support the development of the first states, the first cities, and then the first known empires, under the supervision of the institutions which dominated the economy: the royal and provincial palaces, the temples, and the domains of the elites. They focused above all on th…
Mesopotamia had been on the margin of developments in the Neolithic and the origins of agriculture and pastoralism took place in Mount Taurus, the Levant, and the Zagros, but it clearly participated in the second phase of major changes which took place in the Near East over the course of the 4th millennium BC, which are referred to as the ‘second agricultural revolution’ or the ‘revolution o…
While developing models to describe the early development of settled agriculture in the Near East, reconstructions of climate and vegetation are a subject of consideration. During the glacial period, it is thought that lower temperatures or higher aridity resulted in sparse or non-existent forest cover similar to steppe type terrain in the area of the Zagros Mountains and varying forest cover in the territories of modern-day Turkey and Syria. Northwest Syria, dominated in ancient times by decid…
Mesopotamian farmers did a number of things in order to augment the land’s potential and reduce its risks. The infrastructure that they created profoundly altered the land, particularly through the creation of irrigation networks in the south where the supply of water from the river was necessary for the growth of the crops. Thanks to textual sources it is partially possible to reconstruct the appearance of the Mesopotamian countryside and the different types of land ex…
Economic organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry
Reconstructing the organisation of the ancient economy from the surviving sources (mainly textual) faces numerous difficulties. Agricultural activity in ancient Mesopotamia is documented by tens of thousands of administrative documents, but they generally relate to a specific sector of the economy – the institutions of the royal palace and the temples, and, to a lesser degree, the private domains of the elites. It is their activities and initiatives which are the main source of info…
• Bottéro, J.; Kramer, S. N. (1989). Lorsque les Dieux faisaient l’Homme. Paris. ISBN 2070713822.
• Charpin, D. (2003). Hammu-rabi de Babylone. Paris. ISBN 2130539637.
• Englund, R. K. (1998). “Texts from the Late Uruk Period”. In J. Bauer, R. K. Englund & M. Krebernik (ed.). Mesopotamien, Späturuk-Zeit und Frühdynastische Zeit. Fribourg et Göttingen. pp. 15–233. ISBN 3-525-53797-2.