What agricultural resources grow in northern nigeria

To sustain Agriculture in Northern Nigeria requires flexibility in both ecological management as well as economic activity. Rainfall occurs only seasonally – and there is a marked dry season – however, rainfall is often intensive when it does come, making it necessary for farmers to employ soil moisture conservation techniques. The main crops grown in the region are millet, sorghum


Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One species is grown for grain, while many other…

, and cowpea


The cowpea is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. It requires very few inputs, as the plant’s root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, ma…

, while groundnut and sesame are significant minor crops. Wild foods also serve as an important supplement to the diet, especially during times of food shortage. The bulk of crops are grown during the rainy season which begins in June or July, when temperatures are warmer. There has traditionally been a division between sedentary farmers made up of the Manga and Hausa people, and the nomadic pastoralists known as Fulani, however this has diminished in recent times. Historically, development plans for this region have focused on the use of imported technology and irrigation schemes, while neglecting traditional farming practices of the region. These traditional practices generally focus on the close integration between the raising of livestock and farming, and have been studied in detail in the Kano Close Settled Zone of Northern Nigeria.

The main crops grown in the region are millet, sorghum, and cowpea, while groundnut and sesame are significant minor crops. Wild foods also serve as an important supplement to the diet, especially during times of food shortage.


What are the main agricultural products in Nigeria?

Agricultural productsEdit. A map of Nigeria’s main agricultural products. Major crops include beans, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans, bananas and yams.

What are the best business opportunities in farming in Nigeria?

5) Cassava farming; this is another mega Crop farming and production business opportunity in Nigeria that you should utilize.

What is the vegetation of Northern Nigeria?

The vegetation of northern Nigeria is predominantly marginal or short grass savannah (see Figure 1), and this region is characterized by a relatively hot climate with seasonal rainfall and a marked dry season.

What is the total area of Agriculture in Nigeria?

Nigeria has a total agricultural area of 70.8m hectares. This is distributed among arable land area of 34 million hectares, 6.5 million hectares for permanent crops, and 30.3 million hectares on meadows and pastures.

What crops did the Northern grow?

The classes of most importance in the northern Plains are Hard Red Spring Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Hard Red Winter Wheat. A variety of other crops are grown in the four-state region in smaller quantities. Termed “specialty crops”, these commodities are raised to meet the needs of niche markets.

What agricultural resources grow in southern Nigeria?

Intercropping was the dominant cropping system with cassava, yam, and maize as the principal arable crops, while cocoa, kolanut, oil palm, rubber, cashew, banana/plantain and citrus were the main permanent crops.

What agricultural resources grow in Nigeria?

Major crops include beans, rice, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans, bananas and yams. In the past, Nigeria was famous for the export of groundnut and palm kernel oil.

What is the major cash crop in northern Nigeria?

Cotton has been a major cash crop in Africa, mainly in Nigeria, the areas cotton is grown in Nigeria is concentrated in the Savannah belts of the country which is the Northern & South Western Nigeria such as…

Which state is best in agriculture in Nigeria?

Top 3 States In Nigeria Best For Agriculture And Farming Related BusinessesCross River State – Rich in organic fruits and excellent for tourism, Cross River State supplies agriculture products to many other states in Nigeria.Delta State – 3rd largest contributing state to Nigeria’s GDP.More items…•

What are Nigeria’s primary agricultural products?

Nigeria’s major agricultural imports include wheat, sugar, fish and milk, while the main agricultural exports include sesame seeds, cashew nuts, cocoa beans, ginger, frozen shrimp and cotton. Sesame, cashew nuts and cocoa account for more than half of the nation’s agricultural exports.

What crops are grown by the Hausa?

The Hausa economy has rested on the intensive cultivation of sorghum, corn (maize), millet, and many other crops grown on rotation principles and utilizing the manure of Fulani cattle.

Why is livestock rearing high in northern Nigeria?

Concentration of Nigeria’s livestock-base in the northern region is most likely to have been influenced by the ecological condition of the region which is characterised by low rainfall duration, lighter sandy soils and longer dry season.

What are the main natural resources in Nigeria?

Apart from petroleum, Nigeria’s other natural resources include natural gas, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc and arable land.

Which is the most profitable farming in Nigeria?

Rice Farming. Considering the fact that Nigeria has a huge market for rice, if you are looking for a lucrative agricultural business idea in Nigeria, you need to seriously consider entering the rice farming business which is undoubtedly one of the most profitable businesses in the Nigerian agricultural sector.

What are 5 cash crops?

Examples of cash crops grown in the United States today include:Wheat.Fruits and vegetables.Corn.Cotton.Sugar cane.Soybeans and oil-producing plants.

What are 10 cash crops?

According to USDA Economic Research Service (ERS), the top 10 produce crops in the U.S. are:Corn. It is the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, the majority of which goes towards feeding livestock. … Cotton. … Fruit. … Tree Nuts. … Rice. … Soybean and Oil Crops. … Sugar and Sweeteners. … Vegetables.More items…•

What are the most common crops in Nigeria?

Among households, the most common crops in Nigeria are maize and cassava, which are grown by almost 50 percent of households. In addition, other widespread crops are Guinea corn, yam, beans, and millets. In quite a few plot-growing maize crops, households used to apply herbicides, while about half use inorganic fertilizers.

What is the agricultural production of Nigeria?

The country is a leader in various types of agricultural production, such as palm oil, cocoa beans, pineapple, and sorghum. It is the largest producer of sorghum in the world just after the United States, and ranks fifth in the production of palm oil and cocoa beans . Nigeria is also a large global nuts exporter. In terms of value, it is the second leading exporter of cashew nuts worldwide. Indeed, oil, fruits, nuts, seeds are among the ten best performing export categories .

What are the main inputs for maize?

Among all major crops grown by Nigerian households, herbicides, in organic fertilizers, animal tractions , and organic fertilizers are the most common farming inputs.

How many people will be in Nigeria by 2050?

Indeed, the Nigerian population is forecast to reach over 400 million people by 2050. Estimations published in 2019 show that by 2050 the consumption of livestock products is going to increase significantly. For instance, the consumption of milk might grow by over 260 percent, for eggs by 250 percent.

How many people in Nigeria go without food?

In recent years, the average share of the Nigerian population suffering from severe food insecurity has been rising. Between 2017 and 2019, about nine percent of people went for entire days without food, due to lack of money or other resources. In fact, the food CPI is increasing month by month in Nigeria.

What are the best exports in Nigeria?

Indeed, oil, fruits, nuts, seeds are among the ten best performing export categories . Agriculture is a key activity for Nigeria’s economy after oil. Agricultural activities provide livelihood for many Nigerians, whereas the wealth generated by oil reaches a restricted share of the population.

Is Nigeria a global leader in agriculture?

Apart from household farming activities, Nigeria is a global leader in agricultural production, as mentioned before. In large production, palm oil crops experienced a significant increase in the past two decades, reaching over one million metric tons in the last three years.

Why do you have to start farming in Nigeria?

You have to start from somewhere because the truth is that agriculture is a high investment which can boom with little investment.

What are the factors that affect crop production in Nigeria?

Aside from the ignorant of how lucrative Crop farming and production in Nigeria can be, another major issues which had made a lot of people who have interest in agriculture to hesitate are; Unavailability of lands for crops production; a situation whereby farmer lacks lands

What is the crop that Nigerians can’t do without?

2); Tomato farming; just like rice, the tomato is another crop which Nigerians can’t do without because most Nigeria foods are been prepared with it. Tomato is an easy yet lucrative crop production business to set up in Nigeria.

Why are farmers producing low crops?

They produce low crops because of less or no availability of modern tools.

Is agriculture in Nigeria?

Crop farming and production in Nigeria has come a very long way, back to the era of our forefathers to our present era. Though agriculture in Nigeria; which is a part or branch of the economy sectors in Nigeria has most times been ignored ; the oil and gas sector has taken the major interest of both the young and the old with few or less interest …

Is cucumber farming in Nigeria?

When you set up commercial cucumber farming in Nigeria, you may not be exporting this crop to other countries but you will sure be selling them to major and minor states all over Nigeria. Crop farming and production in Nigeria has really come of ages, most farmers who are not into animal rearing has in one way or the other set up crop production.

What is the agriculture sector in Nigeria?

Though agriculture in Nigeria is numerically dominated by smallholder farmers, who make up more than 80 percent of the sector, commercial agriculture, producing cash crops for the marketplace, plays an increasingly important role. Earnings from exports of agriculture products were steadily growing prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, with 2019 in particular showing strong increases in exports of sesamum seeds, cocoa beans, and cashew nuts.

What is the Nigerian agriculture policy?

The New Nigerian Agriculture Policy, in place since 2001, calls among other things for “rational utilization of agricultural resources,” and the sustainable management of the natural resources upon which agriculture depends. Yet in practice the ostensibly favourable policy environment has not prevented farmers from expanding into ever more fragile ecosystems and degrading resources as a consequence. Soil erosion has increased with the clearing of vegetation to plant on steep slopes, and the encroachment of sedentary agriculture in regions where slash-and-burn agriculture is practiced, coupled with local population growth, has brought a compression of the fallow period and a resulting serious loss of soil health and productivity. These problems are compounded by the unwillingness of the government to confront the interests of those engaged in resource destruction.

What are the challenges of natural resource management in Nigeria?

Obstacles to the more extensive adoption of sustainable natural resource management in Nigeria include a lack of government will or capacity to enforce sustainable practices on the agricultural sector, together with a lack of the financial, social and knowledge capital this would require. The resolution of these challenges will demand co-operation between a range of stakeholders to develop new approaches for working together at multiple scales and across different social and physical environments. There should be opportunities for two-way learning between farmers, researchers, and policy makers. Community-based partnerships with the private sector, now in their early stages of development, may also represent a promising way forward.


Agricultural sustainability in northern Nigeria requires flexibility in both ecological management as well as economic activity. The population densities of the rural area in this region climbed from 243 to 348 people per square kilometer between 1962 and 1991, but the land area under permanent cultivation remained approximately the same. Increasing population results in high food d…


Due to the social and environmental conditions in northern Nigeria, the flexibility of both ecological management and economic activity are vital components of any strategy for agricultural and rural livelihood in the region. It is often contended that African farmers are unsuccessful at intensifying agriculture through the use of a method that is environmentally sustainable as well as eco…

Soils of the region

The soils in the northern region of Nigeria are categorized as reddish brown or brown soils of the semi-arid and Arid Regions. They are also known as tropical Ferruginous Soil and are considered to be comparable to Ferric Luvisols. These are sandy soils that are made up of about 85% sand. Their pH values range between 6.0 and 7.0 and their bulk densities are about 1.4 g/cm3.

Common crops and food sources

The main crops in this area are millet, sorghum and cowpea (see Figures 4 to 6), while groundnut and sesame are considered minor crops. Guna (cow) melon (Citrullus lanatus) has been recently added to crop production for market. It requires only one fall of rain, is planted late in the season, and grows on moisture that is left in the soil until it is harvested during the months precedin…

Agricultural timeline

The preparation of fields for farming starts in April or May when the farmers clear shrubs. Sometimes grasses are burned to clear fields that have not been grazed by livestock. The beginning of the rainy season is in June or July and this is when most planting begins, although a few farmers may dry-plant before the rains begin. Fields where germination has been successfully weeded using a l…

Cattle production in Northern Nigeria

Cattle rearing in Nigeria has increased the production of meat – beef, dairy products, leather, and dung for manure, or fuel.
Cattle are breed by making herds graze on grassland. This act, however, might allow the use of land to be unsuitable for growing crops.
Breeds of cattles indigenous to the northern Nigeria includes: White Fulani, Re…

Agricultural land use pattern

Traditionally there has been a division between sedentary farmers made up of the Manga and the Hausa people, and the nomadic pastoralists known as Fulani (see Figure 7). However this has diminished and both groups now engage in livestock and crop production, although the priority for Fulanis is still the rearing of cattle, while for the Manga and Hausa, it is crop production.

See also

• Herder farmer conflicts in Nigeria
• Agriculture in Nigeria
• Agriculture


Agriculture in Nigeria is a branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for about 35% of the population as of 2020. As reported by the FAO, agriculture remains the foundation of the Nigerian economy, despite the presence of oil in the country. It is the main source of livelihood for most Nigerians. The Agricultural sector is made up of four sub-sectors: Crop Production, Livestock, Forestry and Fishing.


Food export accounted for more than 70 percent of the GNP of Nigeria at independence. Twenty-five years later, it was almost a complete reversal with food items accounting for over 50 percent of imports. Food output however declined after independence, although, many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa were fertile and potentially productive, per capita food out declined, grain imports then increased more than seven times. The usage of inorganic fertilizers was therefore promote…


Nigeria produced in 2022:
• 59.4 million tons of cassava (the largest producer in the world). Nigeria accounts for cassava production of up to 20 per cent of the world, about 34 per cent of Africa’s and about 46 per cent of West Africa’s.
• 47.5 million tons of yam (largest producer in the world);

Agricultural products

Major crops include beans, rice, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans, bananas and yams.
In the past, Nigeria was famous for the export of groundnut and palm kernel oil. But over the years, the rate of exportation of this produce has reduced. A few y…

Ministry of Agriculture

The government office responsible for Agriculture development and transformation is currently the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Primarily funded by the Federal Government, the Ministry currently superintends almost fifty parastatals operating as either key departments or agencies across the country. The Ministry has 2 major depart…

See also

• Agricultural sustainability in northern Nigeria
• Agriculture in Rivers State
• Rural development in Nigeria
• Deforestation in Nigeria

External links

• Agriculture & Animals Motherland Nigeria
• AgroNigeria: Nigeria’s Agricultural Mouthpiece
• West African Agricultural Market Observer/Observatoire du Marché Agricole (RESIMAO)
• Major Farming Problems in Nigeria-Crop Farmers and Livestock Rearers

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