What are the characteristics of tropical agriculture

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The scale of agriculture in the tropics ranges from the small household farm to very large farms. Tropical agriculture is usually labor-intensive, seldom machinery-intensive. Large farms, sometimes called plantations, are often concerned with production of crops that can be exported. Large and medium sized farms are always

Agricultural land use in the tropics is characterized by marked regional contrast, diversity of crops

diversity of crops
Crop diversity or crop biodiversity is the variety and variability of crops, plants used in agriculture, including their genetic and phenotypic characteristics. It is a subset of and a specific element of agricultural biodiversity.
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Crop_diversity

, and less acreage in cereal crops but more in legumes than in the temperate zone. Crop yields are low in the tropics. For the cereals, the average yield is only 58 percent of that for the temper- ate zone.

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Answer

What is tropical agriculture?

Since 1500 AD, the products from over a dozen tropical crops have been in constant demand by people in the temperate regions. The specialised commercial cultivation of cash crops on estates or plantations is a very distinctive type of tropical agriculture and is found in many parts of Asia, Africa and tropical and sub-tropical America.

What are the characteristics of plantation agriculture?

The character­istic features of plantation agriculture are as follows: (i) Plantation agriculture is highly sophisticated and scientific methods are used for large-scale production. (ii) There is specialization of single crop in plantation agriculture, e.g., coffee in Brazil, tea in India, rubber in Malaysia, etc.

Why is agriculture important in humid tropical regions?

The humid tropical regions thus have a climate which is favorable for the cultivation of crops throughout the year. For this reason, agriculturists have long been interested in the development of agriculture in order to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing population.

What is the climate like in the tropics?

Besides high mean annual temperature and high amount of mean annual rainfall, the tropics also receive the highest amount of solar radiation annually. The humid tropical regions thus have a climate which is favorable for the cultivation of crops throughout the year.

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What two factors influence the characteristic of tropical agriculture?

Tropical agriculture has the potential of high production due to factors such as abundant exposure to sunlight and high temperatures.


What is the agriculture in tropical climates?

The scale of agriculture in the tropics ranges from the small household farm to very large farms. Tropical agriculture is usually labor-intensive, seldom machinery-intensive. Large farms, sometimes called plantations, are often concerned with production of crops that can be exported.


What is meant by Tropical Agriculture?

While growing food for local consumption is the core of tropical agriculture, cash crops (normally crops grown for export) are also included in the definition. When people discuss the tropics, it is normal to use generalized labels to group together similar tropical areas.


What are the two characteristics of the tropical climate?

Two characteristics of tropical climate are: The temperature remains high throghout the year. There is no marked winter season. Places located in the tropical regions receive adequate rainfall all through the year.


Is tropical climate good for agriculture?

The lowland humid tropical zone has potential to produce vast crops from a small area, given its plentiful rainfall and sunshine, although supplements in the form where there is sufficient water, agricultural productivity can be high, since the lack of rainfall restricts leaching of the soils.


Are tropical climates good for farming?

Because temperate and tropical climate zones blend into one another, many of the plants from one part of the world are cultivated in the other, so this is just a rough guide to which plants are found where. Plants listed as temperate crops can be grown in the tropics better than the other way around.


What are the problems of agriculture in the tropics?

This limits the growing seasons, limit water for plants and animals and thus crop failure, death of animals and environmental degradation. Tropical storms which occur during the growing season in the tropics are a menace to agriculture. They destroy crops such as rubber, banana, and maixe. This leads to drop in output.


Which one is example of tropical crop?

Starch plants include manioc, rice, yams, taro, the legendary bread-fruit tree, and sweet potatoes. Tropical plants with edible fruits are banana, pawpaw, pineapple, coconut, carambola, guayava, and tamarind. Other important crops plants are cocoa, coffee, and sugar cane.


What is the meaning of tropical climate?

The tropical climate in the Köppen system is defined as having an average temperature in every month of above 18°C. There is no winter season, and annual rainfall is large and exceeds the annual evaporation.


What are the characteristics of tropical?

Key characteristics of tropical rainforestsVery wet with over 2,000 mm of rainfall per year.Very warm with an average daily temperature of 28°C. The temperature never drops below 20°C and rarely exceeds 35°C.The atmosphere is hot and humid .The climate is consistent all year round. There are no seasons.


What is characteristic of tropical area?

Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher and feature hot temperatures all year-round. Annual precipitation is often abundant in tropical climates, and shows a seasonal rhythm but may have seasonal dryness to varying degrees.


What are the characteristics of tropical regions?

CharacteristicsArea. Around the equator, from 23.5° further north to 23.5° southern latitude.Sun path. Sun at the zenith (90°) at least once per year, never lower than 43°Average temperature. >20 to 30°C.Minimal temperature. 0°C (no frost)Maximal temperature. Up to 40°C (seldom more)Radiation. … Daylength. … Precipitation.More items…


What are the common terms used to describe the tropical tropics?

Common terms would include the humid -tropics ( rainforests ); the arid-tropics ( deserts and dry areas); or monsoon zones (those areas that have well defined wet/dry seasons and experience monsoons).


How do tropical food plants reproduce?

Many tropical food plants are propagated by cuttings. Seeds are necessary for plant embryos to survive the winter and other harsh conditions such as drought. However, where the weather is normally conducive to growth year-round, plants reproducing plants through means other than seeds is often advantageous.


What is IPM in agriculture?

Integrated pest management (IPM) was developed as an alternative to the heavy use of chemical pesticides. Eliminating all insect pests requires the extensive use of chemical pesticides, which over time can become self-defeating. Farmers end up using more and more chemicals with diminishing effect as pests quickly adapt –while at the same time natural predator insects are eliminated from the farm. Under IPM, chemicals should be a secondary line of defense, while building up the number of natural predators on a farm is the main goal. The IPM approach calls for keeping the pest populations below the levels at which they cause economic injury, not total eradication.


Why is the decomposition of soil in the tropical tropics so rapid?

Soils in the humid tropics are normally highly acidic and nutrient poor; decomposition is rapid because of high temperatures, high humidity, and frequent heavy rains. Heavy rains, especially monsoon rains, lead to rapid nutrient leaching, and chemical weathering of the soil.


How does a farmer use water to irrigate his crops?

Water harvesting pits. One of the simplest forms of irrigation – the farmer digs bathtub -sized pits into his fields and lines them with plastic sheets to collect rainwater. Then, once the dry season sets in , the farmer uses the collected water to irrigate his crops.


Why can’t plants run away from the rainforest?

“Plants are faced with a dilemma; while they need to attract beneficial pollinators and seed dispensers, they must also minimize the damage caused by the marauding army of herbivores. Without some form of protection the trees would be stripped bare and smaller plants would be completely devastated, and because plants stand still, they cannot run away. This is as true in Amazonian rainforest as it is in Northern coniferous forest.” – Marcus Wischik.


Why did temperate agriculture fail?

Due to differences in climate, soils, and patterns of land ownership, these largely failed. When they did succeed they tended to heavily favor farmers with substantial land holdings, as a high percentage of temperate agricultural practices are economically “scale-based” and favor large scale production.


What are the environmental factors that affect tropical agriculture?

The efficiency of tropical agriculture and forestry is determined by a combination of environmental factors that include climate, soil, and biological conditions, social, cultural, and economic factors . Agriculture and forestry systems and techniques that have evolved over time to meet the special environmental conditions and economic demands of the region include the paddy rice systems of Southeast Asia; terrace, mound, and drained field systems; raised bed system; and a variety of agroforestry, and shifting cultivation. Monocultural systems have been successfully introduced over large areas of the humid and sub-humid tropics, and include production of coffee, tea, bananas, citrus fruits, palm oil, rubber, sugarcane, and other commodities produced primarily for export (National Research Council, 1993).


What are the main crops grown in the wet equatorial climate zone?

In the wet equatorial climate zone, commercial agriculture is largely based on perennials, such as rubber, oil palm, bananas, liberica coffee and, to a lesser extent, coconut and cocoa . Some other perennials, such as arabica and robusta coffee, mango and citrus, which need a short drier and cooler spell, are not well suited to the climate. Native farming often includes a plot of fruit trees and other perennials of economic value, but roots are commonly the most important food crops, especially yams, cassava, cocoyams, dasheen or eddo and tannia. Rice is grown extensively. It thrives best in climates with a brief dry season, but the main rice-producing zones here have climates with a more pronounced dry season. Maize is the only other cereal grown appreciably, and its successful cultivation demands adapted varieties. Efficient cultivation and weed control, especially in annual crops, are difficult because of the continuous wet weather during which, weed growth is extremely rapid and luxuriant. Soil fertility is commonly limited by nutrient deficiencies. Apart from pigs and poultry, livestock are unimportant mainly because there are no extensive natural grasslands and there are endemic diseases (Webster and Wilson, 1980).


What is shifting cultivation?

Shifting cultivation is one of the most widespread farming systems throughout the humid and sub-humid tropics. Temporary forest clearings are planted for a few years with annual or short-term perennial crops, and then allowed to remain fallow for a longer period than they were cropped. However, it is often labeled as the most serious land use problem in the tropical world (Grandstaff, 1981). In many of the areas, where it had formerly been practiced successfully for centuries, population and poverty pressures have forced the shortening of the fallow period and field rotation cycle and consequently, a loss of productivity.


What are the two major types of tropical forests?

Tropical forests represent about 40% of the world’s forested area and contain about 60% of global forest biomass. Rainforests and monsoon forests are two major types in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Rainforests grow in ever-wet conditions where rainfall is heavy and spread throughout the year, such as in the Amazon Basin and the Congo delta. These forests are evergreen or semi-evergreen and include lowland, montane, and swamp forests. Monsoon forests grow in the Southeast Asian region where rainfall is high but unevenly spread throughout the year. Most monsoon forest trees are deciduous; they shed their leaves in the dry season. Owing to no management, under the pressure of increasing population, many of these two types of forest are degraded by logging, farming, and fire. In the Asia-Pacific region, where most of the world’s managed tropical forests are found, less than 20% of production forests receive systemic silvicultural treatment (FAO and UNEP, 1981). Only 0.2% of the world’s humid and sub-humid tropical forests is being managed for sustained timber production (Poore et al., 1990).


Is cattle farming important in Africa?

Livestock production in the humid part of Africa is not important as an economic activity; only few lands are cleared for cattle pasture (Brown and Thomas, 1990), and cattle are vulnerable to the effect of trypanosomiasis and tsetse fly (Linear, 1985). Cattle raising on pasturelands takes place in some countries of Southeast Asia, but it is not a significant factor in increasing deforestation since crop production systems are dominant. However, cattle ranching on a large scale has been identified as a leading contributor to deforestation and environmental degradation in the humid and sub-humid parts of Latin America where cattle raising is common due to its socioeconomic and ecological importance. Overall pasture degradation is the primary problem that cattle ranching faces in the humid and sub-humid tropics (particularly evident in Latin America) due to its low soil fertility.


What are the characteristics of plantation agriculture?

The character­istic features of plantation agriculture are as follows: (i) Plantation agriculture is highly sophisticated and scientific methods are used for large-scale production. (ii) There is specialization of single crop in plantation agriculture, e.g., coffee in Brazil, tea in India, rubber in Malaysia, etc.


How to maintain a tropical plantation?

To initiate and to maintain a tropical plantation, large sums of money are required . As many plantations are located in previously undeveloped or sparsely populated areas, far from urban centers, a minimum network of communication by road or rail has to be developed first, either with or without government assistance .


What is the oldest agricultural system in the world?

The tropical plantation is one of the world’s oldest systems of commercial agriculture. Since 1500 AD, the products from over a dozen tropical crops have been in constant demand by people in the temperate regions.


Why were plantations developed?

Plantation agriculture is the product of colonialism. Plantations have been developed in response to a demand in Europe for foods, spices, fibers, and beverages, which because of climatic constraints, could be produced only in the tropics or sub-tropics. Over the centuries the demand for most of these items has increased with the growth …


What are the main crops grown in the colonial period?

Some of the main plantation crops are rubber, oil palm, cotton and copra, beverages like coffee, tea and cocoa, fruits like pineapples and bananas, as well as sugarcane, hemp and jute.


What is plantation agriculture?

Plantation agriculture is an export-oriented specialised farming method where emphasis is given to raise a single crop – specially meant for export to the overseas countries.


Where are cash crops grown?

The specialised commercial cultivation of cash crops on estates or plantations is a very distinctive type of tropical agriculture and is found in many parts of Asia, Africa and tropical and sub-tropical America. Its initiation by the Europeans during the colonial period has made possible the manufacture of a wide range of modern materials.


What are soil-forming factors?

from temperate regions where the soil and water temperature is 15° or less. Soil-forming factors are characterized by a very poor and very permeable . parent material, mainly consisting of rather coarse sand, often pure quartz, . very low in bases and clay (less than 2%).


Where do alluvial soils occur?

Alluvial soils occur in almost all countries in the tropics and subtropics. Important rivers and deltas in the subtropics are the Nile, the Tigris and . Euphrates, the Jordan, the Yangtse, the Murray, the Parana, the Mississippi, . and in the tropics the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mekong, Irrawaddy, .


Is Irian soil eutrophic?

Irian) is indicated in black (after Polak, 1952). soils may be eutrophic, mesotrophic or oligotrophic as in temperate regions. There also may be much mineral sediment mixed with the peat, in particular . in coastal and delta regions, sometimes in inland swamps too (erosion); these . are often unripe soils.

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Overview


Slash/mulch

The contents of a bag of commercial fertilizer is described in terms of NPK -nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); with nitrogen being the main component of most commercial fertilizers.
Oxygen is only a small part of the air; the largest component of air is nitrogen. Nitrogen compounds are the main building block of protein; muscle in mammals and plant tissue in plants. If the level of …


Green Revolution

The “Green Revolution” was an agricultural improvement program undertaken in the tropics. Funded initially by the Rockefeller Foundation, it aimed to improve corn, rice, and other cereal cultivators – breeding plants that would produce more grain for the same amount of effort.
From that point, it expanded out to improved basic farming practices, particularly for rice farmers. The growth of crop yields was such that agriculture was able to outstrip population growth — pe…


Plant propagation

Many tropical food plants are propagated by cuttings. Seeds are necessary for plant embryos to survive the winter and other harsh conditions such as drought. However, where the weather is normally conducive to growth year-round, plants reproducing plants through means other than seeds is often advantageous. By bypassing the seed stage, plants can greatly accelerate their reproductive cycles. Despite this, anyone who wishes so, may still grow tropical crops, e.g., fruit…


Plant defenses

“Plants are faced with a dilemma; while they need to attract beneficial pollinators and seed dispensers, they must also minimize the damage caused by the marauding army of herbivores. Without some form of protection the trees would be stripped bare and smaller plants would be completely devastated, and because plants stand still, they cannot run away. This is as true in Amazonian rainforest as it is in Northern coniferous forest.” – Marcus Wischik.


Small-scale irrigation

In most places in the tropics sufficient precipitation occurs to grow enough food to feed the local population; however, it may not fall in a timely or convenient manner. Making maximum use of the water that does fall is an ongoing challenge.
Water is a particularly important issue in dryland farming. The ability to collect and store water at a low cost and without damaging the environment, is what opens up deserts and other arid regions …


Pest control

Crop rotation is the cornerstone pest control in the tropics. When a single crop is planted repeatedly in the same soil, insects and diseases that attack that crop are allowed to build up to unmanageable levels, greatly reducing the farmer’s harvest.
The most basic form of crop rotation is also the simplest: never plant the same thing in the same place twice. This results in naturally breaking the cycles of weeds, insects and diseases that attac…


Pioneering crops

Pioneering crops are used in places where the land has been striped bare, and the topsoil has been entirely lost to erosion, or where desertification has started. The intent is not to grow food or cash crops, but to repair and reinvigorate the soil in order to prepare the way for the later planting of food or cash crops. Nitrogen fixing plants and trees normally form the basis of such a reclamation project.


Crops and Livestock

  • In the wet equatorial climate zone, commercial agricultureis largely based on perennials, such as rubber, oil palm, bananas, liberica coffee and, to a lesser extent, coconut and cocoa. Some other perennials, such as arabica and robusta coffee, mango and citrus, which need a short drier and cooler spell, are not well suited to the climate. Native farming often includes a plot of fruit trees …

See more on climate-policy-watcher.org


Forestry

  • Tropical forests represent about 40% of the world’s forested area and contain about 60% of global forest biomass. Rainforests and monsoon forests are two major types in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Rainforests grow in ever-wet conditions where rainfall is heavy and spread throughout the year, such as in the Amazon Basin and the Congo delta. These forests are evergr…

See more on climate-policy-watcher.org


Systems of Agriculture and Forestry

  • The efficiency of tropical agriculture and forestry is determined by a combination of environmental factors that include climate, soil, and biological conditions, social, cultural, and economic factors. Agriculture and forestry systems and techniques that have evolved over time to meet the special environmental conditions and economic demands of th…

See more on climate-policy-watcher.org


1. Intensive Cropping Systems

  • Intensive cropping systems are concentrated in lands with adequate water, naturally fertile soils, low to modest slope, and other environmental characteristics conducive to high agricultural productivity. But the systems face critical challenges in order to respond to the food and other subsistence needs of expanding populations. Fallow period that allowed for the accumulation o…

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