what caused the neolithic agricultural revolution



The causes of the Neolithic Revolution

Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, m…

may have varied from region to region. The Earth entered a warming trend around 14,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. Some scientists theorize that climate changes drove the Agricultural Revolution

British Agricultural Revolution

The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food s…


Most archaeologists believed this sudden blossoming of civilization was driven largely by environmental changes: a gradual warming as the Ice Age ended that allowed some people to begin cultivating plants and herding animals in abundance. One part of humankind turned its back on foraging and embraced agriculture.


What was the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution?

 · Email. The Neolithic Revolution—also referred to as the Agricultural Revolution—is thought to have begun about 12,000 years ago. It coincided with …

What caused the Neolithic Revolution?

 · About 10,000 years ago, humans adopted an agrarian lifestyle in what is known as the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution. Discover early humans’ nomadic lifestyles, the causes and implications of an…

What caused the Agricultural Revolution of the Middle Ages?

The Neolithic Revolution began around 10,000 BC. This time period is known as a revolution because it caused a dramatic change in the community’s way of life. This revolution had great impacts which we still see today. This time period started the development of civilizations and cites, it began the domestication of animals, and the domestication of plants. There were many …

How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human nutrition?

 · In conclusion, the Neolithic Revolution was a very big development in the history of humans. It was caused because people needed an acutal, final place to live in. It effected how people lived because they farmed, made fire, and tamed animals. People learned to make fire, plants, and tame animals. Similarly, why was the Neolithic Revolution bad? The agricultural …


What cause the Neolithic Revolution?

The Neolithic Era began when some groups of humans gave up the nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle completely to begin farming. It may have taken humans hundreds or even thousands of years to transition fully from a lifestyle of subsisting on wild plants to keeping small gardens and later tending large crop fields.

Which of the following caused the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution?

The Earth entered a warming trend around 14,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age. Some scientists theorize that climate changes drove the Agricultural Revolution.

What caused the agricultural revolutions?

The first was caused by humans changing from being hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. The second was caused by improvements to livestock breeding, farming equipment, and crop rotation. The third was caused by plant breeding and new techniques in irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides.

What are 3 Effects of the Neolithic Revolution?

The three effects of the Neolithic Revolution were as follows:Mass establishment of permanent settlements.Domestication of plants and animals.Advancements in tools for farming, war and art.

What was the Agricultural Revolution during the Neolithic Age?

The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible.

Where did the Agricultural Revolution start?

Britainagricultural revolution, gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century.

What caused the Agricultural Revolution quizlet?

The agricultural revolution was caused by the need to feed the quickly growing population. English aristocracy contributed land to be rented, which caused the peasants to revolt, because the land they used for farming and grazing was being rented out to other farmers.

Which advancement led to the Agricultural Revolution?

An important factor of the Agricultural Revolution was the invention of new tools and advancement of old ones, including the plough, seed drill, and threshing machine, to improve the efficiency of agricultural operations.

What caused the Agricultural Revolution in Britain?

For many years the agricultural revolution in England was thought to have occurred because of three major changes: the selective breeding of livestock; the removal of common property rights to land; and new systems of cropping, involving turnips and clover.

How did the Neolithic Revolution spread?

The earliest farmers raised barley and wheat and kept sheep and goats, later supplemented by cattle and pigs. Their innovations spread from the Middle East northward into Europe by two routes: across Turkey and Greece into central Europe and across Egypt and North Africa and thence to Spain.

What are 3 facts about the Neolithic Revolution?

10 Facts About the Neolithic AgeStone Tools First Appeared.Crafts First Appeared. … Humans Settled In Permanent Villages For The First Time. … Humans Domesticated Animals For The First Time. … It Transformed Human Life In Massive Ways. … It Began In The Levant. … It Was When Farming Began. … It Is Also Called “New Stone Age” … More items…•


What were the consequences of the agricultural revolution?

It has been linked to everything from societal inequality —a result of humans’ increased dependence on the land and fears of scarcity—to a decline in nutrition and a rise in infectious diseases contracted from domesticated animals. But the new period also ushered in the potential for modern societies—civilizations characterized by large population centers, improved technology and advancements in knowledge, arts, and trade.

Where did the agricultural revolution take place?

Farming is thought to have happened first in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, where multiple groups of people developed the practice independently. Thus, the “agricultural revolution” was likely a series of revolutions that occurred at different times in different places.

Why did humans stop foraging?

There are a variety of hypotheses as to why humans stopped foraging and started farming. Population pressure may have caused increased competition for food and the need to cultivate new foods; people may have shifted to farming in order to involve elders and children in food production; humans may have learned to depend on plants they modified in early domestication attempts and in turn , those plants may have become dependent on humans. With new technology come new and ever-evolving theories about how and why the agricultural revolution began.

What was the role of hunters in the Neolithic era?

During the Neolithic period, hunter-gatherers roamed the natural world, foraging for their food. But then a dramatic shift occurred. The foragers became farmers, transitioning from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more settled one.

What was the shift to agriculture from hunting and gathering called?

Also called the Agricultural Revolution, the shift to agriculture from hunting and gathering changed humanity forever. By Erin Blakemore.

When did humans start farming?

Humans are thought to have gathered plants and their seeds as early as 23,000 years ago, and to have started farming cereal grains like barley as early as 11,000 years ago . Afterward, they moved on to protein-rich foods like peas and lentils.

When did humans start domesticating animals?

Evidence of sheep and goat herding has been found in Iraq and Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) as far back as about 12,000 years ago.

Why can one farmer feed several people?

And because one farmer can feed several people, this makes possible the division of labor. Now instead of every man being a hunter-gatherer concerned only with getting enough food for himself, now one can be a baker, another a carpenter, another a soldier.

Why was the division of labor made possible?

The division of labor was made possible because one farmer can feed several people. Yet there are other effects of agriculture besides mere survival. The most obvious is that when you have more food you can make more people. And because one farmer can feed several people, this makes possible the division of labor.

How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human nutrition?

The Neolithic Revolution greatly narrowed the diversity of foods available, resulting in a downturn in the quality of human nutrition. The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques.

What was the Neolithic Revolution?

e. The Neolithic Revolution, or the ( First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible .

What animals were domesticated in the Middle East?

The Middle East served as the source for many animals that could be domesticated, such as sheep, goats and pigs. This area was also the first region to domesticate the dromedary. Henri Fleisch discovered and termed the Shepherd Neolithic flint industry from the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon and suggested that it could have been used by the earliest nomadic shepherds. He dated this industry to the Epipaleolithic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or even Pottery Neolithic. The presence of these animals gave the region a large advantage in cultural and economic development. As the climate in the Middle East changed and became drier, many of the farmers were forced to leave, taking their domesticated animals with them. It was this massive emigration from the Middle East that later helped distribute these animals to the rest of Afroeurasia. This emigration was mainly on an east–west axis of similar climates, as crops usually have a narrow optimal climatic range outside of which they cannot grow for reasons of light or rain changes. For instance, wheat does not normally grow in tropical climates, just like tropical crops such as bananas do not grow in colder climates. Some authors, like Jared Diamond, have postulated that this east–west axis is the main reason why plant and animal domestication spread so quickly from the Fertile Crescent to the rest of Eurasia and North Africa, while it did not reach through the north–south axis of Africa to reach the Mediterranean climates of South Africa, where temperate crops were successfully imported by ships in the last 500 years. Similarly, the African Zebu of central Africa and the domesticated bovines of the fertile-crescent – separated by the dry sahara desert – were not introduced into each other’s region.

What were the first crops that Daniel Zohary identified?

Daniel Zohary identified several plant species as “pioneer crops” or Neolithic founder crops. He highlighted the importance of wheat, barley and rye, and suggested that domestication of flax, peas, chickpeas, bitter vetch and lentils came a little later.

How fast did the Neolithic dispersal of the Near East spread?

The dispersal rate amounts to about 0.6 km per year

How long did it take for the Neolithic to spread to Europe?

The diffusion across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years (8500–6000 BP). The Baltic region was penetrated a bit later, around 5500 BP, and there was also a delay in settling the Pannonian plain. In general, colonization shows a “saltatory” pattern, as the Neolithic advanced from one patch of fertile alluvial soil to another, bypassing mountainous areas. Analysis of radiocarbon dates show clearly that Mesolithic and Neolithic populations lived side by side for as much as a millennium in many parts of Europe, especially in the Iberian peninsula and along the Atlantic coast.

What are the two regions of agriculture in China?

Agriculture in Neolithic China can be separated into two broad regions, Northern China and Southern China.

What is the most important thing that happened during the Neolithic Revolution?

To start with, one thing that happened because of the revolution was we successfully transferred from a food gathering to a food producing society. Also, foraging and hunting led to domesticating animals and farming. The revolution caused the world to change drastically over time before, during, and after the Neolithic Revolution.

What was the impact of the increase in the number of sedentary farmers on the Neolithic?

The increase in the number of sedentary farmers is primarily responsible for the leap in human population during the Neolithic transition. The transformation created changes that required the farmers to cultivate more and tend to more animals. Sedentary farming communities within the Neolithic enhanced technology that allowed social change to enter. Invention

What important changes were brought about by the Neolithic Revolution (name six)?

What important changes were brought about by the Neolithic Revolution (name six)? The Neolithic period was the start of the new age, 11,00BCE-4000BCE and it brought changes like the production of food surplus, domestication of animals, trade, agriculture and the process of stone tools.

Why was the Neolithic Revolution important?

The Neolithic Revolution began around 10,000 BC. This time period is known as a revolution because it caused a dramatic change in the community’s way of life . This revolution had great impacts which we still see today. This time period started the development of civilizations and cites, it began the domestication of animals, and the domestication of plants. There were many causes for the Neolithic revolution. Some of these reasons included climate change and increased population. Climate changed was one of the causes because the end of the ice age brought good seasonal conditions that favored

How has the world changed since the Industrial Revolution?

Since the age of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and early 19th century, the world has been forever changed. Human populations began expanding and we now sought for comforts that were not available before the Industrial Revolution. And although this was an age for booming inventions and the growth of the human populations around the world, our natural world was severely affected by our actions then and now. With human race’s need to continue to take up land for farming and for urban expansion, the land available to species that habitat these areas grows smaller and smaller. Not only are we affecting the habitation of species but also due to industrialization and the rapid growth of big corporations, pollution of our natural resources

What was the impact of the agricultural revolution on society?

Coquery asserts that the growth in consumerism was a phenomenon that affect all levels of society, changing social and economic roles of not only the privileged but the middle classes and lower. Inventories of shops during this time display a wide range of goods such as razors, combs, shoes, watches, earth-ware, books, mirrors, painted textiles and wallpapers imported from the Asian continent. The revolutionary rise in cheaper alternatives to cloths and tableware gave birth to a new system of advertising and shop displays in the streets of Paris. Shopkeepers offered various items and advertised them by referring to their patrons as ‘the amateur, ‘the collector’ or ‘man of taste’ when a certain product caught the eye of a consumer.

How did the Industrial Revolution affect Britain?

Industrial Revolution The industrial revolution led to many major changes in Great Britain through the advent of science, technology, improvements to agriculture and economic growth. The industrial revolution began during the 18th Century and during this time improved the lives of many British citizens through the creation of new jobs, increased trade and the invention of new technologies. This essay will look at how the industrial revolution impacted on certain areas. Transport is not the same as it is today, back then people used carriages that were pulled by horses to trade, it took at least a few days to get from Manchester to London. The roads before were bumpy, harming/damaging any type of fragile goods that were being transported, it was also hard to navigate.

Why did the Neolithic Revolution happen?

According to Harland, there are three main reasons why the Neolithic revolution happened: Domestication for religious reasons. There was a revolution of symbols; religious beliefs changed as well. Domestication because of crowding and stress.

How did the Neolithic Revolution affect humans?

It was caused because people needed an acutal, final place to live in. It effected how people lived because they farmed, made fire, and tamed animals. People learned to make fire, plants, and tame animals.

What were the factors that contributed to the agricultural revolution?

Contributing Factors to the Agricultural Revolution The increased availability of farmland. A favorable climate. More livestock. Improved crop yield.

What is the Neolithic agricultural revolution?

An important clue for the explanation of the Neolithic agricultural revolution is the rareness of the independent advent of farming (with perhaps a dozen cases at most), which cannot be explained (as might be the rareness of the development of writing) by the difficulty of “inventing” farming. Hunter-gatherers were of necessity experts in plant and animal biology. 1 Seeing that after the Last Glacial Maximum, virtually all human groups (excluding Arctic populations and a few others) were free to experiment with cultivation and animal tending and (as we see in Sec. VIII) that many did so without taking up farming over the long period, it is quite unlikely that foragers’ ignorance of the possibilities of food production explains why the independent emergence of farming was so rare. We propose, instead, that an institutional bottleneck impeded the advent of farming.

Why did hunter-gatherers first take up farming?

Our model shows that among them, farming could have benefited first adopters because private possession was more readily established and defended for cultivated crops and domesticated animals than for the diffuse wild resources on which hunter-gather ers relied, thus explaining how farming could have been introduced even without a productivity advantage.

Why did foragers take up farming?

In these accounts, under pressure of growing populations (and in some versions under increasingly adverse climatic conditions) foragers took up farming to raise their living standards (or attenuate a decline).

What are the long term investments required for farming?

First, both farming and its associated sedentary living require significant long-term investment in field preparation, animal raising, dwelling construction, and storage. Moreover, these forms of wealth (animals and stored grains, for example) are vulnerable to appropriation by others.

How long have hunting and farming persisted?

Second, societies combining farming and hunting-gathering have persisted over periods of time that are long in a historical sense (many centuries) but remarkably short in biological or archaeological time. Foraging under collective property appears to have persisted for a hundred millennia, for example, and then in some cases disappeared in a millennium or two. Our model abstracts entirely both from spatial-biological heterogeneity in the suitability of particular locations for farming each of the possible species that a group might have taken up and from the slow improvement in the productivity of cultivated species either deliberately or as a by-product of their domestication. As a result, other than identifying the four possible cases just discussed, our model is ill equipped to study the often quite protracted process of transition itself.

Who were the first farmers?

Illustrative of this case are the hunter-gatherers at Abu Hureyra (Moore et al. 2000 ), whom some have credited with being the first farmers. Sedentism made possible by proximity to a rich concentration of resources (including gazelle migrations) allowed the accumulation of valued objects (including dwellings), the possession of which would have been unambiguous, with access granted by permission and not by any collective right. These private-property rights may have provided a template that could be extended to crops and later to domesticated animals, facilitating a transition to food production.

Is farming a way to sustain livelihoods?

Three pieces of evidence to be reviewed below are the basis of our conclusion that it is unlikely that farming emerged as a way to improve or sustain livelihoods under adverse climatic conditions or increasing population. We then introduce three additional empirical observations that have guided us in providing a more adequate model.


The Neolithic Revolution began between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago at several widely dispersed locations across the world, when our ancestors first began planting and raising crops.

Evolution of Farming

The shift from the hunter-gatherer strategy to farming probably occurred in stages. For millions of years, our ancestors subsisted on the bounty provided by our natural environment.

Diversity of Crop Domestication

The first crops were as diverse as the people and places where agriculture began. The climates of the earth where plants were first domesticated varied widely, and as a result, a wide array of plant and animal species were domesticated in each of them.

Early Stages of Plant Domestication

At most of the early agricultural sites, the transition from prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies to farming communities was a gradual one that took thousands of years. A very early record of this slow transition is found in the excavations of Richard MacNeisch in the Tehuacán Valley of Mexico.

Causes of the Neolithic Revolution

A question that has intrigued anthropologists and ethnobotanists alike is why it took so long for farming to emerge. It seems likely that people had the wherewithal to farm long before they actually began doing it. Our ancestors surely gained considerable knowledge about plants and animals through the very acts of hunting and gathering.

Why did the first agricultural revolution occur?

Because this revolution began about 14,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age, experts theorize the warmer climate drove early humans to plant crops and build homes. At the same time, humans developed aspects of culture like religion and art. Archeologists have discovered cave art and figurines from this period. These discoveries demonstrate how humans had developed greater intellectual capabilities than their ancestors. Additionally, these new beliefs may have encouraged humans to settle in a permanent community with like-minded people.

How did the agricultural revolution affect people?

The agricultural revolutions affected how people worked and got their food. The first caused people to grow crops and raise animals for food. The second caused people to move into cities and work in factories . The third led to an increase in human population.

What were the main developments in agriculture during the agricultural revolution?

In China, humans used flood and fire control to create rice paddies beginning around 6,000 B .C. They domesticated water buffalos and yaks to eat their meat and milk and their hair and hide to make clothing. In Mexico, humans selectively bred a wild plant called teosinte to create maize or corn. The earliest known corn cob dates from 3,500 B.C. These same humans grew squash, which would become a staple food throughout the Americas. At the same time in the Andes Mountains of South America, humans grew potatoes.

What was the second agricultural revolution?

The Second Agricultural Revolution, or the British Agricultural Revolution, began during the 18th century. Major changes to farming techniques, which included livestock breeding, crop rotation, and mechanical farm equipment, decreased the number of workers needed on farms.

How did agriculture change the world?

The innovations in agriculture radically changed how humans produced food. Crop rotation and livestock breeding resulted in higher yields, while new mechanical equipment required fewer workers. Because their work was no longer needed, people traveled to cities to find work. Some people were desperate for employment in factories or other city jobs. Their small family farms could not compete with larger, industrial farms, or modern farming equipment had rendered their labor obsolete. In contrast, the children of successful farmers could now leave their families to look for other employment without worrying about who would work on the farm. The surplus produce from industrial farms could be sold to city dwellers, which in turn allowed more people to have occupations other than farming.

Why was the Third Agricultural Revolution called the Green Revolution?

This time period received its name because of the emphasis on creating crops that yielded the most produce. Improvement in fertilizers and irrigation allowed crops to grow in climates previously too dry. Agricultural scientists like American researcher Norman Borlaug bred plants resistant to disease, produced more grain, and responded well to fertilizers. Industrial farms raised a single strain of highly productive plant. While these homogeneous crops increased yield, they were less disease-resistant and elevated the need for pesticides.

Why did the seed drill revolution start?

This revolution started because of developments in technology, a shift towards industrialization, and the growth of cities. In the early 18th century, British inventor Jethro Tull perfected the seed drill, which allowed farmers to efficiently sew seeds in rows rather than scattering seeds by hand.

social studies

1.) What influence did Henry Ford have on other industries of the time? A. His keenness for advertising began a marketing revolution? **** B. His creation of the automobile engine directly led to first flight. C. His production of


1) Sheep originated in the Central Asian agricultural hearth over 9,000 years ago, but today are found in other places such as North America. This phenomenon is best explained by A. diffusion. B. breeding. C. migration. D. climate

Social Studies

Which of the following is an effect of the Agricultural Revolution in Middle America?

Social studies

1) Which of the following causes subsistence farmers to increase labor-intensive practices like weeding, applying manure, and crop rotation? A. the need to compete with commercial farmers B. the human drive to improve any process

Social studies

What do you think was the most important outcome of the Agricultural Revolution and why? Use examples to support your answer.

Science help

Where is most freshwater on Earth found? lakes and rivers oceans and seas underground ice caps and glaciers How does algal growth caused by agricultural waste kill marine organisms? by blocking sunlight and depleting oxygen by

The Second Agricultural Revolution

1. Which statement BEST summarizes how the technology of the second agricultural revolution affected farming? A: Farmers in developed nations began commercial farming. 2. Which of the following BEST describes subsistence farming


The Neolithic Revolution, or the (First) Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants, learning how they grew and de…


Hunter-gatherers had different subsistence requirements and lifestyles from agriculturalists. They were often highly mobile, living in temporary shelters, moving in small groups, and having limited contact with outsiders. Their diet was well-balanced and depended on what the environment provided each season. Because the advent of agriculture made it possible to support larger groups, agriculturalists lived in more permanent dwellings in areas that were more densely popu…

Agricultural transition

The term ‘neolithic revolution’ was coined by V. Gordon Childe in his 1936 book Man Makes Himself. Childe introduced it as the first in a series of agricultural revolutions in Middle Eastern history, calling it a “revolution” to denote its significance, the degree of change to communities adopting and refining agricultural practices.

Early harvesting of cereals (23,000 BP)

Use-wear analysis of five glossed flint blades found at Ohalo II, a 23,000-years-old fisher-hunter-gatherers’ camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Northern Israel, provides the earliest evidence for the use of composite cereal harvesting tools. The Ohalo site is at the junction of the Upper Paleolithic and the Early Epipaleolithic, and has been attributed to both periods.

Domestication of plants

Once agriculture started gaining momentum, around 9000 BP, human activity resulted in the selective breeding of cereal grasses (beginning with emmer, einkorn and barley), and not simply of those that favoured greater caloric returns through larger seeds. Plants with traits such as small seeds or bitter taste were seen as undesirable. Plants that rapidly shed their seeds on maturity tended n…

Development and diffusion

Agriculture appeared first in Southwest Asia about 2,000 years later, around 10,000–9,000 years ago. The region was the centre of domestication for three cereals (einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and barley), four legumes (lentil, pea, bitter vetch and chickpea), and flax. Domestication was a slow process that unfolded across multiple regions, and was preceded by centuries if not millennia of …

Domestication of animals

When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more efficient to keep animals close at hand. Therefore, it became necessary to bring animals permanently to their settlements, although in many cases there was a distinction between relatively sedentary farmers and nomadic herders. The animals’ size, temperament, diet, mating patterns, and life span w…


Despite the significant technological advance, the Neolithic revolution did not lead immediately to a rapid growth of population. Its benefits appear to have been offset by various adverse effects, mostly diseases and warfare.
The introduction of agriculture has not necessarily led to unequivocal progress. The nutritional standards of the growing Neolithic populations were inferior to …

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