- 1 How did people live before farming?
- 2 How did people adapt to the environment before agriculture?
- 3 What was the agriculture like in the 1800s?
- 4 How long ago did agriculture start?
- 5 When did agriculture start in South America?
- 6 How has agriculture changed since 1900?
- 7 What are the social issues that modern agriculture has raised?
- 8 Where did agriculture originate?
- 9 When was agriculture first developed?
- 10 What were the major changes in agriculture during the Middle Ages?
- 11 How did agriculture change society?
- 12 When did rice and millet farming start?
- 13 Where did wheat come from?
- 14 When were fig trees planted?
- 15 When was rice first grown?
- 16 When did corn cobs first appear?
- 17 How long ago did goats come to Europe?
- 18 How did agriculture help people?
- 19 When did people start farming?
- 20 What is the science of agriculture?
- 21 What is agriculture used for?
- 22 Where did agriculture originate?
- 23 What did the Islamic Golden Age do to agriculture?
- 24 What countries used old agriculture?
- 25 When did agriculture begin?
- 26 Why do archaeologists study agricultural origins?
- 27 Which Native American peoples developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals?
- 28 Where do dogs get their meat from?
- 29 What is plant and animal management?
- 30 What did people do before farming?
- 31 What did farmers do in 8000 BC?
- 32 When did farmers start farming?
- 33 When did farming begin?
- 34 What did farming mean in the early 1800s?
- 35 When did farmers start producing seeds?
- 36 What is domestication in agriculture?
- 37 When did agriculture start?
- 38 Was wheat a successful plant?
- 39 Who wrote the short form summary of Sapiens?
- 40 How has agriculture progressed over the past 150 years?
- 41 How many people did each farm feed in 1860?
- 42 How did farmers become more efficient?
- 43 How much will agriculture grow in 2050?
- 44 What was the South’s agriculture?
- 45 What was the first food source for the pioneers?
- 46 What happened after 1840?
- 47 What did the Plymouth colonists plant?
- 48 How did ethnicity affect farming?
- 49 What was the economy of the early 19th century?
- 50 What was the main export crop of the Mississippi Valley?
- 51 Overview
- 52 Origins
- 53 Civilizations
- 54 Middle Ages and Early Modern period
- 55 Modern agriculture
- 56 See also
- 57 Further reading
- 58 External links
Before agriculture, people hunted wild animals and gathered wild plants for food. This meant that they were at the whim of nature. People had to move from place to place depending on the availability of food.
How did people live before farming?
Answered 3 years ago · Author has 16.4K answers and 46.7M answer views. By hunting and gathering. It’s entirely possible for humans to survive and even thrive by subsisting off of wild foods: roots, young leaves, fruits, fungi, eggs, honey, and a wide variety of animals from termites to the biggest elk and buffalo, taken by hunting or trapping.
How did people adapt to the environment before agriculture?
· Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable food supply. Out of agriculture, …
What was the agriculture like in the 1800s?
Before agriculture, people hunted wild animals and gathered wild plants for food. This meant that they were at the whim of nature.
How long ago did agriculture start?
Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago.
When did agriculture start in South America?
In South America, agriculture began as early as 9000 BCE, starting with the cultivation of several species of plants that later became only minor crops. In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 8000 BC and 5000 BC, along with beans, tomatoes, peanuts, coca, llamas, alpacas, and guinea pigs.
How has agriculture changed since 1900?
Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthe tic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.
Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including overpopulation, water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies. In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides.
Where did agriculture originate?
By 8000 BC, farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was domesticated from the wild grass teosinte in southern Mexico by 6700 BC.
When was agriculture first developed?
Agriculture was independently developed on the island of New Guinea. Banana cultivation of Musa acuminata, including hybridization, dates back to 5000 BC, and possibly to 8000 BC, in Papua New Guinea. Bees were kept for honey in the Middle East around 7000 BC.
What were the major changes in agriculture during the Middle Ages?
The Middle Ages saw further improvements in agriculture. Monasteries spread throughout Europe and became important centers for the collection of knowledge related to agriculture and forestry. The manorial system allowed large landowners to control their land and its laborers, in the form of peasants or serfs. During the medieval period, the Arab world was critical in the exchange of crops and technology between the European, Asia and African continents. Besides transporting numerous crops, they introduced the concept of summer irrigation to Europe and developed the beginnings of the plantation system of sugarcane growing through the use of slaves for intensive cultivation.
How did agriculture change society?
Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and a reliable food supply. Out of agriculture, cities and civilizations grew, and because crops and animals could now be farmed to meet demand, the global population rocketed — from some five million people 10,000 years ago, to more than seven billion today.
When did rice and millet farming start?
The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.
Where did wheat come from?
The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.
When were fig trees planted?
Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago.
When was rice first grown?
The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E. The world’s oldest known rice paddy fields, discovered in eastern China in 2007, reveal evidence of ancient cultivation techniques such as flood and fire control.
When did corn cobs first appear?
While maize-like plants derived from teosinte appear to have been cultivated at least 9,000 years ago, the first directly dated corn cob dates only to around 5,500 years ago . Corn later reached North America, where cultivated sunflowers also started to bloom some 5,000 years ago.
How long ago did goats come to Europe?
Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago. Genetic studies show that goats and other livestock accompanied the westward spread of agriculture into Europe, helping to revolutionize Stone Age society. While the extent to which farmers themselves migrated west remains a subject of debate, …
How did agriculture help people?
Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food. They could use this extra food when crops failed or trade it for other goods. Food surpluses allowed people to work at other tasks unrelated to farming. Agriculture kept formerly nomadic people near their fields and led to the development of permanent villages.
When did people start farming?
About 11,500 years ago , people gradually learned how to grow cereal and root crops, and settled down to a life based on farming. By 2,000 years ago, much of the Earth’s population had become dependent on agriculture.
What is the science of agriculture?
Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products.
What is agriculture used for?
Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products. These products, as well as the agricultural methods used, may vary from one part of the world to another. Start of Agriculture. Over centuries, the growth of agriculture contributed to the rise of civilizations.
Where did agriculture originate?
The earliest civilizations based on intensive agriculture arose near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq and Iran) and along the Nile River in Egypt. Improved Technology. For thousands of years, agricultural development was very slow. One of the earliest agricultural tools was fire.
What did the Islamic Golden Age do to agriculture?
This system preserved nutrients in the soil, increasing crop production. The leaders of the Islamic Golden Age (which reached its height around 1000) in North Africa and the Middle East made agriculture into a science. Islamic Golden Age farmers learned crop rotation.
What countries used old agriculture?
Farmers in Asia, Australia, Africa, and South America continued to use old ways of agriculture. Agricultural Science. In the early 1900s, an average farmer in the U.S. produced enough food to feed a family of five. Many of today’s farmers can feed that family and a hundred other people.
When did agriculture begin?
The first agriculture appears to have developed at the closing of the last Pleistocene glacial period, or Ice Age (about 11,700 years ago).
Why do archaeologists study agricultural origins?
Because some resource management practices, such as intensively tending nondomesticated nut-bearing trees, bridge the boundary between foraging and farming, archaeologists investigating agricultural origins generally frame their work in terms of a continuum of subsistence practices.
Which Native American peoples developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals?
For instance, Australian Aborigines and many of the Native American peoples of western North America developed complex methods to manage diverse sets of plants and animals, often including (but not limited to) cultivation.
Where do dogs get their meat from?
When considered in terms of food management, dogs may have been initially domesticated as hunting companions, while meat and milk could be obtained more reliably from herds of sheep, goats, reindeer, or cattle than from their wild counterparts or other game animals.
What is plant and animal management?
Plant and animal management was and is a familiar concept within hunting and gathering cultures, but it took on new dimensions as natural selection and mutation produced phenotypes that were increasingly reliant upon people.
What did people do before farming?
Before farming, people lived by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants. When supplies ran out, these hunter-gatherers moved on. Farming meant that people did not need to travel to find food. Instead, they began to live in settled communities, and grew crops or raised animals on nearby land. They built stronger, more permanent homes …
What did farmers do in 8000 BC?
The farmers exchanged their food for various kinds of useful or decorative goods.
When did farmers start farming?
FERTILE CRESCENT. FIND OUT MORE. Farming began c. 10,000 BC on land that became known as the FERTILE CRESCENT. Hunter-gatherers, who had traveled to the area in search of food, began to harvest (gather) wild grains they found growing there. They scattered spare grains on the ground to grow more food.
When did farming begin?
Farming began c. 10,000 BC on land that became known as the FERTILE CRESCENT. Hunter-gatherers, who had traveled to the area in search of food, began to harvest (gather) wild grains they found growing there. They scattered spare grains on the ground to grow more food.
What did farming mean in the early 1800s?
When supplies ran out, these hunter-gatherers moved on. Farming meant that people did not need to travel to find food. Instead, they began to live in settled communities, and grew crops or raised animals on nearby land.
When did farmers start producing seeds?
These naturally produced large grains (seeds) that were tasty and nourishing. In other parts of the world, between 8000 BC and 3000 BC, farmers discovered how to DOMESTICATE their own local plants and animals.
What is domestication in agriculture?
Domestication is the process of making wild plants and animals more useful to humans, through selective breeding. Farmers select and plant only the best seeds from their last crop. Wild cattle are selectively bred to make a herd docile (easy to control).
When did agriculture start?
About 10,000 years ago, between 9500 and 8500 BC, Sapiens started shifting from forager lifestyles to a life revolving around agriculture. This was the origin of agriculture. It was so successful for our species that we went from 5-8 million foragers in 10,000 BC to 250 million farmers by the first century AD.
Was wheat a successful plant?
Wheat is one of the most successful plants ever, but its success happened gradually and was probably not planned consciously by Sapiens. Still, it plays an integral role in the history of agriculture.
Who wrote the short form summary of Sapiens?
This article is an excerpt from the Shortform summary of “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” by Yuval Noah Harari. Shortform has the world’s best summaries of books you should be reading.
How has agriculture progressed over the past 150 years?
Thanks to plant science and other innovations, agriculture has progressed tremendously over the past 150 years, becoming more and more efficient over time. If the world’s farmers would have continued to grow crops at 1961 productivity levels, they would need almost a billion hectares of new farmland to maintain today’s food supply – which is more …
How many people did each farm feed in 1860?
Doing the math, in 1860, each U.S. farm fed an average of 15 people. In 2010, each farm could feed over 140 people! During that same time, the population increased 882 percent, but the total acreage dedicated to farmland did not increase as drastically.
How did farmers become more efficient?
Farmers became more efficient, using improved seeds, crop protection products, machinery and more that resulted in more yields on cultivated land. All of this occurred while reducing the workforce involved in agriculture from nearly half of the population in 1860 to less than 1 percent now. Tweet This!
How much will agriculture grow in 2050?
To keep up with the growing population, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) predicts that agricultural production will need to increase by 70 percent (nearly 100 percent in developing countries) by 2050.
What was the South’s agriculture?
Agriculture in the South was oriented toward large-scale plantations that produced cotton for export, as well as other export products such as tobacco and sugar. During the Civil War, the Union blockade shut down 95 percent of the export business. Some cotton got out through blockade runners, and in conquered areas much was bought by northern speculators for shipment to Europe. The great majority of white farmers worked on small subsistence farms, that supplied the needs of the family and the local market. After the war, the world price of cotton plunged, the plantations were broken into small farms for the Freedmen, and poor whites started growing cotton because they needed the money to pay taxes.
What was the first food source for the pioneers?
The main food supply at first came from hunting deer, turkeys, and other abundant small game. Clad in typical frontier garb, leather breeches, moccasins, fur cap, and hunting shirt, and girded by a belt from which hung a hunting knife and a shot pouch – all homemade – the pioneer presented a unique appearance.
What happened after 1840?
After 1840, industrialization and urbanization opened up lucrative domestic markets. The number of farms grew from 1.4 million in 1850, to 4.0 million in 1880, and 6.4 million in 1910; then started to fall, dropping to 5.6 million in 1950 and 2.2 million in 2008.
What did the Plymouth colonists plant?
The first settlers in Plymouth Colony planted barley and peas from England but their most important crop was Indian corn ( maize) which they were shown how to cultivate by the native Squanto. To fertilize this crop, they used small fish which they called herrings or shads.
How did ethnicity affect farming?
They adapted Old World techniques to a much more abundant land supply. Furthermore, the Germans showed a long-term tendency to keep the farm in the family and to avoid having their children move to towns. For example, they generally preferred oxen to horses for plowing. The Scots Irish built their livelihoods on some farming but more herding (of hogs and cattle). In the American colonies, the Scots-Irish focused on mixed farming. Using this technique, they grew corn for human consumption and for livestock feed, especially for hogs. Many improvement-minded farmers of different backgrounds began using new agricultural practices to increase their output. During the 1750s, these agricultural innovators replaced the hand sickles and scythes used to harvest hay, wheat, and barley with the cradle scythe, a tool with wooden fingers that arranged the stalks of grain for easy collection. This tool was able to triple the amount of work done by a farmer in one day. A few scientifically informed farmers (mostly wealthy planters like George Washington) began fertilizing their fields with dung and lime and rotating their crops to keep the soil fertile.
What was the economy of the early 19th century?
The U.S. economy was primarily agricultural in the early 19th century. Westward expansion plus the building of canals and the introduction of steamboats opened up new areas for agriculture. Most farming was designed to produce food for the family, and service small local market. In times of rapid economic growth, a farmer could still improve the land for far more than he paid for it, and then move further west to repeat the process.
What was the main export crop of the Mississippi Valley?
The main export crop was cotton. But after a few years, the fertility of the soil was depleted and the plantation was moved to the new land further west. Much land was cleared and put into growing cotton in the Mississippi valley and in Alabama, and new grain growing areas were brought into production in the Mid West.
Scholars have developed a number of hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an antecedent period of intensification and increasing sedentism; examples are the Natufian culture in the Levant, and the Early Chinese Neolithic in China. Current models indicate that wild stands that …
Middle Ages and Early Modern period
• Agricultural expansion
• Effects of climate change on agriculture
• Farming/language dispersal hypothesis
• Green revolution
• Manning, Richard (1 February 2005). Against the Grain: How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-4668-2342-6.
• Civitello, Linda. Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People (Wiley, 2011) excerpt
• Federico, Giovanni. Feeding the World: An Economic History of Agriculture 1800–2000 (Princeton UP, 2005) highly quantitative
• “The Core Historical Literature of Agriculture” from Cornell University Library