What do agriculture and urbanization have in common



What is the relationship between urbanization and agriculture?

Since urbanization is generally the result of a growth in non-food producers and their average incomes, it often provides growing demands for agricultural products and for higher value products that bring benefits to farmers.

What are the different types of urban agriculture?

Urban agriculture comes in many forms, but the most popular are urban farms, community gardens, and hydroponics or aquaponics programs. Urban agriculture programs can help local communities in both an economic way and a social way.

What is urban and community agriculture?

“Urban and community agriculture is reshaping local food systems across the country. Urban farmers and gardeners are creating new opportunities for increasing the economic, social, and environmental effects of growing food in and around cities.

What are the benefits of urban agriculture?

Urban farms can also contribute to the revitalization of abandoned or underutilized urban land, social and economic benefits to urban communities, and beneficial impacts on the urban landscape” ( EPA ). Focuses on brownfield redevelopment for urban agriculture projects.


How is agriculture and urbanization similar?

Urbanization leads to a continuous loss of agricultural land, both directly under the form of land take, and indirectly through the use of agricultural land for non-productive rural activities like recreation, horse keeping or hobby farming.

How is urbanization and the development of cities related to agriculture?

(d) Urbanization and food and agriculture Urbanization brings major changes in demand for agricultural products both from increases in urban populations and from changes in their diets and demands.

How agriculture is affected by urbanization?

Urbanization increases the total cropland area and decreases the rural population (Extended Data Fig. 6), resulting in a higher per-capita cropland area of rural residents and, therefore, increased farm size.

What is the difference between agriculture and urban?

Contrary to traditional farming, urban farming is the agriculture of food in urban areas that is small space friendly, uses fewer water resources, fewer food miles, more sustainable packaging, and emits less GHG. With slow steps, urban farming is solidifying its place in the larger food system.

Which agriculture is known product of urbanization?

Urban agriculture (UA) is defined as the production of agricultural goods (crop) and livestock goods within urban areas like cities and towns. In the modern days, the urbanization process has raised a question on the sustainable development and growing of urban population.

How urbanization is a problem for agricultural growth and food production?

With large migrations from rural to urban areas, there have been significant changes in land utilisation. Land converted to urban uses is increasing, though it has little effect on total crop production. Urbanisation and rising buying power have moved up the food chain. The demand for expensive animal products grows.

How does Urbanisation affect food production?

IMPROVING DIET AND REDUCING WASTE Food waste is another consequence of urbanisation. On average, globally, 30 to 50 percent of food is not eaten, and these statistics are much higher in urban than in rural areas, and higher in more developed countries than less developed countries.

Why would more productive farming lead to urbanization?

Industrialization has historically led to urbanization by creating economic growth and job opportunities that draw people to cities. Urbanization typically begins when a factory or multiple factories are established within a region, thus creating a high demand for factory labor.

How does urbanization affect the land?

Urbanization also affects the broader regional environments. Regions downwind from large industrial complexes also see increases in the amount of precipitation, air pollution, and the number of days with thunderstorms. Urban areas affect not only the weather patterns, but also the runoff patterns for water.

How important is urban agriculture?

Urban agriculture allows for the development of a variety of environmental, economic, and social benefits to the surrounding communities. Urban farming can reduce transportation costs, help reduce runoff associated with heavy rainfall, and lead to better air quality.

What are the characteristics of urban agriculture?

Typically urban agriculture applies intensive production methods, frequently using and reusing natural resources and urban wastes, to yield a diverse array of land-, water-, and air-based fauna and flora contributing to food security, health, livelihood, and environment of the individual, household, and community.

Why urban agriculture is important?

Efficient use of land. With growing population and massive urbanization, fertile lands are diminishing every day. Urban farming is a probable solution for efficiently using the land available for feeding people. For instance, rooftop gardens not only take minimal space but also provide tones of fresh produce.

What are the factors that influence urbanization?

Differences in rural and urban rates of natural increase (influenced by differences in fertility and mortality rates) also influence urbanization, although generally these act to reduce urbanization. The term urbanization is also used for the expansion of urban land uses.

What is urbanization associated with?

Urbanization is also associated with dietary shifts towards more processed and pre-prepared foods, in part in response to long working hours and, for a proportion of the urban population, with reduced physical activity (Popkin 2001; de Haen et al. 2003).

What is the definition of urbanization?

The precise demographic definition of urbanization is the increasing share of a nation’s population living in urban areas (and thus a declining share living in rural areas). Most urbanization is the result of net rural to urban migration.

What percentage of the world’s population is in industry?

Today, around 97 per cent of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP) is generated by industry and services, and around 65 per cent of the world’s economically active population works in industry and services—and a very high proportion of all industry and services are in urban areas.

What was the average population of the 100 largest cities in 2000?

In 2000, the average size of the world’s 100 largest cities was 6.3 million inhabitants, compared with 2 million inhabitants in 1950 and 0.7 million in 1900. (d) De-urbanization and shrinking cities. De-urbanization is a decrease in the proportion of the population living in urban areas.

How many rural dwellers were there in 1900?

In 1900, worldwide, there were 6.7 rural dwellers to each urban dweller; now there is less than one and projections suggest close to three urban dwellers to two rural dwellers by 2025.

Which cities had fewer people in 2000?

Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Seoul, Chennai (formerly Madras) and Cairo are among the many other large cities that, by 2000, had several million fewer inhabitants than had been predicted. There are also significant changes in the distribution of the world’s urban population between regions (table 1).

How does urbanization affect the ecosystem?

Urbanization is a complex process of converting urban fringe and rural land to urban land uses and has caused various impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and dynamics. Estimates of the agricultural land converted annually to low density non-agricultural uses vary from between 800,000 to more than 3 million acres nationwide—a rate of five times the rate of population growth, and in the process, fragmented the agricultural land base. Much of the land lost is prime or unique farmland, disproportionately located near cities. Classical land use theory asserts that a study of market forces and land value, defined in terms of inherent productivity and/or distance from urban centers, can explain this change. This study is important in advancing geographic research on land use change in urban fringe areas, methodologically and theoretically. Data utilized were parcel-scale and remotely-sensed spatial data for a complete Michigan county in an attempt to better test the effects of economic and non-economic factors on land use change in a statistical model. An initial pilot study helped identify potential factor relationships in the research. The research presented makes several advances over previous land use studies by combining several methods for modeling land use change. First, it uses non-economic variables based on land attachment and social capital, as well as traditional economic variables to explain land use change. Second, it develops a continuous parcel data set using existing ownership records. This better represents the decision-making unit at farm scale with respect to farm retention. Third, it combines modeling techniques, including ordinary least squares Geographic Weighted Regression (GWR), to analyze and visualize factors influencing land use in the rural fringe reduce residual spatial autocorrelation. Other spatial analyses were used to identify factor concentrations, patterns of rural networking, and clustering related to social capital. Results show that prime farmland is significantly related to farm conversion and that the important social capital variable related to farm preservation participation also accounts, to a certain degree, for the change in land use for the study area. Strength of relationship and factor patterning factors related to land use change were successfully identified. Additionally, this research has illustrated the need to explore means to include non-economic variables in future research on the causes of urban sprawl and loss of farmland.

What are the factors that affect the supply of water in the agricultural sector?

There are numerous factors affecting the supply of water in the agricultural sector. One of these factors is urban development. After the agricultural and industrial revolution, urban revolution is one of the most important issues in the economic development of countries. Urban development has two implications for agricultural water use; this both increases the demand for agricultural crops and the consumption of water in the household sector, which both lead to a reduction in available water in the agricultural sector. Therefore, determination of the impact of urbanization on water consumption in agriculture is necessary. In this study, we have examined the extended positive mathematical programming method on the agricultural sector of Qazvin Province. The results of the study showed that 1% increase in urbanization would reduce water consumption in agriculture by 0.639 mm3 compared to the base year. Also, household water consumption will reach 92.92–761.9 mm3 in base year. On the other hand, the cultivated area and the production of some irrigated crops (wheat, barley, rapeseed, sunflower, other oilseeds, alfalfa) will decrease to 86.36 hectare and 346.6 tons. In the indirect effect of increasing urbanization, per each percentage urbanization, the household water consumption will decrease by 2.19 mm3, and after a 20-year horizon, the total capacity of the Taleghan Dam will be allocated to Tehran’s household water,. So that, 288 mm3 of agricultural water will be reduced, and it will reduce the cultivated area for 28,250 (ha). Also, farmers’ gross profits will be 10.5 percent lower than the base year which is a threat for Qazvin plain farming. Solutions were proposed to reduce the negative effects of the urban development phenomenon, including the use of modern irrigation systems in the agricultural sector will significantly increase irrigation efficiency. So that only 1% increase in irrigation efficiency can completely neutralize the direct and indirect negative impacts of urbanization on a 12-year mid-term horizon.

How has land use changed since the Industrial Revolution?

Since the industrial revolution, human activities have both expanded and intensified across the globe resulting in accelerated land use change. Land use change driven by China’s development has put pressure on the limited arable land resources, which has affected grain production. Competing land use interests are a potential threat to food security in China. Therefore, studying arable land use changes is critical for ensuring future food security and maintaining the sustainable development of arable land. Based on data from several major sources, we analyzed the spatio-temporal differences of arable land among different agricultural regions in China from 2000 to 2010 and identified the drivers of arable land expansion and loss. The results revealed that arable land decreased by 5.92 million ha or 3.31%. Arable land increased in the north and decreased in the south of China. Urbanization and ecological restoration programs were the main drivers of arable land loss, while the reclamation of other land cover types (e.g., forest, grassland, and wetland) was the primary source of the increased arable land. The majority of arable land expansion occurred in the Northwest, but the centroid for grain production moved to northeast, which indicated that new arable land was of poor quality and did not significantly contribute to the grain production capacity. When combined with the current ‘Red Line of Arable Land Policy’ (RAL) and ‘Ecological Redline Policy’ (EPR), this study can provide effective information for arable land policymaking and help guide the sustainable development of arable land. © 2018 Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature

What is peri-urban agriculture?

Peri-urban agriculture is in great challenge because of the pressure from urban extension or the expansion of natural and recreational spaces. Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA) and Ecosystem Services (ES) are two strategies that recognize and manage multiple services and disservices from agriculture beyond food and material production. MFA and ES are closely related and highly complementary. Each has advantages and also shortcomings. However, the two communities have limited interaction and exchange. The objective of the dissertation is to contribute to integrated approaches of MFA and ES for peri-urban agricultural research. It (i) develops an integrated framework of ES and MFA for peri-urban agriculture based upon a comparative review on agricultural research working on the two strategies and application in the Region of Ile-de-France, (ii) and also demonstrates how the integrated approach of MFA and ES works on concrete problems linked to peri-urban agriculture with two in-depth studies on management of abandoned farmlands and agricultural recycling of urban wastes in Ile-de-France Region, respectively. Multi-scale analyzes were carried out for the two in-depth studies. The integrated framework of ES and MFA for peri-urban agriculture distinguishes four categories of ES/function combinations: (i) includes provisioning ES and related functions. (ii) landscape amenity and cultural ES and related functions. (iii) agricultural recycling of urban wastes and the underpinning ES of waste breaking down and fertilization. (iv) environmental functions, which characterize the contributions of farmers to the maintaining of multiple regulating and supporting ES in agroecosystem and surrounding semi-natural habitats. The in-depth study about management of abandoned farmlands identifies that land abandonment in urban area is especially linked to the New Towns and the pole of Airport Charles-de-Gaulle. In rural area, the reason is usually linked to poor agronomical conditions. Perceptions of local actors of ES and disservices of abandoned farmlands differ with the geographical area and scale. The actors prefer a MFA strategy for the reuse of abandoned farmlands. The second in-depth study finds out that the production of sewage sludge spatially mismatches with the distribution of agricultural lands. Land application of sewage sludge is withdrawing from the peri-urban area in the western part of Ile-de-France. Contrarily, green waste compost is becoming popular. A framework concludes the multiscale influences on the supply-demand relationship regarding urban wastes, followed by a classification of seven categories of farmers. The integrated framework of ES and MFA, and the multi-scale approach for in-depth studies will be interesting for application in other conditions. Comparison between different countries will help to understand the differences and common points in ranking the importance of different functions and formulate efficient instruments for the preservation of peri-urban agriculture.

How to explain land idling?

One possible explanation for land idling in a rapidly transforming economy can be found by looking at the value of the option to wait and hysteresis behaviour in the land market. If investors assume that the drop is temporary and that its long term prospects outweigh current holding losses, the market will observe some form of a zone of inactivity i.e., no selling and no additional buying. The fact that landowners elect to keep their valuable land underdeveloped for prolonged periods of time suggests that idled land is more flexible and valuable than what the current market price suggests. If the revenue from farming is insufficient to sustain the activity, land is left idle; although this operational decision is open to continuous revision. The numerical example shown in the paper shows that price of land can be substantially bolstered by the option to wait embedded in land. We argue that land market prices are based on more than the land’s total present value of its future income stream. In a transforming economy, the option to wait and change land-use are especially important to consider. Policy-wise, the government can discourage land idling by ensuring appropriate and suitable zoning of agricultural areas, strong adherence to the zoning conditions/plans as well as more far-sighted land conversion decisions. These efforts can go a long way to reduce the source and degree of uncertainty which is the most important cause of real option premium in land prices. Based on the nature and type of data available, future directions of research should emphasize on empirical testing of real options premium in sale prices of agricultural land.

How does urban agriculture help the community?

Urban agriculture programs can help local communities in both an economic way and a social way. They allow for people to have more immediate connection to their food, as well as help stimulate a local economy. Urban agriculture programs such as community gardens can target young people in nontraditional agriculture backgrounds, experts note.

What is urban agriculture?

Urban agriculture is defined by Purdue University Extension educators simply as growing or producing food in urban spaces. Urban agriculture comes in many forms, but the most popular are urban farms, community gardens, and hydroponics or aquaponics programs. Urban agriculture programs can help local communities in both an economic way …

Why is agriculture important for youth?

Agriculture programs that target young people could increase the health and longevity of a community. Urban agriculture will allow many young people to invest in their community and make it habitual, while also educating themselves and the people around them about agriculture and its systems, Hallett observes.

How many urban farms are there in Indiana?

Urban agriculture programs such as community gardens can target young people in nontraditional agriculture backgrounds, experts note. In Indiana there are about 20 urban farms and over 100 community or urban gardens, according to the latest statistics available.

Why do urban farmers need to rehabilitate soil?

Many urban farmers also are tasked with the cost of having to rehabilitate the soil to get rid of contaminants, or place a tarp over the contaminated soil and place piles of new soil on top of it in order to start growing safe produce.

Is urban agriculture a production agriculture?

Urban agriculture is often used as a contrast for production agriculture. Specialists believe that in reality, these systems are complementary and essential in creating an ag industry that will allow for people of nontraditional backgrounds to experience the challenges and joys of being in agriculture.

What is the impact of urbanization on agriculture?

Urbanization leads to the inaccessibility of land, land fragmentation, change in land supply, and rapid increment in land values. This does not create a favourable environment for the development of agriculture.

Why is urbanization important?

Iheke and Nto (2010) noted that urbanization is an important driving force in migration and commuting because urban areas offer many economic opportunities to rural people through better jobs, new skills and cultural changes.

What is the trend of urbanization in Rivers State?

A prominent feature of this global trend of urbanization is forced displacement triggered by armed conflict, violence, political instability or slow and sudden onset disasters or a combination of these factors.

What is the argument for higher agricultural productivity?

The argument is that higher agricultural productivity provides food and other agricultural products with less manpower and thus allows for a shift of labor out of agriculture and into industry. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. Conversion of agricultural land to non agricultural uses is becoming a thing of concern in Rivers state.

How does urbanization affect the human life?

Urbanization affects all spheres of human life both in the rural and urban setting. Urbanization increased residential population and expansion of non-farm business and industry increases the pressure on farmers and makes it more costly and difficult to farm in the traditional way.

What is agricultural development?

Agricultural development: Agricultural development is defined as the process that creates the conditions for the fulfillment of agricultural potential. Cash crops the sustainability of production processes and agricultural growth; and the efficiency of the allocation of agricultural products.

What is rapid urban population growth?

Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, but also for various other urban uses. Urbanization has led to land use conversion from agricultural land to urban land use, such as for infrastructure, industrial, residential or commercial uses. Such land use conversion often reduces …

How does urbanization affect Pakistan?

Pakistan has always been an agricultural economy and agriculture comprises around 80% of the export base of the country and 24% of our Gross Domestic Product (GDP). With urbanization, agricultural land gets taken over and this needs to be regulated to prevent severe repercussions for Pakistan’s economy in the future. A viable solution to this is a move towards apartment living.

How can projects be undertaken to link urban and rural areas without creating a shift?

Projects can also be undertaken to link urban and rural areas without creating a shift through schemes subsidizing domestic farmers selling their goods to meet the demands of the urban population. However, this process is already ongoing and immediate action needs to be taken.

Why do cities need subdivisions in Pakistan?

For higher efficiency, Pakistan’s cities need to have subdivisions such as councils and boroughs. This can make it easier for facilities such as transport, waste management, health, and education to be provided to all. Apartment complexes are a popular option is such divisions and come with a number of facilities.

Why do we need long term fiscal plans?

Long-term fiscal plans need to be put in place to revive agriculture and encourage the rural population to stay where they are and improve their standard of living through agriculture, rather than by moving to the cities and causing con gestion.

Does urbanization affect agriculture?

In conclusion, urbanization has led to a worrying decline in agriculture, but if proper measures are taken, this can be controlled to the mutual benefit of rural and urban areas. The key things to keep in mind are the need for vertical rather than the horizontal spread of property and efficient regulation.


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