What fencing material revolutionized agriculture on the prairies and plains



How did ranchers in the Great Plains protect their cattle?

Mexican ranchers had developed ranching techniques over many years that were adopted by Texans and then by Great Plains cattlemen and cowboys. Ranchers bred heftier, blooded stock and fenced them into controlled ranges where they could be fed, watered, and protected. Herds were restricted in size to avoid overgrazing the dry prairie.

What technology was used in the Great Plains?

The architecture, implements, and other technologies associated with this early agricultural lifestyle in the Great Plains were remarkably uniform: semisubterranean earth lodge villages, bison scapula hoes, and ceramic pots used to cook corn and beans.

How did the Prairie increase the demand for grain?

A new flour-milling process developed by John S. Pillsbury of Minneapolis increased demand for grain. Originally called the high plains desert, the prairie supported tough, water-conserving native grasses whose root systems often reached ten feet into the earth.

How did farmers raise grain in the 19th century?

Deep wells were drilled and powerful electric pumps brought groundwater up to the surface. The wells fed surface sprinkler systems that moved across fields automatically. With sprinkler irrigation, it became possible to raise almost any feed grain.


What was used to construct fences in the virtually treeless prairies of the West?

Apparently, this fence was also called worm, snake, or common rail fence. space was used than for the zigzag rail fence. grassy interfluves and onto the broader prairies to the west, substitutes had to be found for the familiar rail fence.

What types of technology did farmers on the Great Plains use and how did it benefit them?

What type of technology did farmers on the Great Plains to use, and how did it benefit them? Crop harvesters, and railroads. They could work much quicker on large fields with fewer workers and they could ship their harvest east by train.

What Northern Plains Indian nation was the strongest?

The strongest on the Northern Plains were the Lakota and Dakota Sioux, while the Comanches were lords of the Southern Plains (with some challenges from the Kiowas). The Apaches and Navajos controlled the Southwest. The top tribes in the East included the Iroquois, the Algonquins, the Creeks and the Cherokees.

What was the significance of the 98th meridian quizlet?

What was the significance of the 98th meridian? The Great Plains were for many millennia home to horses and bison, and to Indians who hunted bison on horseback. the shift from village-centered agriculture to nomadic hunter by the Plains Indians.

What technologies agricultural advancements helped settle the Great Plains?

possible to settle and farm the Great Plains:Sod houses. The two pictures below show settlers on the Great Plains. … Steel plows. … Water-pumping windmills. … Barbed Wire. … Railroads to the West. … Wheat farming. … Dry farming techniques.

What kinds of technological advances played a role in opening the Great Plains to farming?

Which of the following technological advances played an important role in opening up the Great Plains to farming? Steel plows and other farm machinery.

What were the 2 methods of transforming iron into steel that emerged in the 1850’s and 1860’s?

The two methods of transforming iron into steel that emerged in the 1850s and 1860s were: the Bessemer-Kelly method and the open-hearth process.

Which of the following tribes was located in the southwest region?

The western Pueblo tribes included the Hopi (Uto-Aztecan; see also Hopi language), Hano (Tanoan), Zuni (Penutian), and Acoma and Laguna (Keresan). The Navajo and the closely related Apache spoke Athabaskan languages. The Navajo lived on the Colorado Plateau near the Hopi villages.

Which group lived on the Great Plains and hunted buffalo?

The Plains Indians who did travel constantly to find food hunted large animals such as bison (buffalo), deer and elk. They also gathered wild fruits, vegetables and grains on the prairie. They lived in tipis, and used horses for hunting, fighting and carrying their goods when they moved.

Why were the technological innovations listed in the box developed in the late nineteenth century?

Why were the technological innovations listed above developed in the late nineteenth century? Farmers began experimenting with new inventions to sell in newly-formed businesses. Business leaders had money to invest in research and development of new technologies.

Which of the following best describes what the text means by the phrase the Southern burden quizlet?

Which of the following best describes what the text means by the phrase “the Southern burden”? an awkward system of low-paid labor. Which of the following is NOT true about the post-Civil War southern economy? Despite dreams of a “New South,” industry never took hold in the South before 1900.

What statement about the workers world of the 1880s and 1890s is true?

Multiple ChoiceQuestionAnswerThe American Federation of Labor was comparatively successful because itstressed gradual, concrete gains for its membersWhat statement about the workers’ world of the 1880s and 1890s is true?Each year, industrial mishaps injured over 500,000 workers76 more rows

How did innovation and technology help to promote farming on the Great Plains?

How did the need for new farming techniques on the Great Plains result and technological innovations in agriculture? Mechanical reapers, binders, and threshing machines were all created to help farmers harvest large tracks of farmland quickly.

How did technological advancements in farming equipment help farmers?

Advances in machinery have expanded the scale, speed, and productivity of farm equipment, leading to more efficient cultivation of more land. Seed, irrigation, and fertilizers also have vastly improved, helping farmers increase yields.

How did farming technology contribute to the formation of the wheat belt?

How did farming technology and innovations contribute to the formation of the Wheat Belt? New technology revolutionized agriculture. Dry Farming was one of the new farming methods. This process was when the farmers planted seeds deep in the ground where the moisture was.

What new technologies enabled the plowing and cultivating of the land?

John Deere’s invention of a steel plow that scoured the sticky prairie sod from the blade made turning prairie sod much faster and easier. That was rapidly followed by the adoption of horse-drawn reapers, sulky plows, mowers and threshing machines that enabled one farmer to cultivate and harvest much larger holdings.

How did windmills help the Great Plains?

Windmills made it possible to pump water at remote locations, and thereby to control the grazing patterns of large herds of cattle. The introduction of steam threshing engines in the 1890s required that a supply of fuel be available, but in the Great Plains the firewood commonly found in other regions was lacking.

What were the risks of agriculture in the Great Plains?

However, agriculture in the Great Plains has always been a risky business threatened by drought, grasshoppers, and early frosts. For that reason early farmers did not depend entirely on the produce of their gardens; rather, they hunted bison and other game and supplemented their diets with meat and diverse wild plants.

What is the most important crop in the Great Plains?

The most important Great Plains crop is wheat . Although the United States and Canada together produce slightly less wheat than China (the world’s leading wheat grower), the two North American countries account for more than half of the world’s wheat exports.

Why was sorghum introduced to the Great Plains?

Sorghum (or milo) was introduced on the Plains because it produces grain under the same drought conditions that cause corn to wither. Sorghum became a major source of cattle feed in the Southern Great Plains after seed companies introduced it in an improved, hybrid form in Texas and Oklahoma in the 1950s.

What are the Great Plains?

The Great Plains is an agricultural factory of immense proportions. Between the yellow canola fields of Canada’s Parkland Belt and the sheep and goat country of Texas’s Edwards Plateau, more than 2,000 miles to the south, lie a succession of agricultural regions that collectively produce dozens of food and fiber products.

Why were hogs important in the Middle West?

The importance of hogs in the Middle West was paralleled by beef cattle in the Great Plains, and cattle typically were fattened for market on corn just like hogs. Wheat was not grown for consumption by farm animals, but rather as a cash crop that would bring the farmer a sure return at the market.

What are the crops grown in the Great Plains?

Barley, canola, corn, cotton, sorghum, and soybeans grown in the Great Plains also reach markets around the world. Agriculture has long been the life force of the Great Plains economy.

Why was wire used in the prairie?

Why Wire Was Used. Wooden fences were costly and difficult to acquire on the prairie and plains, where few trees grew. Lumber was in such short supply in the region that farmers were forced to build houses of sod. Likewise, rocks for stone walls were scarce on the plains.

When was wire fencing invented?

Patents for improvements to wire fencing were granted by the U.S. Patent Office, beginning with Michael Kelly in November 1868 and ending with Joseph Glidden in November 1874, that shape the history of this tool.

What was the name of the barbed wire used by the Native Americans?

Further squeezed from lands they had always used, they began calling barbed wire “the Devil’s rope.”. More fenced-off land meant that cattle herders were dependent on the dwindling public lands, which rapidly became overgrazed.

What did Teddy Roosevelt’s rough riders use to defend their camps?

During the Spanish-American War, Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders chose to defend their camps with the help of barbed fencing. In turn-of-the-century South Africa, five-strand fences were linked to blockhouses sheltering British troops from the encroachment of Boer commandos.

Who invented the barbed wire fence?

Michael Kelly Invented the First Barbed Wire Fencing. The first wire fences (before the invention of the barb) consisted of only one strand of wire, which was constantly broken by the weight of cattle pressing against it.

When was the barbed wire patent issued?

Joseph Glidden’s U.S. patent was issued on November 24, 1874. His patent survived court challenges from other inventors. Joseph Glidden prevailed in litigation and sales. Today, it remains the most familiar style of barbed wire.

What was the agricultural industry in the 1850s?

The 1850s —Commercial corn and wheat belts began to develop; wheat occupied the newer and cheaper land west of the corn areas and was constantly being forced westward by rising land values and the encroachment of the corn areas. The 1850s —Alfalfa is grown on the west coast.

What was the main tool used to sow hay?

During the latter part of the 18th century, farmers relied on oxen and horses to power crude wooden plows. All sowing was accomplished using a hand-held hoe, reaping of hay and grain with a sickle, and threshing with a flail. But in the 1790s, the horse-drawn cradle and scythe were introduced, the first of several inventions.

How much labor was required to produce 100 bushels of corn in 1890?

By 1890, labor costs continued to decrease, with only 35–40 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (2-1/2 acres) of corn, because of technological advances of the 2-bottom gang plow, disk and peg-tooth harrow, and 2-row planters; and 40–50 labor-hours required to produce 100 bushels (5 acres) of wheat with gang plow, seeder, harrow, binder, thresher, wagons, and horses.

What was the Homestead Act of 1862?

1862 —Homestead Act granted 160 acres to settlers who had worked the land 5 years. 1865–1870 —The sharecropping system in the South replaced the old plantation system that utilized stolen labor, knowledge, and skills from enslaved people. 1865–1890 —Influx of Scandinavian immigrants.

What was the second agricultural revolution?

1945–1955 —Increased use of herbicides and pesticides. 1945–1970 —Change from horses to tractors and the adoption of a group of technological practices characterized the second American agriculture agricultural revolution.

What was the most important advance of the 1870s?

The most important advance of the 1870s was the use of both silos, and the wide use of deep-well drilling, two advances that enabled larger farms and higher production of marketable surpluses.

What states were the chief wheat states in 1840?

1840–1850 —New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio were the chief wheat States. 1840–1860 —Hereford, Ayrshire, Galloway, Jersey, and Holstein cattle were imported and bred. 1840–1860 —Growth in manufacturing brought many laborsaving devices to the farm home.



Native American Agriculture

  • Cultivation of domesticated plants was a relativelylate innovation in the Great Plains comparedto the southeastern and southwesternregions of North America. By A.D. 850, semisedentaryhorticultural villages dotted thebanks of the Missouri River and its tributariesas far north as the Knife River in present-dayNorth Dakota on the Northern Plains. Thes…

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Early Commercial Agriculture

  • Some crops perform better in one environmentthan in another. This obvious fact waslearned early in the European American settlementof the Great Plains, and it has beenrelearned in various ways since. Not only isthe Plains region too dry on average for theproduction of a number of crops, but it alsoreceives a highly variable amount of moisturefrom year to year. Thus, even crop…

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  • Livestock grazing is less affected by droughtthan is crop farming, but it was farming thatinspired the large number of settlers to cometo the Great Plains during the second half ofthe nineteenth century. The region’s agriculturalhistory has frequently involved attemptsto cope with droughts. Unpredictable dryyears can lead to a series of crop failures and,eventually, the failure of settlem…

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Agricultural Technology

  • Although the agriculture undertaken by EuropeanAmerican settlers involved little morethan the simple transfer of familiar practicesand cultures from one environment to another,the special needs of farming in thePlains soon became evident. New strategiesevolved to cope with the environment fromthe 1860s onward. Some innovations included new types offarm implements. T…

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Contemporary Agricultural Problems

  • The public’s concern with environmental issuesin recent years has led many to questionthe nature of some common farm practices inthe Great Plains. Nitrification of groundwatersupplies is one such example. Nitrification resultsfrom the continued application of nitrogenfertilizers that are used to increase yieldsof crops such as corn. With increased amountsof fertilizers, pesticides, and her…

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Agricultural Regions of The Great Plains

  • Great Plains agriculture varies throughout theregion according to the nature of the physicalenvironment, the demand for farm products,and the crop and livestock preferences of localranchers and farmers. There are eleven major agricultural regions within the Great Plains. From north to south they are the (I) Parkland Belt, (II) Canadian Prairies, (III) Northern Spring W…

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