What is a subsistence agriculture

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Subsistence farming

  • Overview. Subsistence farming is a mode of agriculture in which a plot of land produces only enough food to feed those who work it—little or nothing is produced for sale …
  • History. …
  • Techniques. …

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Answer

What problems does subsistence agriculture face?

Four common problems faced in Subsistence Farming are :

  1. Subsistence farming is practiced on a small patch of land with primitive tools like hoe, digging sticks, etc.
  2. In intensive subsistence farming, cultivation is done on an area of high population pressure.
  3. In primitive subsistence farming, farmers clear a patch of land by burning trees and cultivate it for one or two years. …

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What are some facts about subsistence farming?

 Usually integration involves one or more written agreements that describe the areas of cooperation in detail, as well as some coordinating bodies representing the countries involved.  This co-operation usually begins with economic integration and as it continues,

What are two examples of traditional subsistence agriculture?

  • Arable: Crops.
  • Pastoral: Animals.
  • Mixed: Crops and animals.
  • Subsistence: Grown just for the farmer and his family.
  • Commercial: Grown to sell.
  • Intensive: High inputs of labour or capital ususally small.
  • Extensive: Low inputs of labour or capital.
  • Sedentary: Permanently in in one place.

What are the various characteristics of subsistence farming?

  • (1) Land use . Traditional farms are very small usually only 1 to 3 hectares. …
  • (2) Labour . …
  • (3) Power and transport. …
  • (4) Productivity and efficiency . …
  • (5) Rationality and risk. …
  • (6) Income and level of living. …
  • (7) Decision making freedom. …
  • (8) Role of livestock. …
  • (9) Fertilizer, fuel, hides. …
  • (10) Social and cultural reasons. …

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What is subsistence farming with example?

Subsistence farming is providing enough for a small group to survive. An example would be of a family growing just enough food from their garden to…


What are the 3 major types of subsistence agriculture?

The three major types of subsistence agriculture found in the article are Shifting Agriculture, Primitive Farming, and Intensive Subsistence Farming.


Where is subsistence agriculture done?

Subsistence agriculture is done all over the world. Many communities experiencing poverty can find alleviation utilizing the methods of subsistence…


What is subsistence farming?

Agriculture in Vietnam. Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families on smallholdings. Subsistence agriculturalists target farm output for survival and for mostly local requirements, with little or no surplus.


How is subsistence agriculture used?

Subsistence agriculture can be used as a poverty alleviation strategy , specifically as a safety net for food-price shocks and for food security. Poor countries are limited in fiscal and institutional resources that would allow them to contain rises in domestic prices as well as to manage social assistance programs, which is often because they are using policy tools that are intended for middle- and high-income countries. Low-income countries tend to have populations in which 80% of poor are in rural areas and more than 90% of rural households have access to land, yet a majority of these rural poor have insufficient access to food. Subsistence agriculture can be used in low-income countries as a part of policy responses to a food crisis in the short and medium term, and provide a safety net for the poor in these countries.


What was the dominant mode of production in the world until recently, when market-based capitalism became widespread?

Subsistence agriculture was the dominant mode of production in the world until recently, when market-based capitalism became widespread.


What are the basic requirements for subsistence agriculture?

Subsistence agriculture generally features: small capital/finance requirements, mixed cropping, limited use of agrochemicals (e.g. pesticides and fertilizer ), unimproved varieties of crops and animals, little or no surplus yield for sale, use of crude/traditional tools (e.g. hoes, machetes, and cutlasses), mainly the production of food crops, performed on small scattered plots of land, reliance on unskilled labour (often family members), and (generally) low yields.


What are some examples of livestock?

Examples are the nomadic Bhotiyas and Gujjars of the Himalayas. They carry their belongings, such as tents, etc., on the backs of donkeys, horses, and camels. In mountainous regions, like Tibet and the Andes, yak and llama are reared. Reindeer are the livestock in arctic and sub-arctic areas.


How do farmers use slash and burn?

While this ” slash-and-burn ” technique may describe the method for opening new land, commonly the farmers in question have in existence at the same time smaller fields, sometimes merely gardens, near the homestead there they practice intensive ”non-shifting” techniques until shortage of fields where they can employ “slash and burn” to clear land and (by the burning) provide fertilizer (ash). Such gardens near the homestead often regularly receive household refuse, and the manure of any household, chickens or goats are initially thrown into compost piles just to get them out of the way. However, such farmers often recognize the value of such compost and apply it regularly to their smaller fields. They also may irrigate part of such fields if they are near a source of water.


What is the name of the farming method that involves bringing animals from one place to another?

Nomadic herding. In this type of farming people migrate along with their animals from one place to another in search of fodder for their animals. Generally they rear cattle, sheep, goats, camels and/or yaks for milk, skin, meat and wool.


Where does subsistence farming occur?

Subsistence farming can look as diverse as the planet we live on though, since it happens almost everywhere. Central and Western Asia, India, South-west Africa, Eurasia, the Philippines, Latin America – the list goes on and on. The techniques are as variable and fluid as the environments where people call home. A study from 2015 found that 25% of the world’s population survive on these techniques.


What do subsistence farmers use?

Subsistence farmers often use manure and compost, products of their own land and animals. Whatever food or crops are not consumed circle back into the process to feed livestock. This creates an efficient system, a closed circuit where little to nothing goes to waste.


What is the most common agricultural method in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Subsistence farming is the most widely used agricultural method in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the rural poor depend on their land for survival. With the land as their livelihood, people are able to fray the costs of transportation, rent, and food, as well as the cost of urban living. In Tanzania, for example, agriculture cumulates …


How long has subsistence farming been around?

Subsistence Farming Is Ancient. The methods of subsistence farming are an integral part of the development of human society. Stretching back up to 12,000 years ago , it is a primary aspect of most cultures’ earliest means of survival.


Why did Homo sapiens settle in one place?

Following the ice age, as Homo sapiens began to domesticate plants, they began to settle in one place instead of only hunting and gathering. Because of this change, groups of people then began to develop complex civilizations – all because of what we now call “subsistence farming.”.


What are the natural techniques used in subsistence farming?

Industrial farms today use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Subsistence farmers often use manure and compost, products of their own land and animals.


What are some examples of subsistence farming?

A simple example of subsistence farming is a family growing grain and using that grain to make enough bread for themselves, but not to sell.


History of Subsistence Agriculture

Subsistence farming was the first type of agriculture seen in early civilization, developed over 12,000 years ago. Archeological evidence points to grains being some of the first subsistence crops farmed and cultivated by people.


Subsistence Agriculture Features

In subsistence farming, fields are often a mix of crop groups. Polyculture, or mixed cropping, allows for many crops to be planted together in complimentary groups. Planting certain crops together helps to replicate a natural ecosystem and improves the quality of the soil.


Shifting Agriculture

Shifting agriculture is a type of farming that moves the location of fields after nutrients are depleted, allowing natural vegetation to reclaim the used areas. This form of subsistence farming is mostly found in areas with large forest ecosystems. Trees are chopped or burned down, allowing room for crops to be planted.


Primitive Farming

Primitive farming is the most simplistic form of subsistence farming. The level of technology used for maintaining subsistence crops is relatively basic. Small gardens near homesteads are an example of primitive farming. These gardens benefit from the use of common household fertilizers, such as compost, animal manure, or ash from fireplaces.


Where is subsistence farming practiced?

Today, subsistence farming is practiced mostly in developing countries and rural areas . Although it is a practice that has a limited scope, farmers handle highly specialized concepts, allowing them to generate enough food for their subsistence without depending on any type of industry or more elaborate practices.


What type of agriculture is used to support the farmer?

As we know, there are many types of agriculture. Today we are going to talk about the subsistence farming. It is a type in which almost all crops are used to support the farmer and his family, leaving only a few surpluses to be able to sell and trade. In most of the lands where this type of agriculture is worked, several productions are produced per year. It is a type of historical agriculture that has been practiced by many pre-industrial peoples.


How is forest land cleared?

In order to obtain this plot, the forest land is cleared through a combination of slash and burn. Later it is cultivated. Several years later the degree of fertility of the soil is decreasing, so the land is abandoned and the farmer moves to clean another new piece of land. While the land is left fallow, the forest regrows in the cleared area and the fertility and biomass of the soil are restored. It is like a kind of time that the soil is given to regenerate.


Why did pre-industrial people practice agriculture?

We are talking about pre-industrial peoples that practice this agriculture to support both farmers and their families. These towns that came to transfer to other places when I do it by assembling soil resources in each place. It could be said that they were nomadic populations. Nevertheless, As urban towns grew, these farmers specialized more. This is how commercial agriculture developed. The main objective of this agriculture is to generate a production with a considerable surplus of some crops that can be exchanged for manufactured products or sold for money.


Why do farmers use terraces?

In more intensive situations, farmers use terraces along steep slopes in order to cultivate. For example, we have rice fields.


Is agriculture sustainable in the long term?

A decade later, the farmer can return to the first piece of land that you will surely have the same or higher degree of fertility than before. We know that this type of agriculture is sustainable in the long term but only for low population densities. If it is necessary to take into account that the population load is higher, a much more frequent destruction of the forest is required, which prevents the fertility of the soil from being recovered. Furthermore, it also encourages undergrowth at the expense of large trees. As a result of a bad practice of this type of agriculture will be deforestation and soil erosion.


What is subsistence farming?

Subsistence farming, form of farming in which nearly all of the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and the farmer’s family, leaving little, if any, surplus for sale or trade. Preindustrial agricultural peoples throughout the world have traditionally practiced subsistence farming.


Why is subsistence agriculture so good?

One of the benefits of Subsistence Agriculture is that it is cheap and cost effective. No requirement of huge investments as would otherwise have been needed by a commercial farmer is the prime reason for its cost effectiveness. The tools, kits and implements that are used are easy to obtain and mostly not expensive.


How is low productivity perpetuated in agriculture?

The low productivity of subsistence agriculture is perpetuated by a vicious circle of problems: from low productivity of resources to underemployment to low income to low savings to low investment in farm to low yields, back to low productivity.


What is the type of farming that is done to meet family needs?

The type of farming done to meet family needs is called subsistence farming. If farming is done for the purpose of business or profit, it is called commercial farming. Moreover, the land area used for subsistence farming is considerably small, while commercial farming requires large areas of land.


What is dairy farming?

Dairy Farming. As the name suggests, it is the commercial farming of milk and milk products.


What is a plantation?

Answer: Plantation is a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area. The plantation also includes the processing of that crop in the nearby industries. Plantations cover large tracts of land using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers.


Characteristics of Subsistence Farming In India

In this farming, small lands are used to grow crops approx 1-3 hectares. Their traditional and small land is enough for farming. The goods are produced only for the consumption of the family.


What is Primitive Subsistence Farming?

Primitive subsistence farming known as the oldest form of agriculture. However, it is known as simple subsistence farming. This kind of farming happens on a self-sufficient basis, and farmers raise food according to their family’s needs. If some small surpluses may be left, then for cash, they exchange their goods.


Characteristics Of Primitive Subsistence Farming

Mostly the forest cleared by fire, and ashes add to the soil fertility. ‘slash-and-burn agriculture’ known as Shifting cultivation.


What is Intensive Subsistence Farming?

The term intensive subsistence agriculture define by high output per land and relatively low output per worker. Although, the nature of this agriculture has changed. ‘Monsoon type of agriculture’ is another name of intensive agriculture as it did in monsoon lands of Asia.


Characteristics Of Intensive Subsistence Farming

It involves a smaller plot of land and more labour to grow the crop, less costly equipment, and many more.

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Overview

Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families on smallholdings. Subsistence agriculturalists target farm output for survival and for mostly local requirements, with little or no surplus. Planting decisions occur principally with an eye toward what the family will need during the coming year, and only secondarily toward market prices. To…


History

Subsistence agriculture was the dominant mode of production in the world until recently, when market-based capitalism became widespread.
Subsistence agriculture largely disappeared in Europe by the beginning of the twentieth century. It began to decrease in North America with the movement of sharecroppers and tenant farmers out of the American South and Midwest during the 1930s and 1940s. In Central and Eastern Europe, …


Contemporary practices

Subsistence farming continues today in large parts of rural Africa, and parts of Asia and Latin America. In 2015, about 2 billion people (slightly more than 25% of the world’s population) in 500 million households living in rural areas of developing nations survive as “smallholder” farmers, working less than 2 hectares (5 acres) of land. Around 98% of China’s farmers work on small farms, and China accounts for around half of the total world farms. In India, 80% of the total farmers ar…


Types of subsistence farming

In this type of farming, a patch of forest land is cleared by a combination of felling (chopping down) and burning, and crops are grown. After 2–3 years the fertility of the soil begins to decline, the land is abandoned and the farmer moves to clear a fresh piece of land elsewhere in the forest as the process continues. While the land is left fallow the forest regrows in the cleared area and soil fertility and biomass is restored. After a decade or more, the farmer may return to the first pie…


Poverty alleviation

Subsistence agriculture can be used as a poverty alleviation strategy, specifically as a safety net for food-price shocks and for food security. Poor countries are limited in fiscal and institutional resources that would allow them to contain rises in domestic prices as well as to manage social assistance programs, which is often because they are using policy tools that are intended for middle- and high-income countries. Low-income countries tend to have populations in which 80…


See also

• Back-to-the-land movement
• Cash crop
• Commercial agriculture
• Extensive agriculture
• Hoe-farming


Further reading

• Charles Sellers (1991). The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815–1846. New York: Oxford University Press.
• Sir Albert Howard (1943). An Agricultural Testament. Oxford University Press.
• Tony Waters (2010). “Farmer Power: The continuing confrontation between subsistence farmers and development bureaucrats”/

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