what is agricultural extension pdf



What are the objectives of agricultural extension?

Extension is essentially the means by which new knowledge and ideas are introduced into rural areas in order to bring about change and improve the lives of farmers and their families. Extension, therefore, is of critical importance. Without agricultural extension, farmers would lack access to the support and services required to

What is the history of Agriculture Extension?

There are several extension service approaches [71], but pluralistic and participatory approaches including farmer training, agricultural technology demonstrations, field days, and farmer-to …

What is the function of an agricultural extension officer?

of Agricultural Extension . The term . agricultural extension. means different things to people around the world, and even within specific countries. In general, extension includes transferring information, knowledge , and technologies from research systems to farmers; advising farm families in their decision -making;

What does agriculture extension mean?

Agricultural extension aims to improve farmer access to helpful information. Over the years, agricultural organizations have developed and trialed several extension approaches for working with farmers . Below, we summarize 10 of the most common extension approaches . The Extension approaches considered are: 1. Commodity-based 2. Cost-Sharing 3.


What is agricultural extension?

What is agricultural extension? Agricultural extension is another name for agricultural advisory services. In practical terms, extension means giving farmers – for us, smallholders in developing countries – knowledge of agronomic techniques and skills to improve their productivity, food security and livelihoods.

What is agricultural extension and its importance?

Agricultural extension (also known as agricultural advisory services) plays a crucial role in boosting agricultural productivity, increasing food security, improving rural livelihoods, and promoting agriculture as an engine of pro-poor economic growth.

What are the principles of agricultural extension?

Principles of agricultural extension involve the factors that guide the activities of Agricultural Extension and how decisions are taken. The principles propel extension activities and programmes which are planned to motivate the farmers to adopt the introduced technologies.

What are the different types of extension in agriculture?

There are three methods used in the T&V which include the individual, method Group method, and the mass media method. The agricultural extension participatory approach. This approach often focuses on the expressed needs of farmers’ groups and its goal is increased production and an improved quality of rural life.

What is the main objective of agricultural extension?

General Objectives General objective of agricultural extension is to improve the quality of our farmer’s life through sustainable agriculture. To bring about desirable changes in the human behavior, which includes change in knowledge, skill and attitude.

What is agricultural extension Brainly?

Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.

What are the 5 principles of extension?

A principle is a universal truth that has been observed and found to be truth and a settled rule of action.The principles of extension education are given hereunder: … Principle of cultural change: … Principle of grass-root organization: … Principle of interests and needs: … Principle of interests and needs:More items…

What is the importance of agricultural extension in rural development?

Agricultural extension plays a significant role in community development. Its role in testing and disseminating research-based agricultural knowledge and technology to rural people results in improvements in the agricultural sector (Suvedi, 2011. (2011).

What are the role of agricultural extension workers?

Agricultural extension officers are intermediaries between research and farmers. They operate as facilitators and communicators, helping farmers in their decision-making and ensuring that appropriate knowledge is implemented to obtain the best results with regard to sustainable production and general rural development.

What are agricultural extension activities?

Agricultural Extension is a service or system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, bettering their levels of living, and lifting the social and educational standards of rural life.

What are the problems of agricultural extension?

Low morale, depression, economic worries, and less productivity are now common in extension organizations due to HIV/AIDS. Extension workers who by training are required to motivate farmers to try and adopt new agricultural technology are themselves depressed and frustrated, and this affects their output.

What is the history of agricultural extension?

Modern extension began in Dublin, Ireland in 1847 with Lord Clarendon’s itinerant instructors during the great famine. It expanded in Germany in the 1850s, through the itinerant agricultural teachers Wanderlehrer and later in the USA via the cooperative extension system authorized by the Smith-Lever Act in 1914.


Why is biological control increasing in Afghanistan?

Biological control is beginning to increase in Afghanistan, in large part due to the establishment of graduate studies in entomology in 2008. Afghan farmers have restricted knowledge about agrochemicals and mostly use a few conventional chemical pesticides and fertilizers.

Should cropping approach be followed at large level?

cropping approach should be followed at large level.

Is smallholder farming more productive than commercial farming?

Invariably, most of the smallholders are less productive than commercial farmer s and continue to lag in commercialization. Apart from the various multifaceted challenges which smallholder farmers face, limited access to extension services stands as the underlying constraint to their sustainability.

Is chickpea a food crop?

Chickpea is a nutrition-rich, cropping-system friendly, climate-resilient, and low-cost production crop. It has large economic potential in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region, where it currently accounts for only approximately half a million hectares of the approximately 12 million hectares of total chickpea production land worldwide. This review highlights the opportunities for promoting chickpea production and marketing to tap the vast economic potential in SSA. The region can potentially produce chickpea on approximately 10 million hectares, possibly doubling the global production, and the region could become one of the highest consumption geographies of this healthy crop. Chickpea could easily be integrated into existing cropping systems including rice-fallows and cereal monocropping systems. Successful cases studies of the crop in the region are highlighted. The region could tap into the potential at scale through intervention in the agricultural policy environment and development and promotion of improved chickpea production technologies supported by well-organized extension services and sustainable seed systems. These interventions could be complemented with value addition and product quality improvementsÍ for SSA chickpea to benefit from high-value markets.

What is agricultural advisory?

Agricultural advisory services are under an obligation to demonstrate that they have made an economic and social impact on the well-being of the farmers they serve, mainly through the quantitative and qualitative enhancement in crop productivity and in farmers’ net income. This impact should be environmentally and economically sustainable.

Why did many agricultural development projects fail?

Unfortunately, many agricultural development projects, financed by foreign donors, failed once donor funding ended, usually because national governments did not have the budget or the political will to continue. These projects were either too expensive for a developing country or they did not fit the national development programs. Some lessons can be learned:

How to spread extension messages?

The most effective and economic means to spread specific extension messages is through campaigns, using well publicized meetings at demonstration plots and appropriate mass media. However, such campaigns should not replace regular training for developing a deeper understanding, for example, on the roles that fertilizers play in plant husbandry.

What countries use pesticides to control brown rice hoppers?

For example, as a result of training, rice farmers in Indonesia, Vietnam and Bangladesh moved from prophylactic spraying against brown rice hoppers to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and reduced the use of pesticides by 35-92 percent.

How difficult is it to find two groups of farmers who are equal enough to set-up a controlled experiment?

In addition, it is extremely challenging to find two groups of farmers who are “equal” enough to set-up a controlled experiment. Models developed for experiments with genetically identical plants are not necessarily suitable for measuring human behavior. Trying to differentiate between the separate contributions of research and extension to a new agricultural practice is very problematic. Furthermore, a rise in productivity could be the outcome of many factors: Extension interventions, different levels of farmer’s education, better market opportunities, availability and low prices of inputs, optimal weather etc. The nature of agricultural extension interventions makes randomization difficult. Several meta-studies have shown different types of biases in the selection of the samples (Romani, 2003).

Why do extension systems use sociological impact evaluations?

Because of the weaknesses of purely economic impact evaluations, extension systems often use more sociological impact evaluations, in which farmers’ experiences, expectations, opinions and other non-economic factors are considered.

Do farmers pay for agricultural extension?

Over the past few decades, central governments of most countries have curtailed their direct involvement in agricultural extension. In industrialized countries, advisory services (4) have been “privatized”, and farmers, as clients, have to pay for most extension activities. In developing countries, there has also been a move to privatize, outsource or regionalize extension and to demand that farmers pay for services, which in the past were provided free-of-charge by governmental agricultural advisory services.

Why is it important for extension agencies to interpret the findings of the research to the farmers?

Similarly, it is difficult for all the farmers to visit the research stations and obtain first hand information. Thus there is need for an agency to interpret the findings of the research to the farmers and to carry the problems of the farmers to research of solution. This gap is filled by the extension agency.

Why is extension needed?

The need for extension arises out of the fact that the condition of the rural people in general, and the farm people in particular, has got to be improved. There is a gap between what is the actual situation and what ought to be the desirable situation. This gap has to be narrowed down mainly by the application of science and technology in their enterprises and bringing appropriate changes in their behaviour.

How many steps are there in an extension program?

An effective extension educational programme involves five essential and interrelated steps. This concept of the extension educational process is intended only to clarify the steps necessary in carrying out a planned educational effort. It does not imply that these steps are definitely separate from each other. Experience shows that planning, teaching and evaluation take place continuously, in varying degrees, throughout all phases of extension activities. Dimensions of Agriculture Extension

What does “extension” mean in Latin?

The word ‘extension’ is derived from the Latin roots, ‘ex’ – meaning ‘out’ and ‘tensio’ meaning ‘stretching’. Stretching out is the meaning of extension. The word ‘extension’ came to be used originally in USA during 1914 which means “a branch of a university for students who cannot attend the university proper. In other words, the word “extension” signifies an out-of-school system of education.

Why does extension have unlimited scope?

Extension appears to have unlimited scope in situations where there is need for creating awareness amongst the people and changing their behaviour by informing and educating them.

Who started the Etawah project?

This project was started in 1948 by Mr. Albert Mayer of USA who came to India as a warrior at a village called Mahewa in UP. A pilot project for development of Etawah district in UP was formulated by him with the following objectives.

What is agricultural extension?

In summary, agricultural extension has been a donor-driven and project-focused effort. It has been a supply- and technology-driven system . Extension has operated with limited human and financial resources in areas having poor infrastructure, such as roads and communication networks. Extension has helped transfer Green Revolution technologies and practices to end users. However, to achieve food security, extension needs to play a bigger role in enhancing farmers learning in non-formal educational settings. Technology transfer through education, communication, and provision of support services should be its primary function to improve rural livelihoods. No single delivery model can serve best in all situations. Experience suggests that the key elements of sustainable agricultural extension systems are participatory and pluralistic service, decentralized operation, and a market-driven system.

How does extension help farmers?

It should be noted that a country could adopt a variety of approaches to agricultural extension to ensure technology transfer among farmers. Additional methods of human resources development, such as 4-H youth development, leadership training, consumer education, and formation of agricultural cooperatives, are also promoted by extension systems. Agricultural extension has played an important role in development. Its role in testing and disseminating research-based agricultural knowledge and technology to rural people has resulted in improvements in the agricultural sector. Extension has facilitated the dissemination of messages about new varieties of crops, new breeds of livestock, and associated production and management practices, including use of fertilizer, implementation of irrigation systems, and marketing of farm products. Various communication channels and adult teaching methods have been used by extension staff to introduce new technologies to rural people. The dominant paradigm of practice for extension workers has been the innovation decision process developed drawing from research studies in the fields of communication, anthropology, rural sociology, and extension education (Rogers, 2003). However, the innovation-decision process assumes that larger and wealthier farmers, who are innovators or early adopters, take advantage of extension services earlier than poorer farmers. Figure 1: Innovation Decision Process

What is pluralism in extension services?

Pluralism: Contemporary extension services recognize the heterogeneity of the farming community and the need for diversity of extension service delivery systems. Multiple organizations, both public and non-public, deliver extension services. Examples include extension services delivered by local NGOs and private seed companies in Mali, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

What is participatory extension?

Participatory Extension Models: There has been evidence that when rural people organize for their own benefit, much can be achieved. Generally, participatory extension approaches assume that local farmers have wisdom or indigenous knowledge regarding food and fiber production on their land, but their productivity and livelihood could be improved by learning more of what is known outside their locality or from applying scientific investigation techniques through on-farm trials (Axinn, 1988). Participatory Research and Extension makes the same assumption regarding the value of local knowledge and strives to create co-learning opportunities among extensionists, researchers and farmers (Percy, 2005). Most participatory extension models are supported by international NGOs and field activities are managed by local NGOs. Examples of this approach are Community Forestry, the Small Farmer Development Program, and the Farmers Associations of Japan.

What is training and visit extension?

Training and Visit Extension Model:Beginning in the late 1970s, the World Bank introduced the ^training and visit approach in about 70 countries to speed the dissemination of Green Revolution technologies to farmers (Swanson & Rajalahti, 2010). This approach assumed that extension educators were poorly trained and not up-to-date on the subject, poorly supervised, and tended not to regularly visit farmers. To address these problems, this approach introduced a system of regular training of extension staff by subject-matter specialists, regular visits by extension workers to innovative farmers in the community, and periodic interaction between farmers, extension workers and research scientists to facilitate two-way flow of communication.

What is extension education?

Today, extension education exists throughout the world. Extension programs are generally the interface between local people and the government. Most government departments, such as agriculture, health, education and rural development, have organized extension programs to serve their clientele. The function of extension is to enhance learning in non-formal educational settings. Knowledge can come from peers or the community, or from outside agents/experts. One function of agricultural extension is to communicate agricultural research findings and recommendations to farmers. Equally important is to communicate farmers problems and needs to agricultural researchers and government policy-makers. Extension enables people to interact with each other and outsiders to gain information, insights, knowledge and skills to improve their capacity to solve problems, improve productivity, and upgrade their quality of life. The extension programs designed for farmers are known as agricultural extension. Agricultural extension is part of the Cooperative Extension Service in the United States. In European countries, agricultural extension is called advisory services. In most developing countries, agricultural extension programs and services are organized under the respective ministries of agriculture. Over 150 countries have a national system for agricultural extension. Over 300,000 professional staff work for government extension services (Swanson, 1984) and more are engaged through non-governmental organizations and other donor-funded projects. Agricultural extension is organized in many ways. Countries have set up different types of agricultural extension systems based on purpose, context and external support. Most agricultural extension services work in collaboration with agribusinesses, such as seed, fertilizer, pesticides, and production credit, to focus on technology transfer. Frequently, extension services emphasize advisory work by responding to requests from farmers and agribusiness operators. Often, extension services support human resource development and facilitate empowerment (Swanson & Rajalahti, 2010). In many instances, extension services offer all of the above four kinds of services to their clientele and/or stakeholders. Because of multiple roles, functions and delivery mechanisms, people have difficulty understanding and defining agricultural extension. For the purpose of this training module, agricultural extension is defined to include all forms of non-formal education, mainly for rural people—farmers and agribusiness operators—aimed at improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, and enhancing quality of life in a sustainable way. Its focus is primarily agricultural, i.e., about new and improved methods of crop and livestock production, processing, and marketing, and about fisheries, forestry, watershed management, and rural development.

What was the first country to establish a national agricultural extension system?

century, it was not formalized within public institutions. Rivera (1991) reports that Japan, in 1893, was the first country to establish by formal policy mandate a national agricultural extension system. Higher education in agriculture in the United States started in 1855 with the establishment of Michigan Agriculture College. In the same year, Pennsylvania chartered a school at the request of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society. In the following years, many states established colleges of agriculture. The United States Congress passed the Morrill Act in 1862 establishing a college in every U.S. state for the common people to teach agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts and military science. Some 25 years later, in 1887, the U.S. Congress passed the Hatch Act to establish Agricultural Experiment Stations to support research. In 1890, the Morrill Act was amended to establish land grant colleges to serve the educational needs of the African American population. In 1914, the U.S. Congress passed the Smith-Lever Act, designed to develop practical applications of research and providing instruction or demonstration of existing or improved practices (Rasmussen, 1989). The Smith-Lever Act led to the establishment of Cooperative Extension Services within all of the land grant universities. As a result, teaching, research, and extension became mandatory functions of land grant universities. Reflecting on the early history of land grant institutions, Bonnen (1998) stated, The land-grant system of colleges did not spring into existence as a coherent idea or set of institutions in one decade or even one generation of leadership. The land-grant college evolved as an idea and then an institution and a national system over seven decades between 1850 and 1920 (p. 28). In Latin America and the Caribbean, extension services were institutionalized after World War II. Extension services in Asian countries were established after the 1950s, soon after their independence (Swanson & Claar, 1984; Naik, 1968). In most African nations, extension services started in the 1960s and 1970s (Ejeta, 2010). Extension services were seen as a way to promote agricultural growth and development in the rural sector. In most countries, existing agricultural ministries were reorganized to include an agricultural extension unit. Extension began to promote the use of modern inputs, such as new seed varieties, fertilizer, and pesticides, by training farmers, organizing method and result demonstrations, and making extensive use of the mass media.

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