What is agricultural extension


What are the objectives of agricultural extension?

The areas indicating scope of Extension are listed below:

  • Increasing efficiency in agricultural production.
  • Increasing efficiency in marketing, distribution and utilization of agricultural inputs and outputs
  • Conservation, development and use of natural resources.
  • Proper farm and home management
  • Better family living.
  • Youth development.
  • Leadership development.
  • Community and rural development.

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What is the history of Agriculture Extension?

Today, extension works to:

  • Translate science for practical application
  • Identify emerging research questions, find answers and encourage application of science and technology to improve agricultural, economic, and social conditions
  • Prepare people to break the cycle of poverty, encourage healthful lifestyles, and prepare youth for responsible adulthood

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What is the function of an agricultural extension officer?

  • Towards a New Paradigm. …
  • The Role of the Private Sector. …
  • Training Modes and Models. …
  • Assessing the Impact of Agricultural Extension. …
  • Lessons Learned from Project Failures and Successes. …
  • Synthesis on the Opportunities for IPI in Agricultural Extension. …
  • References. …
  • GADD: The Ghana Agro-Dealer Development Project. …

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What does agriculture extension mean?

Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.The field of ‘extension‘ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines, including agriculture, agricultural marketing, health, and business studies.


What do you mean by agricultural extension?

Agricultural extension (also known as agricultural advisory services) plays a crucial role in boosting agricultural productivity, increasing food security, improving rural livelihoods, and promoting agriculture as an engine of pro-poor economic growth.

What is agricultural extension and it example?

An agricultural extension service offers technical advice on agriculture to farmers, and also supplies them with the necessary inputs and services to support their agricultural production. It provides information to farmers and passes to the farmers new ideas developed by agricultural research stations.

What are the different types of extension in agriculture?

‘ Allowing for multiple choices, the farmers had to choose from the three types of extension services (government, private and NGO extension services).

What is agricultural extension and communication?

Development communication and extension (advisory services) are important instruments for encouraging dialogue about science-based farming solutions with communities, helping to stimulate agricultural production. However, they are often under resourced.

What is the main objective of agricultural extension?

General Objectives General objective of agricultural extension is to improve the quality of our farmer’s life through sustainable agriculture. To bring about desirable changes in the human behavior, which includes change in knowledge, skill and attitude.

What is the function of agricultural extension?

Agricultural extension plays a critical role in African development by bringing the farming community information on new technologies, which they can adopt to increase productivity, incomes and standards of living. Therefore, extension staffs are key players in the development process.

What is the history of agricultural extension?

Historical definitions 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. 1966: Extension personnel have the task of bringing scientific knowledge to farm families in the farms and homes. The object of the task is to improve the efficiency of agriculture.

Who is the father of agricultural extension?

K. N. Singh is known as father of Extension in the Indian context. The teaching of extension education at undergraduate level started in the year 1950 at the College of Agriculture, Calcutta University….Lesson 1. HISTORY AND CONCEPT OF EXTENSION EDUCATION.Formal EducationExtension Education5. Class attendance is compulsory.5. Participation is voluntary.11 more rows

What are the problems of agricultural extension?

Low morale, depression, economic worries, and less productivity are now common in extension organizations due to HIV/AIDS. Extension workers who by training are required to motivate farmers to try and adopt new agricultural technology are themselves depressed and frustrated, and this affects their output.

What is the scope of extension?

The scope of extension education includes all the activities directed towards the development of the rural people. The capacity of extension education to work for rural people is very wide. The activity of the extension deals with many kinds of problems and for all classes of people.

How many sources of agricultural extension are there?

There are three main sources of agricultural extension.

Which countries have strong agricultural extension services?

Many countries with advanced agricultural sectors, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Denmark, enjoy strong extension services. In the developing world, however, agricultural extension has not always met farmers’ needs.

What is the difference between Extension and Research?

Research institutions focus on the technical aspects of generating useful technologies. Extension focuses on the acceptance and adoption of those technologies by farmers. The two areas must work in partnership.

What are the components of a farm?

This has two important components: 1 dissemination of practical information, including on improved seeds, soil quality, tools, water management, crop protection, agricultural practices and livestock, and 2 application of this knowledge on the farm.

When was agricultural extension first used?

it’s actually a little unclear where and when the term agricultural extension was first used. However farmer education can be traced back at least 2000 years , especially in China, where they developed agricultural policies and disseminated practical farming advice.

What does extension mean in a job?

Essentially extension is a word that means “a part that is added to something to enlarge or prolong it”. So hence we have extension cord, extension ladder, house extension and an extension to the due date for an assignment. So no wonder people look at us strangely when we say we work in extension!

What is APEN in Australia?

In Australia and New Zealand our professional association is APEN, the Australasia-Pacific Extension Network. It allows like-minded people to share their extension experiences and ideas at conferences. There are about 500 members across Australia, New Zealand and beyond, and a members directory helps us keep in touch and find others with whom we can collaborate.

What is an example of extension in Australia?

The history of extension in Queensland is outlined below as an example of extension in Australia. The Department of Agriculture was established in 1887 and the staff helped encourage the fledgling dairy and cropping industries to produce food, as at that time most of those products had to be imported.

When was the cooperative extension service established?

The next big step forward was in 1914 when the Cooperative Extension Service was established in America, enabling the cooperation of federal, state, and local county governments. The state land grant colleges are central to the system and help diffuse practical information relating to agriculture and home economics.

Where did farmers get education?

However farmer education can be traced back at least 2000 years, especially in China, where they developed agricultural policies and disseminated practical farming advice. In Europe, the Irish potato famine that started in 1845 provided a response that is an example of a well organised community education program for farmers.

When was the Department of Agriculture established?

The Department of Agriculture was established in 1887 and the staff helped encourage the fledgling dairy and cropping industries to produce food, as at that time most of those products had to be imported. They created a travelling dairy, where dairy specialists would travel by train across Queensland carrying examples of the latest machinery, such as cream separators, to demonstrate them to dairy farmers.

What is extension in agriculture?

The field of ‘extension’ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for farmers. face-to-face training, training “products” such as manuals and videos, or information and communication technologies, such as radio and short message system (SMS).

What is the agricultural extension program?

The Agricultural and Extension Education Program in the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources allows students to complete concentrations in either “Agricultural Education” or “Agricultural Extension Education. Continue Reading.

What is agricultural expert?

This is a government program. Agricultural experts are hired to provide support and information to farmers. We had one when I was a farm kid in Ontario in the 1940s. He and my dad were acquainted. On one visit to our farm we had about 30 young pigs in a pen that were on a feeding scheme where they kd eat as much as they wanted. Dad had built a feeder open at the top and bottom with an attached board at the bottom so that the pigs kd eat without spilling the dry chop out onto the floor. The Ag. Rep. told Dad he’d mention him on his CKNX Wingham farm program if the pigs all went “select” when sold. They did, except for one that had a crooked back bone.

What is the difference between national education and agricultural extension?

National education encompasses children of a certain age, say 5 to 18 and occurs in school buildings. By contrast, agricultural extension deals with grownups and actually takes the education to the beneficiary farmers (i.e., extends it through the extension agents) and occurs at the the farm. Sponsored by Identiv.

What is the purpose of the cooperative extension service?

Extension is one of the program areas of research and study of the Cooperative Extension Service that is charged with the duty and responsibility to take research from the land-grant university system , out to the people of the state they serve. Each state got a land grant from the fed. gov’t to develop a university and hence the term land grant.

What is extension in education?

The field of ‘extension’ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines, including agriculture, agricultural marketing, health, and business studies.

What is rural development?

But rural development is a holistic growth of the rural society. Rural development may include health, education, livelihood, gender empowerment and other related factors, similarly we can have extension in all the sated factors of development for instance health extension and the like.

What are the three main categories of agricultural extension service providers?

The agricultural extension service providers who have a stake in the NAEP can be grouped in three main categories: GOs, NGOs, and private sector and agribusiness enterprises. Each of these broad groups has a crucial role to play in creating an environment that ensures optimal utilization of all available resources for successful implementation of NAEP. However, in terms of development approach, motivation, resources, and competence, there is much variation within each of the broad groups. For this reason, the detailed implementation plans within the overall NAEP strategy varied widely.

What are the drawbacks of agricultural extension?

According to the current context, there are several major drawbacks identified in the agricultural extension system in Sri Lanka such as client dissatisfaction, bureaucratic approach, large performance gap, declining investments in extension, and slow adjustment in responding to changing roles.

Why is agricultural extension so expensive?

Providing agricultural extension services to famers is costly and challenging because of several reasons: farmers are geographically dispersed in difficult-to-reach places (Nakasone and Torero, 2016 ); some of their information requirements are highly localized ( Binswanger and Rosenzweig, 1986 ); and large-scale extension provision faces several governance challenges ( Birner and Anderson, 2007 ). ICT applications have the potential to address some of these challenges. Compared to face-to-face extension, they are cheaper because they do not rely on costly and time-consuming travelling. This may also allow for more timely and regular provision of farming advice ( Baumüller, 2012; Cole and Fernando, 2012 ). Most ICT applications for agricultural extension rely on SMS and audio elements and focus on weather reports, disease outbreaks, general farming advice and information about agricultural prices. As noted by Aker et al. (2016 ), these are the “low-hanging fruits” of extension advice as they are not location and client-specific (in economic terms, this type of information has the character of a public good, see Birner and Anderson, 2007 ), although precise and location-specific weather reports are still a challenge. However, there are also some ICT applications aiming for “higher-hanging fruits”. The tool iCow, which is widely used in Kenya provides livestock keepers with cow-tailored advice ( Baumüller, 2012 ). Studies that assess the impacts of ICT-based extension systems have usually found some positive effects. Camacho and Conover (2011) found that weekly weather reports reduce the risk of crops losses of Columbian farmers by 4% to 7%. Cole and Fernando (2012) found that the service Avaaj Otalo increased adoption of effective pesticides and of lucrative but risky crops ( Cole and Fernando, 2012 ). Casaburi et al. (2014) found that the use of farm-cycle based SMS advice increased yield by 11.5% in Kenya. In contrast, Fafchamps and Minten (2012) found that the mobile service Reuters Market Light had no significant positive impacts on farmers in India. It is important to note that in all of these studies, the counterfactual is not the traditional extension service. A properly functioning extension service could have advantages over ICT-based extension because it may be able to provide more farm-specific advice and it can work with field demonstrations. In addition, some studies suggest that the question of who provides agricultural extension advice may play a large role in a farmer’s decision to uptake the advice ( Buck and Alwang, 2011, 2011; Moser and Barrett, 2006 ). As noted by Srinivasan (2007, p. 350), farmers tend to adhere more to advice that contains “not only the facts, but the analysis of the facts within the context”. In addition to easing the work of traditional extension system, ICT applications may also facilitate peer extension through social networks such as Facebook and WhatsApp. For example, in the Facebook group “ Small Scale Farmers (Farming as Business) ”, 400,000 farmers from across the world discuss their challenges and opportunities ( Small scale farmers – farming as business, 2018 ). Here, however, the quality of the content may not always be assured.

How to improve convergence of agricultural extension services?

Improving convergence through harmonization —The ATMA has made some progress in the convergence of agricultural extension services at the district level. Further convergence of the extension services at all levels requires a careful harmonization of work plans of the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, national missions, and other schemes that will require support of the extension services to succeed. Allocation of resources for agricultural extension services should be made under these national schemes to support the ATMA activities. This will not only increase the operational resources for effectively targeting the ATMA activities but will also help the national schemes to meet their objectives and make ATMA sustainable in the long run.

What will happen to agriculture related businesses?

Agriculturally related businesses will probably decline. Fertilizer, seed, implement and other input suppliers will face a greatly reduced market for their services. Lower levels of output will also eliminate the demand for much of the local processors such as cotton gins, grain elevators, etc. The reduction in the numbers of these types of firms, coupled with the reduction in the number of farms, will likely result in increased unemployment and/or migration of these people to other areas.

What will happen if irrigated land is reverted to livestock?

The majority of irrigated producers in this area, if current conditions continue, will be forced out of production by the laws of economics. Their land will revert to range land with less than native productivity and the income from most of the irrigated production will be lost to the region. If land reverts from irrigation to extensive livestock operations, there are important regional economic implications. Producers buy inputs such as fertilizer and fuel from local suppliers, and market products to local processors such as cotton gins, grain elevators, etc. This means the adjustments from irrigated crop production to livestock operations will affect many phases of the local economy.

What is private sector agriculture?

In India, the private agricultural sector plays a major role in agricultural extension service provision. It fills the gap of inefficient input delivery and customized advisory services. The private sector includes crop science industry, seed and input companies, distributors and agro-dealers, service providers of various kinds, food processors and retailers, and the content providers for agro-advisories. Contract farming is an increasingly important vehicle for agricultural extension. The term used in the literature for extension in this context is “embedded services,” where companies deliver information with the sale of inputs or the marketing of products ( Feder et al., 2011 ). There are an estimated 282,000 input dealers in India. They are pillars of their communities in rural or semirural areas and have interest in offering quality services to their farmer clients. The agro-input dealers and the farm-input suppliers selling through them have interest in presale and sometimes continue after-sale advice also to the growers ( Ferroni and Yuan, 2011 ).

What is agricultural advisory?

Agricultural advisory services are under an obligation to demonstrate that they have made an economic and social impact on the well-being of the farmers they serve, mainly through the quantitative and qualitative enhancement in crop productivity and in farmers’ net income. This impact should be environmentally and economically sustainable.

How to spread extension messages?

The most effective and economic means to spread specific extension messages is through campaigns, using well publicized meetings at demonstration plots and appropriate mass media. However, such campaigns should not replace regular training for developing a deeper understanding, for example, on the roles that fertilizers play in plant husbandry.

What countries use pesticides to control brown rice hoppers?

For example, as a result of training, rice farmers in Indonesia, Vietnam and Bangladesh moved from prophylactic spraying against brown rice hoppers to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and reduced the use of pesticides by 35-92 percent.

How difficult is it to find two groups of farmers who are equal enough to set-up a controlled experiment?

In addition, it is extremely challenging to find two groups of farmers who are “equal” enough to set-up a controlled experiment. Models developed for experiments with genetically identical plants are not necessarily suitable for measuring human behavior. Trying to differentiate between the separate contributions of research and extension to a new agricultural practice is very problematic. Furthermore, a rise in productivity could be the outcome of many factors: Extension interventions, different levels of farmer’s education, better market opportunities, availability and low prices of inputs, optimal weather etc. The nature of agricultural extension interventions makes randomization difficult. Several meta-studies have shown different types of biases in the selection of the samples (Romani, 2003).

Why did many agricultural development projects fail?

Unfortunately, many agricultural development projects, financed by foreign donors, failed once donor funding ended, usually because national governments did not have the budget or the political will to continue. These projects were either too expensive for a developing country or they did not fit the national development programs. Some lessons can be learned:

Why do extension systems use sociological impact evaluations?

Because of the weaknesses of purely economic impact evaluations, extension systems often use more sociological impact evaluations, in which farmers’ experiences, expectations, opinions and other non-economic factors are considered.

Do farmers pay for agricultural extension?

Over the past few decades, central governments of most countries have curtailed their direct involvement in agricultural extension. In industrialized countries, advisory services (4) have been “privatized”, and farmers, as clients, have to pay for most extension activities. In developing countries, there has also been a move to privatize, outsource or regionalize extension and to demand that farmers pay for services, which in the past were provided free-of-charge by governmental agricultural advisory services.


What Is Agriculturalextension?

Agricultural extension is another name for agricultural advisory services. In practical terms, extensionmeans giving farmers – for us, smallholders in developing countries – knowledge of agronomic techniques and skills to improve their productivity, food security andlivelihoods. This has two important componen…

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Who Provides Agricultural Extension Services?

  • There are three main sources of agricultural extension. 1. The public sector Ministries and departments of agriculture, and agricultural research centres. 1. The private non-profit sector Local and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs), foundations, community boards andassociations; bilateral and multilateral aid projects, and other non-commercial associations. …

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Agricultural Extension in The Developing World

  • Many countries with advanced agricultural sectors, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, andDenmark, enjoy strong extension services. In the developing world, however, agricultural extension has not always met farmers’ needs. The World Bank-devised ‘training and visit’ system played an important role in India’s Green Revolution from the late 1970sbut also failed in some i…

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New Approaches to Agricultural Extension

  • Addressing new and growing challenges in agricultural markets, technology and sustainability demandnew thinking. Extensionnow needs to focus on 1. Participatory approaches to shape demand-driven services 2. Multiple providers of extension services, and 3. Strategies to develop agricultural innovation systems The public sector has been the traditional source of research an…

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Learn More

  • Find out more about our work in extension and other agriservices. Yuan Zhou is our Foundation’s Head of Research & Policy Analysis. She is also co-editor of “Knowledge Driven Development; Private Extension and Global Lessons”. Here is a synopsis. Together with Suresh Babu of IFPRI, Yuan and the many other contributors draw on real-life examples. These illustrate the role and c…

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