What is agricultural mechanisation



What impact did mechanization have on farming?

Some negative side effects of mechanized farming include a smaller workforce and more pollution. What effect did mechanization have on farming? Mechanization meant fewer workers were needed on the farm, freeing up labor for the cities. What effect did mechanization (e.g. the reaper) have on the farms?

What was one effect of the mechanization of Agriculture?

The effect of agricultural mechanization can be described by the changes in farm population that began in the nineteenth century. With the advantages of improving, available, and inexpensive machines, farming became more efficient and the need for labor was reduced. The chemical era of agriculture boosted production and costs again.

What are the uses of agricultural machines?

  • Land Processing
  • Soil and Plant Fertilizing
  • Harvesting and Transportation

What did farm mechanization result in?

The mechanization of farms has led to an increase in the agricultural production volume. In developed countries, Farm Mechanization has increased agricultural production and productivity. A survey conducted in India reveals that productivity per hectare is higher in a mechanized farm than that of non-mechanized farms.


What was the first agricultural mechanization?

Agricultural mechanization started with the steam powered reapers and traction engine, then advanced with the invention of mobile hydraulics and electronic control systems that are used in modern machinery today.

How does technology affect farmers?

The literature on farmer’s innovations follows studies on technological change and diffusion of technologies in agriculture that explored the effect of relative prices as determinants of incentives to promote new technologies. For instance, in the 1970s, Binswanger (1974) showed that technology change responds to scarcity, bending research efforts toward scarce production factors signaled by prices. Agricultural mechanization arises as a response to limited agricultural labor and fertilizers, just as the green revolution package responds to rises in land prices. Distortions of all sorts affect the process of technological change. The growth of the farm inputs corporations, and the concentration in that industry distorts signals provided by the price mechanism. Farmers have few technical package choices.

What are the phases of agriculture?

Agriculture can be described as having three eras. The first is best characterized as the blood, sweat, and tears era , when famine and fatigue were common and inadequate food supplies occurred frequently. Agriculture’s second developmental stage, the mechanical era, began with invention of labor-saving machines. The effect of agricultural mechanization can be described by the changes in farm population that began in the nineteenth century. With the advantages of improving, available, and inexpensive machines, farming became more efficient and the need for labor was reduced. The chemical era of agriculture boosted production and costs again. The era really began when nitrogen fertilizer, a result of the Haber-Bosch process, became readily available and enabled realization of the genetic potential of the newly available hybrid corn. When nitrogen fertilizer was combined with hybrid corn varieties, first experimented with by Henry A. Wallace in 1913, yields went up rapidly. The agricultural revolution of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s transformed the practice of agriculture, reduced the number of people on farms, and significantly increased the productivity of those who remained. Developed country agriculture is now in the era of extensive and intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and is moving rapidly toward the next era of agriculture—the era of biotechnology—but weed management is still a major concern in all of agriculture. Weed science cannot claim the historical lineage of entomology or plant pathology, as weeds have not been studied as long.

What are the challenges of autonomous vehicles?

There are, however, several challenges facing the use of autonomous vehicles. Safety is the largest challenge as present systems cannot compare with human operators in their perception and understanding of the environment around the vehicle. As an autonomous vehicle cannot match the perception of a human operator, the machinery manufacturer and the agricultural producer would face a large amount of liability for any failures in the vehicle. For these reasons, operators will be used in agricultural vehicles until the perception systems improve, except in situations such as removal of land mines, which pose a danger to the operator.

What are the different types of vehicle guidance systems?

The four different classifications of vehicle guidance systems are manual, operator-assisted, semiautonomous, and fully autonomous. Manual systems use an operator to steer the machinery based on their perception of the environment. Operator-assisted guidance systems use a sensor such as GPS to determine the location of the vehicle …

Why are arable lands decreasing?

The area of agricultural soils is decreasing due to poor management strategies related to urbanization, industrialization, transportation and tourism. This can be easily observed around the plains of Cukurova and Amik in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Istanbul, Kocaeli and Bursa in Marmara region, and Izmir in the Aegean region. The area of cultivable soils has reduced as a result of contamination resulting from soil degradation (natural and non-natural) originating from different biotic activities ( Guney, 2004 ). Moreover, an increase in demand for agricultural lands is met through deforestation by intentional fires and logging, which have been commonly practiced in Turkey.

Can autonomous vehicles match human operators?

As an autonomous vehicle cannot match the perception of a human operator, the machinery manufacturer and the agricultural producer would face a large amount of liability for any failures in the vehicle.

How does mechanization affect agriculture?

The effective mechanization contributes to increase production in two major ways: firstly the timeliness of operation and secondly the good quality of work.

What is the definition of mechanization of production?

Mechanization of Production. replacement of manual implements of labor in sectors of material production or in labor processes with machines and mechanisms using various types of power and traction for their operation. Mechanization of production also covers the sphere of mental labor.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization?

Wikipedia continues: “Besides improving production efficiency, mechanization encourages large scale production and improves the quality of farm produce. On the other hand, it displaces unskilled farm labor, causes environmental pollution, deforestation and erosion.”.

What is farm machinery?

Farm machinery, mechanical devices, including tractors and implements, used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements used since prehistoric times to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized agriculture.

What is monocropping in agriculture?

Monocropping is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land, in the absence of rotation through other crops or growing multiple crops on the same land polyculture. Corn, soybeans, and wheat are three common crops often grown using monocropping techniques.

Why is crop rotation important?

It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and yield crop.

What is mechanised agriculture?

The first successful models were introduced in the mid-1940s and each could do the work of 50 hand pickers. Mechanised agriculture is the process of using agricultural machinery to mechanise the work of agriculture , greatly increasing farm worker productivity.

How does mechanization affect agriculture?

Besides improving production efficiency, mechanisation encourages large scale production and sometimes can improve the quality of farm produce. On the other hand, it can displace unskilled farm labour and can cause environmental degradation (such as pollution, deforestation, and soil erosion ), especially if it is applied shortsightedly rather than holistically .

What are some examples of agricultural tools?

The entire history of agriculture contains many examples of the use of tools, such as the hoe and the plough. The ongoing integration of machines since the Industrial Revolution however has allowed farming to become much less labour-intensive .

When were tractors invented?

With internal combustion came the first modern tractors in the early 1900s, becoming more popular after the Fordson tractor (ca. 1917). At first reapers and combine harvesters were pulled by teams of horses or tractors, but in the 1930s self powered combines were developed.

What is mechanized agriculture?

The term agriculture mechanization or mechanized agriculture refers to the use of machines to farm. Before the industrial revolution took flight, farming was mostly done using human labor and animals like horses, cattle, and mules. As the technologies used to build machines matured, tools like the tractor …

How does mechanization affect farming?

Labor and farm inputs are the two major costs in farming. Mechanization drives down the cost of both. With labor, machines can complete in a matter of hours what a small army of farm hands would take days to complete. This drastically cuts down the cost of running a farm. Also, with machines, there’s less wastage of farm inputs like fertilizer and seeds, which also helps lower production costs.

Why are tractor yield rates low?

Yield is the amount of product generated per unit of land. Without machines, yield rates are typically low because of the limitations of maximizing yield rate.

Why is mechanization important?

Mechanization is crucial in land utilization. Without machines, farmers would have to depend on subsistence farming techniques that make it hard to utilize farmland fully. However, with mechanization, farmers can focus on maximizing land utilization, resting assured they will find a market for their crops.

How has mechanization transformed human efficiency?

To illustrate how mechanization has transformed human efficiency, consider a farmer with three horses pulling a plow. He is effectively operating a 3-horsepower machine. Comparatively, a farmer with a 30 HP tractor, is controlling the equivalent of 30 horses in one machine. This doubtless will make the tractor owner more efficient than the horse owner.

What is precision farming?

Through precision farming, farmers can measure and manage even the smallest variables in their crops to help increase yield and reduce spoilage. Tools like satellites and drones are also used in mechanized precision farming.

How has agriculture grown?

Global agricultural output has spectacularly grown thanks to mechanization. For instance, in Russia, mechanization helped grow output by 100% in the mid-sixties, a feat that would not have been possible without mechanization. Today, production continues to grow as more sophisticated machines like robots and algorithms contribute to the farming effort.

How does mechanization affect agriculture?

Mechanization provides opportunities for intensifying production in a sustainable manner, value addition and food systems development, and improved local economies and livelihoods. It also plays a key role in enabling the growth of commercial agrifood systems and improving the efficiency of post-harvest handling, processing and marketing operations. It can have a major influence on the availability and accessibility of more nutritious food, contributing to increased household food security. The application of farm power to appropriate tools, implements and machines – “farm mechanization” – is an essential agricultural input in sub-Saharan Africa with the potential to transform the lives and economies of millions of rural families. ISSN 1020-4555

Why is agriculture mechanized?

Moreover agricultural mechanization in its broadest sense can contribute significantly to the development of food systems, as it has the potential to render post-harvest, processing and marketing activities and functions more efficient, effective and environmentally friendly. FAO (2014b) summarizes the main reasons for changing the power source for crop production from muscles (human or animal) to tractors: i. Potential to expand the area under cultivation. ii. Ability to perform operations at the right time to maximize production potential. iii. Multifunctionality – tractors can be used, not only for crop production, but also for transportation, stationary power applications and infrastructure improvement (drainage and irrigation canals and road works). iv. Compensation for seasonal labour shortages (or, indeed, release of labour for more productive work. v. Reduction of the drudgery associated with the use of human muscle power for tasks, such as hand hoeing for primary tillage – especially important in tropical areas where high temperatures and humidity (sometimes associated with inadequate nutrition) make manual work extremely arduous. In spite of these perceived benefits and the fact that animals had been largely replaced by tractors in both the United States and Western Europe by the 1950s, arguments were still put forward urging caution in the developing world (as highlighted by FAO, 2008). The main preoccupation was the effect of mechanization on rural employment opportunities. At the time, it was not understood that mechanization affected mainly on-farm family employment, not hired labour. Mechanization, in fact, enables farm family members not only to increase farm productivity via production intensification and/or expansion, but also to seek off-farm employment opportunities as a result of the increased time made available to look for and be engaged in such employment. Moreover, it was not appreciated that mechanization applied only to specific farm production tasks (in particular land preparation), and consequently had little effect on hired labour unemployment as previously presumed. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI, 2016a) enriches the debate on the social factors associated with mechanization by pointing out that in the past, forced mechanization was associated with the displacement of tenant farmers and rural labour. However, in Africa, mechanization is more likely to increase labour demand when it enables more land to be cultivated (and when it is profitably applied along the value chain). IFPRI points out that mechanization is just one component in the agricultural intensification process; mechanization should not actually initiate intensification where it is not already driven by population pressure and

How does FAO support Africa?

FAO is well positioned to support countries, especially in Africa, in achieving the SDGs. We cannot afford to miss the opportunity to become Generation Zero Hunger. FAO’s work on sustainable production intensification and agrifood systems development is an integral part, and agricultural mechanization plays a pivotal role in this process. In order to feed the burgeoning world population, it is necessary to intensify agricultural production systems. However, this intensification must not come, as has often happened in the past, at the expense of our natural resource base. FAO’s ecosystem-based “Save and Grow” paradigm recognizes this and proposes a new vision for sustainable crop production intensification – one that is both highly productive and environmentally protective. Save and Grow incorporates conservation agriculture (CA), healthy soils, improved crops and varieties, efficient use of water and integrated pest management. This volume of the Integrated Crop Managementseries shows how smallholder-focused farm mechanization can be developed to be entirely compatible with Save and Grow. Under the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) of the African Union in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Africa is in the middle of agricultural transformation. Sustainable agriculture mechanization will play a significant role in fuelling this transformative change.

Why is land tenure important?

Land tenure is one of the most important issues in agriculture; in many countries, a lack of security of tenure severely hinders investment in the agricultural sector. For a successful transition from semi-subsistence farming to profitable, productive agriculture, land tenure must be secure and guaranteed by the state as well as by local laws and traditions. This gives farmers the security and confidence to invest in mechanization and other production- enhancing inputs. In some countries, there are laws to regulate land tenure but they are not always effective. For example, where there is a tradition of common land ownership by clans and extended families, it is difficult to commercialize farming and very challenging to change such patterns of land ownership. In many countries, despite the introduction of national legislation, no “secure” land transaction can take place without the participation of the traditional chiefs; an investor must provide “gifts”, not only when farming commences, but when a change of title takes place. Other issues – such as “land-grabbing” – are becoming more widespread and serious as the world population grows and climate change adds uncertainty to agricultural production (Pearce, 2012). Furthermore, increasingly unpredictable rainfall, dwindling ground and river water resources, and water tenure disputes (FAO, 2016b) – in addition to those related to land tenure – create an adverse environment for increased farm commercialization. Smallholders operating just above subsistence level tend to be extremely risk-averse. For the rural family, a reliable source of food throughout the year – even if well below the level of potential yields for the region – is preferable to a situation where yields may be very high in favourable seasons, but very bad in adverse years. A steady yield (albeit low), resistant to the vagaries of the weather is preferable, but does not necessarily result in a marketable surplus. For these reasons, without financial assistance, it is unlikely that smallholders can invest in the kind of mechanization technologies that could lift them out of their precarious condition.

Why are smallholder farmers so poor?

Smallholders are often isolated by distance and poor infrastructure (especially feeder roads). There is limited access to sources of financial credit due to the: • lack of availability of financial products specifically focused on farm equipment investment ; • misconception of many financial institutions regarding the need for targeted financial products for investment in equipment ; • basic nature of agricultural production – i.e. a high-risk business; • reluctance of commercial financial institutions (mainly banks) to extend credit to poor farmers with little collateral; and • The lack of financial products to serve the purposes of small-scale farm mechanization. Experience from other parts of the world shows that extending credit products to farmers to invest in agricultural machinery not only allows them

Is agricultural machinery imported?

Tractors and agricultural machinery can be either imported or locally made, with potential associated problems in both cases. Locally produced machinery is usually low in quality and high in price. This is due to the underdeveloped nature of the machinery manufacturing industry, which in turn is largely the result of poor demand. Moreover, supply chains providing support to owners of tractors and agricultural machinery with spare parts, advice and other services (especially clean fuel) are often underdeveloped and do not easily reach remote rural areas ( FAO, 2009d). Analysis of the limited adoption of mechanization and of the relationships between the different determinants clearly indicates that SSA conditions have led to the creation of a restrictive environment, which has held back the development of mechanization (Figure 3).


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