What is agricultural research


Agricultural research can be broadly defined as any research activity aimed at improving productivity and quality of crops by their genetic improvement, better plant protection, irrigation, storage methods, farm mechanization, efficient marketing, and a better management of resources.


What are some studies related to agriculture?

  • (3) plant protection, pesticide exposure, and effects of pesticides on human health,
  • (4) plant nutrition, the composition of crops and the relevance for human health,
  • (5) animal feeding regimens, effects on the composition of animal foods and the relevance for human health.

More items…

What are the best agricultural topics for research?

Top 5 foreign universities for studying Agribusiness, Farming, and Agriculture

  • Wageningen University and Research Centre, Holland. Wageningen University and Research Centre is the world’s leading agricultural university. …
  • University of California Davis, USA. …
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden. …
  • Agro ParisTech, France. …
  • ETH Zurich, Switzerland. …

What are some careers in agricultural science?

  • Aid reforestation plans at all levels
  • Understand and participate in large scale clearing operations, site excavations, and rock crushing
  • Assess sites for forest reclamation and rehabilitation work
  • Manage inventory and work resources that include nurseries, sites, seeding, planting, controlling weeds, and pruning

More items…

What are the examples of agricultural technology?

The A to Z of technology changing agriculture

  • A, B, C. In the future, farmers will grow more than just corn to produce advanced biofuels. …
  • D, E, F. The 2012 drought was the perfect time for companies to test new drought-tolerant corn hybrids. …
  • G, H, I. …
  • J, K, L. …
  • M, N, O. …
  • P, Q, R. …
  • S, T, U. …
  • V, W, X, Y, Z. …

What kind of research is agriculture?

Agricultural research is a specialized kind of research system which can be carried out using both laboratory and field facilities as well as by interacting with farmers as critical informants for their betterment and raising their day to day level of livelihood.

What is agricultural research and development?

The goal of AR4D is to improve the resilience, livelihoods and food security of small-scale farmers in rural communities, particularly youth and women, through scientific research. IFAD’s AR4D programme supports: Creating pro-poor technologies. Facilitating knowledge exchange and documenting research.

What is purpose of agricultural research in developing countries?

A transformed agricultural research system helps to achieve sustainable food and income security for all agricultural producers and consumers, particularly for resource-poor households, whether they are in rural or urban areas.

What do agricultural research institutes do?

Agricultural research provides information for policy makers and funding agencies. It provides transfer of research-induced technology to farmers which is the only way to measure research benefits to society.

Why agricultural research is important?

The primary role of agricultural research is to heighten knowledge and improve technology. It heightens understanding of the interactions and interdependence between production systems and farming communities.

What are the examples of agricultural research?

Animal immunization, artificial insemination, biological control of pests, embryo transfer, genetic engineering, hydroponics, and tissue culture are just a few areas of agricultural research.

How is agricultural research important to human lives?

As humans and agriculture progressed, research widened to control of diseases and pests, better cultivars, productive fields or animal rearing facilities, improvement of food crops, and basic biological understanding of plants and animals.

What is the importance of research to agriculture sector of the Philippines?

Agricultural research has proven itself effective at increasing farm productivity, enhancing product quality, and reducing costs along with providing spillovers in manufacturing and services. The resulting job creation is part of the outcome of inclusive growth.

What are the aims and objectives of agricultural research institute?

The aims of ICAR are to promote the development and improvement of animal identification, performance recording and evaluation in farm animal production. Such objectives are achieved through the establishment of definitions and guidelines for measuring characteristics of economic importance.

What is research in agribusiness?

While agribusiness research includes research on the financial management of farms, it focuses more often on the economics and management of firms on the other side of the farm gate: food and fiber processors, food retailers, and restaurants.

How does agricultural research help reduce hunger and poverty?

Agricultural research works even without other investments, but also makes other investments more attractive. Agricultural research offers a lower-cost approach to poverty reduction because it leverages farmers’ own labor and land and attracts additional private investment.

What was the goal of agricultural research?

The early goal of agricultural research was simply better methods of producing food. As humans and agriculture progressed, research widened to control of diseases and pests, better cultivars, productive fields or animal rearing facilities, improvement of food crops, and basic biological understanding of plants and animals. The early studies were empirical, that is, trial and error. Nevertheless, these were the forerunners of agricultural research and in many ways the forerunners of many forms of scientific investigation.

Who described the phases of agricultural research?

E. John Russell (1966) described five phases of agricultural research in Great Britain. While the years may differ, the concepts and general timing are similar to other parts of the world. Phase one began in the late sixteenth century with Francis Bacon and was characterized by numerous individuals conducting research in ancillary areas to agriculture without communication among themselves. This period lasted until the end of the eighteenth century.

What was the second phase of agriculture?

The second phase coincided with the emergence of chemistry and lasted until the mid-nineteenth century. Numerous nongovernmental groups were established during the period to promote agriculture, and several universities established formal programs in agricultural sciences. The third phase lasted until the early twentieth century and included establishment of extension activities in university programs as well as expansion of teaching. The fourth stage was a short but important period because of the expansion of experiment stations, research funding from governments, and recognition of the role of agricultural development as an economic development tool. This phase lasted from 1920 to 1930. The fifth phase has lasted into the twenty-first century. Russell described this phase as the time of governmental laboratories and dissociation from farmers and their needs. While Russell’s view is rather cynical, many farmers share his point.

What were the first agricultural research institutions?

The first colleges involved in agricultural research in the United States were Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Several of the early endowed chairs in universities were in chemistry, agriculture, or a combination of the two. Fourth, agricultural principles developed were often not applicable to farms or crops in other parts of a country or continent. Thus an initial credibility problem existed with much of the early agricultural research. In the mid-1800s the concept of an experiment station developed in Europe. Some authors credit the Germans with development of the experiment station, while others credit the British. Regardless of the location of the first stations, the concept was to develop agricultural research sites near areas of agricultural production so results would be applicable to the local areas. This concept became common in all areas of agricultural production.

When did agriculture start?

Most people place the beginnings of formal agricultural research in the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century. This relatively long initial phase was caused by several factors. First, many of the other basic sciences were in an early developmental stage. In fact the early agricultural scientists were trained chemists applying their skills to food production. Secondly, governments were reluctant to provide funding for agricultural research. In the United States both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson advocated formal agricultural research as a fundamental component of the newly developed country. However, Congress did not share either president’s feeling and did not support a formal agriculture department until 1862. The U.S. Department of Agriculture did not achieve cabinet status until 1889.

Who was the first scientist to study agriculture?

Justus von Liebig is often credited with writing the first book on agricultural research, Organic Chemistry and Its Applications to Agriculture and Physiology, published in both Germany and England in 1840. Liebig was an agricultural chemist in Giessen, Germany, one of the first experiment station sites. Liebig also established courses in agricultural chemistry and provided a site for foreign students to study under his tutelage. Numerous students from across Europe and the United States studied under him. The model Liebig developed for research sites near production areas, student training, and course offerings remained the standard for agricultural research around the world in the early twenty-first century.

How did chemistry and biology contribute to food production?

In many cases chemical assays and principles were established in direct response to needs in the food and agriculture industries. In the second half of the nineteenth century agricultural research became a recognized discipline in institutes of higher education. The Hatch Experiment Station Act of 1887 established a formal linkage between the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which would supply funding, and state colleges of agriculture, where the research would be conducted. This collaboration between states and the federal government was an important model in governmental relations.

More Definitions of agricultural research

agricultural research means, research, experiment, survey or study in accordance to technical principles aimed to produce data information, knowledge, innovation, product development, and other processes that are applicable to agriculture and agro- industry, including commercial agriculture, also to develop research output for the benefit of the public, and the transfer of research output and technologies to the private sectors and farmers.

Related to agricultural research

Agricultural products means those products as defined in section 301 (2) of Article 25AA of the State Agriculture and Markets Law, including but not limited to:

Why is agricultural research and development important?

Abstract. Public investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) is important for global food security and environmental sustainability. Although public agricultural R&D projects are associated with high economic returns, they are characterized by long time horizons and temporal lags.

What is agricultural R&D?

Agricultural R&D is a crucial determinant of agricultural productivity and production and therefore food prices and poverty. In this article, the authors present new evidence on investments in public agricultural R&D worldwide as an indicator of the prospects for agricultural productivity growth over the coming decades.

How does international collaboration help in agriculture?

During the past five decades international collaboration under the leadership of the international agricultural research and development organizations (CGIAR centers, FAO and other UN agencies) have played a pivotal role in the development and dissemination of agricultural technologies around the world, especially in developing countries. Bilateral collaboration between advanced countries and developing countries has also been more effective in the development of agricultural research, training, and extension activities in several countries with technical support of CGIAR Centers and policy support of national governments. With future challenges of increasing demand for agricultural products on a sustainable and environment-friendly basis with decreasing agricultural land and water resources, it is important to recognize that intricacies of agricultural research, training, and extension are also increasing. There is a great need to equip young researchers with cutting-edge technologies. In order to meet this challenge, international collaboration can also be utilized as much as possible in strengthening public-private sector partnership for the required effective agricultural research, training, extension, and policy support systems. Some countries, notably China, have taken it seriously and deployed policy tools to provide fully funded scholarships to talented youth to obtain the necessary research experience abroad in advanced countries and CGIAR Centers and also ensuring that they return and contribute towards nation building. Such programs have a great potential in countries like India, which possess a big resource of ambitious youth. The government of India has initiated some brain-gain programs aimed at attracting non-resident Indian scientists already trained in advanced countries. However, there is still a great scope to assist young scientists in attaining appropriate training abroad to further strengthen the science and technology sectors.

What are the research centers in the Philippines?

Under the Philippine Department of Agriculture (DA), there is a national rice research center (PhilRice in Muñoz, Luzon, www.philrice.gov.ph ), addressing both research and technology dissemination, and the Bureaus of Plant Industry, Soil and Water Management ( www.bswm.gov.ph ), and Postharvest Research and Extension (which includes an emphasis on grain storage research). The Food and Nutrition Research Institute ( www.fnri.dost.ph) and the research planning and funding body, the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural Resources Research and Development ( www.pcaarrd.dost.gov.ph ), sit under the Department of Science and Technology. There are also Regional Integrated Agricultural Research Centers – there is one organization in each of the 15 regions, but some have 2–3 research stations and several focus on grain crops. The universities have a far greater share of research capacity than DA. The strongest university in agriculture including grains research is the University of Philippines at Los Baños, which has specialized institutes of plant breeding and of farming systems research. These include Benguet State University, Central Luzon State University, Visayas State University College of Agriculture, Don Mariano Marcos State University, Central Mindanao University, and the University of Southern Mindanao. There are also several others with some strengths in agriculture (Mindanao State University, Bicol University, and Central Visayas State College). Some of the universities have regional research and development centers and also have quite good extension/outreach systems. While significant private sector research enterprises are present in horticulture, grains research remains in the public domain.

How does agri food change?

As agri-food systems transform, the main actors and their relative roles also change. Generally, in low-income countries, public research and extension dominate and investments are often limited to a few agricultural commodities. Private actors play a greater role as the value of agri-food systems moves off the farm, and food supply chains get longer and consolidate to benefit from economies of scale. With the increasing numbers of empowered middle-class consumers, agri-food systems are increasingly shaped by consumer demand for more varied, higher-quality, and safer foods.

What is STB in agriculture?

The “Science and Technology Backyard” (STB) approach, established by professors and students of China Agricultural University, in collaboration with local partners ( Zhang et al., 2016 ), is an innovative model that not only illustrates, but also implements, how to effectively disseminate technical know-how to smallholder farmers at a large scale. The university professors and students live in villages among farmers to carry out participatory innovation and technology transfer. Outreach and scaling up were achieved through training of the leading farmers. Thus, the STB connects the scientific community with the local farming community and has helped smallholder farmers to successfully close the yield gap of wheat crops by 30%, with a yield increase from 67.9% of the attainable yield to 97.0%.

What is the food technology research center?

The food technology research center does work on the development of rice-based snacks and other food products. The major universities carrying out grains science research is the Universiti Putra Malaysia and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

What is agricultural research?

Agricultural research and development encompasses an extremely broad range of activities and potential innovations. A 2008 paper issued by Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (von Braun et al., 2008), an international organization that funds and coordinates agricultural research, identifies 14 ‘best bets’. These include developing hybrid and inbred seeds with improved yield potential, better resistance to wheat rust, increased drought tolerance and added nutritional value, but also encompasses the development new animal vaccines, better fertilizer use and improved processing and management techniques for fisheries.

How does higher yield seeds help farmers?

First, higher yield seeds allow production of larger quantities of agricultural output at a lower cost, bolstering the income of farmers. Around 70 per cent of the African labour-force work in agriculture, many in smallholdings that generate little income above subsistence ( IFPRI, 2012). Boosting gains from agriculture could clearly provide large benefits for many of the worst off. Second, decreased costs of production lead to lower prices for food, allowing consumers to purchase more or freeing up their income to be spent elsewhere.

Who are the authors of the book “Investments to reduce hunger and undernutrition”?

Hoddinott, J., Rosegrant, M. and Torero, M. ‘Investments to reduce hunger and undernutrition’ (2012)

Is irrigation limited in developing countries?

Access to and use of irrigation, fertilizer and agricultural machinery remains limited in some developing countries. However, targeted research and development will also be required to generate new technologies (seeds, animal vaccines and so on) that allow burgeoning food demand to be met.

What is the Agricultural Research Service?

The Agricultural Research Service ( ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ARS is one of four agencies in USDA’s Research, Education and Economics mission area. ARS is charged with extending the nation’s scientific knowledge and solving agricultural …

What was the first agricultural research?

Prior to the inception of ARS, agricultural research was first conducted under the umbrella of the Agricultural Department in the U.S. Patent Office in 1839. It was created to collect statistics, distribute seeds and compile and distribute pertinent information. In 1862 the USDA was created and agricultural research was moved to its department. That same year, the department issued its first research bulletin on the sugar content of grape varietals and their suitability for wine. Six years later the USDA would begin its first research on animal diseases, specifically hog cholera, which was causing devastating losses at the time. In the early 1900s the USDA began analyzing food composition and the first studies of nutrition and the effects of cooking and processing foods were conducted. Finally, in 1953 the Agricultural Research Service was created to be the USDA’s primary scientific research agency.

What is ARS research?

ARS research complements the work of state colleges and universities, agricultural experiment stations, other federal and state agencies, and the private sector. ARS research may often focus on regional issues that have national implications, and where there is a clear federal role.

What is the ARS?

The Agricultural Research Service ( ARS) is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). ARS is one of four agencies in USDA’s Research, Education and Economics mission area. ARS is charged with extending the nation’s scientific knowledge and solving agricultural problems through its four national …

Where is the ARS located?

The ARS Headquarters is located in the Jamie L. Whitten Building on Independence Avenue in Washington, D.C. and the headquarters staff is located at the George Washington Carver Center (GWCC) in Beltsville, Maryland. For 2018, its budget was $1.2 billion.

When did the USDA start analyzing food composition?

In the early 1900s the USDA began analyzing food composition and the first studies of nutrition and the effects of cooking and processing foods were conducted. Finally, in 1953 the Agricultural Research Service was created to be the USDA’s primary scientific research agency.

Who does the ARS work for?

ARS also provides information on its research results to USDA action and regulatory agencies and to several other federal regulatory agencies, including the Food and Drug Administration and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

What is USDA ARS?

Research : USDA ARS. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s chief scientific in-house research agency. Our job is finding solutions to agricultural problems that affect Americans every day from field to table. Here are a few numbers to illustrate the scope of our organization:

How much is the USDA budget?

Our fiscal year budget is about $1.5 billion.

What are the values of ARS?

Scientific excellence, creativity, innovation, integrity, leadership, collaboration, accountability, transparency, diversity, respect, inclusive ness, and public service. These values underpin ARS’ commitment to delivering cutting-edge, scientific tools and innovative solutions for American farmers, producers, industry, and communities to support the nourishment and well-being of all people; sustain our nation’s agroecosystems and natural resources; and ensure the economic competitiveness and excellence of our agriculture.

Who is the ARS administrator?

The ARS Administrator is Dr. Chavonda Jacobs-Young. Dr. Steven M. Kappes is the Associate Administrator, National Programs. Dr. Simon Liu is the Associate Administrator, Research Management and Operations. For more information see Biographical Sketches of our Administrators.

Who is the chairman of the House Agriculture Committee?

WASHINGTON — Rep. Rodney Davis (IL-13), Chairman of the House Agriculture Committee’s Subcommittee on Biotechnology, Horticulture, and Research, held a hearing to highlight the importance of agricultural research as part of the committee’s hearing series on the next farm bill.

Is private sector research offsetting?

While the private-sector is offsetting part of those losses, private-sector research often depends on the fundamental research supported by public investment.

What is the application of operations research in agriculture?

Agriculture is a productive process requiring the transformation of a set of productive inputs into output with the aim of satisfying wants. These inputs are limited and as such places a constraint in the transformational process. It therefore implies that decision making on allocation of these limited agricultural resources is a major area of concern in attaining the objectives of agricultural production. Operations research, an analytical method used in problem-solving and decision making in organizations, have been applied for over 70 decades in decision making in agriculture. A review of applications of Operations research by some researchers in agriculture problems at farm level, regional sector level, environment protection, risks and uncertainty analysis, formulating livestock rations and feedstuffs, forestry management etc., shows that its application in agriculture is extensive and its potential for development is limitless. The application is constrained by a complex interacting drivers existing in productivity, markets, the environment and the people. These drivers include accuracy of data, quantifiability of data. natural disasters, instability of prices, demand for products, changes in government subsidies and policies and dependence on an electronic computer. In conclusion, decision to implement the results from Operations research lies with the human beings and so this human element is still the most significant part of the decision-making process. The changes and adjustments in the natural and economic environment, and new improved information in the subject area, must be incorporated in the mathematical models and their parameters to account for the change.

What is the definition of agriculture?

as soil type, frequency of cultivation, and principal crops or animals. The term agriculture is

What is the importance of periods in cultivation?

periods. This represents an important component of cultivation, i.e., scheduling the seasons of

What is the role of agriculture in the world?

Agriculture has played an essential role in the provision of food and has been a major factor in overall economic development for societies around the world for millennia. In the past, agriculture in hot, arid countries like Qatar faced many challenges, the primary one being a dearth of water for irrigation. Historically this severely limited Qatar’s economic development, which was based largely on resource exploitation, pearl fishing, and only more recently, on the exploitation of its oil and gas reserves which subsequently has led to Qatar’s great wealth. This paper gives an overview of the recent evolution of Qatar’s agricultural sector and investigates future trends that tackle the challenges of its hot arid climate and the limited availability of agricultural resources. Specifically, the review analyses Qatar’s potential to develop a national food security strategy based on a significant expansion of food production in the country. We review recent policy actions implemented to address challenges in the food supply chain caused by a 3.5-year blockade imposed by the adjacent Arab Gulf States, discussing the renewed interest in the potential that an enhanced agricultural sector must provide some aspects of food security and the implications for policymakers that would logically ensue.

What is agriculture in the English dictionary?

The Oxford English Dictiona ry (1971) defines agriculture. very broadly as “The science and art of cultivating the soil, including the allied pursuits of. gathering in the crops and rearing live stock ( sic); tillage, husbandry, farming (in the widest. sense).”.

How can we improve food security in Africa?

The goal to improve food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through domestic, resource efficient and low carbon agriculture is importance. Interventions to produce more food could impact the resource-base and lead to increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agroecosystems. Unfortunately, existing methods are limited in analyzing small-scale agricultural systems, and this situation is an obstacle to decision making which aims at sustainable agriculture. In this paper, we showcase the recently developed Emergy-Data Envelopment Analysis (EM-DEA) approach to assess the resource use efficiency (RUE) and sustainability in maize production systems in Ghana, SSA. Using the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), five land use and resource management scenarios were modeled to represent practices as decision making units (DMUs) in small-scale maize systems. The carbon footprint of the systems was assessed using an approach, which we adapted from the FAO Ex-Ante Carbon balance Tool (EX-ACT). The overall trend of the results showed that the yield, total emergy, GHG emissions and carbon footprint all increased with increase in urea application intensity. However, the relationship between the yield and urea intensity was not always linear. A system that used more renewable or fewer resources to produce a yield equal to that of its peer was considered more efficient and sustainable in relative terms. In particular, the business-as-usual scenario (12 kg/ha/yr NPK input to rainfed maize system, i.e. Extensive12) was inefficient when compared to the four contrasting scenarios. The ecological intensive scenario (20 kg/ha/yr urea input to rainfed maize-legume intercropping system, i.e. Intercrop20) achieved the greatest marginal yield, better RUE and sustainability. The high input scenario (100 kg/ha/yr urea input plus supplemental irrigation to maize monoculture, i.e. Intensive100) produced the greatest yield, but the demand for purchased inputs as well as GHG emissions and carbon footprint were greatest. The no external input scenario (0 kg/ha/yr urea input to rainfed maize system, i.e. Extensive0), and the moderate input scenario (50 kg/ha/yr urea input plus supplemental irrigation to maize monoculture, i.e. Intensive50) showed the greatest and least yield gaps relative to Intensive100, respectively. Based on these results and trade-off analysis, it was evident that Intercrop20 and Intensive50 were the two best case scenarios. As such, land use policy that aims at sustainable agriculture could recommend Intercrop20 and Intensive50 for implementation in low and high input maize production systems, respectively. Comparison between our results and other existing empirical studies revealed similarities that confirm our results. We conclude that the information derived using the EM-DEA and EX-ACT approaches could be useful when making informed decisions that aim at sustainable agriculture. Despite the limitation caused by scarcity of data, the use of the EM-DEA approach led to inclusive information on RUE and sustainability of the DMUs. Hence, the EM-DEA approach represents a way forward to better assess energy footprint in agricultural land use as a whole.

What does “agricultura” mean?

signifying, when combined, the Latin agricultura: field or land tillage. But the word has come. to subsume a very wide spectrum of activities that are integral to agriculture and have their. own descriptive terms, such as cultivation, domestication, hort iculture, arboriculture, and.

How has immunization improved livestock?

Animal immunization—Historically, diseases have been devastating to livestock pro- duction enterprises. The introduction of vaccines and medicines has improved the health of livestock. Animal immunization, the process of giving animals resistance to disease through vaccination or inoculation, has reduced diseases. Animals in a disease-free envi- ronment can be raised at a much lower cost to producers, and the savings are passed on to consumers.

Why are growth regulators used in lawns?

Growth regulators may also be used on golf courses and lawns to reduce the growth rate of grasses and thus cut down of the fre- quency of mowing.

How do computers help plant scientists?

In plant science, computers are used to help determine the optimal time for irrigation and the amount of water to be delivered to the crop. They are also used to determine fertility levels and to adjust application rates. Food scientists rely heavily on computers to analyze the chemistry of foods. Embryo transfer—.

Why is genetic engineering important?

tists believe that genetic engineering holds the key to greatly increasing food supplies for the world. Genetic engineering is a volatile public issue. It is likely that public debate will continue regarding genetic engineering research and application.

How do computers help in animal science?

In animal science, the selection of superior sires and dams can be made easily through computerized production records of progeny. Results of feed formulation data can be used to help determine the best mix of feed grains and sup- plements. In plant science, computers are used to help determine the optimal time for irrigation and the amount of water to be delivered to the crop. They are also used to determine fertility levels and to adjust application rates. Food scientists rely heavily on computers to analyze the chemistry of foods.

What are the benefits of scientific advancement?

Among the benefits of scientific advancement lie some risks . Scientists and society must consider the potential of research, as well as the risks. With every discovery, there exists some risk. It is up to society, policy makers, and scientists to determine how much risk is acceptable. Risk comes in many forms.

Is agriculture going to be a bright future?

Overall, the future of agriculture is bright. Exciting research in plant and animal sciences is in progress. Following are a few examples of agricultural research. Many other types of research are also being conducted. Through the help of agricultural research and continued testing, the standard of living we enjoy today can be expected to improve.


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