What is agricultural system


An agricultural system, or agro-ecosystem, is a collection of components that has as its overall purpose the production of crops and raising livestock to produce food, fiber, and energy from the Earth’s natural resources. Such systems may also cause undesired effects on the environment.


What are the different types of agricultural systems?

There are 9 major agricultural practices and techniques which are discussed below:

  • Fallow. The soil loses its fertility due to continuous cultivation.
  • Crop Rotation.
  • Mixed Cropping.
  • Two-Cropping Agriculture.
  • Multi-cropping Agriculture.
  • Relay Cropping.
  • Crop-Productivity.
  • Agricultural Efficiency.

What is an agricultural system?

Agriculture Food Labeling System is primarily used for the labeling of agriculture products with their nutritional values and other basic information NEW YORK, NY, U.S., January 13, 2022 …

What is agricultural production system?

and the CGIAR system organization. The African Development Bank will invest $10.4 billion, over the next five years, to boost the development of agricultural value chains and food production in Africa. The Bank will also invest $1.6 billion, in the next …

What is the agriculture system?

Agricultural systems synonyms, Agricultural systems pronunciation, Agricultural systems translation, English dictionary definition of Agricultural systems. n. The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming. ag′ri·cul′tur·al adj. ag′ri·cul′tur·al·ly adv….


What is the agriculture system?

An agricultural system is an assemblage of components which are united by some form of interaction and interdependence and which operate within a prescribed boundary to achieve a specified agricultural objective on behalf of the beneficiaries of the system.

Why is agriculture called system?

Answer: Farming is a kind ofsystem in which various inputs and processes are involved to obtain production.

What are the two systems of agriculture?

Currently, agriculture is divided into two different types, including industrialized agriculture and subsistence agriculture.

What is agricultural system India?

The farming systems that significantly contribute to the agriculture of India are subsistence farming, organic farming, industrial farming. Regions throughout India differ in types of farming they use; some are based on horticulture, ley farming, agroforestry, and many more.

What is the best definition for agriculture?

The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming.

What is importance of agriculture?

Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products. These products, as well as the agricultural methods used, may vary from one part of the world to another.

What are different types of farming systems?

#2. Shifting Agriculture:#3. Plantation Agriculture:#4. Intensive Farming:#5. Dry Agriculture:#6. Mixed and Multiple Agriculture:#7. Crop Rotation:#8. Terrace Cultivation:

What are the types of agricultural?

Top 12 Types of AgricultureSubsistence Farming: … Intensive Subsistence Farming (with or without Rice as a dominant crop): … Mediterranean Farming: … Commercial Grain Agriculture: … Arable Farming: … Shifting Cultivation: … Nomadic Herding: … Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage:More items…•

What are the 4 types of agriculture?

There exist four main branches of agriculture, namely;Livestock production.Crop production.agricultural economics.agricultural engineering.

What is agriculture PDF?

Agriculture is an applied science which encompasses all aspects of crop production including horticulture, livestock rearing, fisheries, forestry, etc. Agriculture is defined as an art, science and business of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes.

Why is India called an agricultural country?

India is an agricultural country. Agriculture and its allied activities act as main source of livelihood for more than 80% population of rural India. It provides employment to approximately 52% of labour. Its contribution to Gross Domestic product (GDP) is between 14 to 15%.

How many types of agriculture are there in India?

Overall, there are 9 different types of agriculture or farming in India. It depends on the availability of irrigational facilities, climatic conditions, and nature of land.

What is agricultural system?

agricultural systems. Agriculture can be regarded as a system with inputs that have physical, cultural, economic and behavioural elements. In areas where farming is less developed, physical factors are usually more important, but as human inputs increase, these physical controls become less significant. This system model can be applied …

What is subsistence agriculture?

> Subsistence agriculture occurs when a plot of land produces only enough food to feed the family working it or the local community (group, tribe etc.), pay taxes and sometimes leave a little surplus for barter or to sell in better years.

What is the difference between intensive and extensive agriculture?

Extensive and intensive refer to the relationship of inputs to each other, particularly labour, capital and land [figure below]. Extensive agriculture is carried out on a large scale, whereas intensive agriculture is usually relatively small scale.

What are some examples of intensive agriculture?

An example is intensive wet rice cultivation.

What is mixed farming?

This can be at an extensive scale (e.g. pastoral nomadism and cattle ranching) or intensive (e.g. dairy farming). > Mixed farming occurs when farmers grow crops and rear animals on the same farm. It tends to take place in more developed countries where it reduces the commercial risk of relying on one type of farming.

What is an arable farm?

> Arable refers to growing crops, whether on an intensive scale (e.g. rice and market gardening) or on an extensive scale (e.g. grain farming on the Canadian prairies). Arable farming usually takes place on the more favoured land which is flatter and has high quality soil.

What is commercial agriculture?

COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE. > Commercial agriculture usually takes place on a large, profit-making scale. It may be carried out by individual farmers or by companies, with both groups trying to maximise the return on inputs and seeking maximum yields per unit of land.

About the journal

Agricultural Systems is an international journal that deals with interactions – among the components of agricultural systems, among hierarchical levels of agricultural systems, between agricultural and other land use systems, and between agricultural systems and their natural, social and economic …


The average number of weeks it takes for an article to go through the editorial review process for this journal, including standard and desk rejects.

What is the aspect of agriculture concerned with?

aspect of agriculture concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, hogs, and horses. Domestication of wild animal species was a crucial achievement in the prehistoric transition of human civilization from

What is farming associated with?

Farming was often intimately associated with landholding (see tenuretenure,

What is an agricultural implement?

agricultural implement for stirring and pulverizing the soil, either before planting or to remove weeds and to aerate and loosen the soil after the crop has begun to grow . The cultivator usually stirs the soil to a greater depth than does the harrow. See cultivation.

What is the most important tool for tillage?

agricultural implement used to cut furrows in and turn up the soil, preparing it for planting. The plow is generally considered the most important tillage tool.

What was the first agricultural tool?

It was the first distinctly agricultural implement. The earliest hoes were forked sticks .

Why are insects studied?

Insects are studied because of their importance as pollinators for fruit crops; as carriers of bacterial, viral,

How has modern science revolutionized food processing?

Modern science has also revolutionized food processing; refrigeration, for example, has made possible the large meatpacking plants and shipment and packaging of perishable foods. Urbanization has fostered the specialties of market gardeningmarket gardening,

What is an agricultural system?

An agricultural systemis an assemblage of components which are united by some form of interaction and interdependence and which operate within a prescribed boundary to achieve a specified agricultural objective on behalf of the beneficiaries of the system.

What is a farm system?

The terms farm system andfarming systemare often used interchangeably. Here the practice is to use farm system to refer to the structure of an individual farm, and farming system to refer to broadly similar farm types in specific geographical areas or recommendation domains, e.g., the wet paddy farming system of West Java or the grain-livestock fanning systems of Sind.

What is the resource pool in a farm system?

Element 4, resource pool:This element consists of resources which are initially present at the time of planning or commencing operation of the system – some pool or stock of land, water, seed, cash etc. which the other elements of the farm system may draw upon. Once the system begins operating, certain components of it (the resource-generating activities and by-products of the enterprises) will replenish the pool. In the schematic sketch of Figure 1.3, the arrows from the farm resource pool indicate that items from the resource pool flow to processes as well as to activities and to enterprises (as well as possibly to maintenance of the whole-farm service matrix). Strictly speaking, resources should be shown as flowing directly only to processes, since this is the level (subsystems of Order Levels 1 and 2) at which they are actually used. But from a practical viewpoint and because most of the potential processes are actually ignored in planning the operation of a farm system, resources may also be viewed as flowing directly to activities and enterprises as indicated.

What is element 2 of the farm-household system?

Element 2, household:As noted at the top of Figure 1.3, the household provides objectives and management of the farm-household system and, at the bottom, it exists as the primary internal beneficiary of the system, while distributing some of the system output to external beneficiaries.

What is the time dimension of agriculture?

10. Time dimension:Unlike mechanical systems which stamp out buttons or TV sets, agricultural systems rest on biological processes which occur over considerable periods of time – from, e.g., a few days in the case of quick-response agricides to 70 or more years in the case of growth and decline of a coconut palm. Agricultural systems are thus inherently stochastic: being dependent on the passage of time, ex ante,their outcomes are uncertain. Moreover, because agriculture is also a set of economic activities, the old adage applies: time is money. Other things being equal, a system which yields its product or ties up resources over a short time is better than one which yields its output or occupies resources over a long time. Strictly speaking, time is not a system component; rather it is a dimension in which the system operates. The time dimension in relation to resource use is discussed in Section 3.3.4 and in relation to farm planning in Section 9.1. The evaluation of activities which occur over long time periods is examined in Chapters 10 and 11. The latter chapter also considers uncertainty as it occurs in farm planning and decision making. Also important from a time perspective are the sustainability and environmental compatibility of the farm system being used. If, over time, the farm system is not biologically and economically sustainable or causes resource degradation, as discussed in Sections 6.2.7 and 8, this is to the disadvantage of both the farm household and society at large.

What are agrotechnical processes?

Processes may be of a biological or mechanical kind. They are a shorthand designation of all the potentially complex and interrelated physical and biological factors underlying production from crop or livestock species, only some of which may be economically relevant. They are discussed in Chapter 5.

What is the role of the household in a farm?

2. Household:As previously noted, the household plays two roles: first, it provides purpose and management to its associated farm system and, second, it is the major beneficiary of its associated farm system . Its role as beneficiary is discussed in Chapter 3. In its first role it provides purpose, operating objectives and management to the farm component of the farm-household system according to its broad domestic and social goals. Obviously these goals vary widely with culture, tradition and the degree of commercialisation and external influences to which the household is exposed. However, one would probably be not too far wrong in offering a generalization that the primary economic goal on most small farms (Types 1, 2, 3 of Chapter 2) is security and the primary non-economic goal is social acceptance (Clayton 1983, Ch. 4). If this is correct, the primary objectives for the farm are, first, production of a low-risk sustainable subsistence for primary system beneficiaries; second, generation of a cash income to meet needs not directly met in the form of food and other farm-produced materials; and third, pursuit of both of these in ways which are not in conflict with local culture and tradition. Goals, objectives and planning criteria are discussed in Chapter 6.

What is the science of agriculture?

The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming. [Middle English, from Latin agrīcultūra : agrī, genitive of ager, field; see agro- in Indo-European roots + cultūra, cultivation; see culture .]

What is the science of farming?

the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming.

What is harvest time?

harvest time, harvest- the season for gathering crops

What does “planting” mean?

planting- putting seeds or young plants in the ground to grow; “the planting of corn is hard work”

What is the cultivation of trees for the production of timber?

arboriculture, tree farming- the cultivation of tree for the production of timber

What does “cultivator” mean?

a cultivator or a person who grows things.

What is the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock?

agriculture- the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock

What is agricultural farming system?

Agricultural farming systems are simply the way a farmer makes use of resources available for sustainable agriculture to meet his needs. Over the years many factors have changed farming systems. These factors include; Available water, land, grazing areas, arable lands, forest; climate, landscape etc.

What is farming system and its importance?

More definitions. Farming system is a resource management strategy to achieve. economic and sustained agricultural production to meet. diverse requirements of farm livelihood while preserving. resource base and maintaining a high level of environment.

What are the two systems of farming?

This farming system consists of two types of farming, namely: large-scale commercialized farming, and scattered small-holder farming. Both kinds of agriculture use a mixed system of agricultural production.

What is the important of farming?

Agriculture is an important source of livelihood in most parts of the world. It involves tough work but it contributes to food security and the health of the nation.

What are the types of farming methods?

Arable Farming. Arable farming involves growing of crops only in warm climate.

What are the principles of farming?

Farming systems for sustainable crop production intensification will be built on the three core technical principles outlined in this chapter, and implemented using the seven recommended management practices: minimum soil disturbance, permanent organic soil cover, species diversification, use of high-yielding adapted

What are the 4 types of agriculture?

Agriculture not only gives riches to a nation, but the only riches she can call her own.

What is a subsistence farmer?

Subsistence Farmers – produce food for themselves and their family, there is no profit Commercial Farmers – sell their crops and animals to make a profit.

What is sedentary farming?

Sedentary is when the settlement is permanent and the landscape farmed every year

How much of the world’s population is farming?

3/4 of the world’s population live in the developing world, and over 70% of these people are engaged in farming. Much of the produce from farming in the LEDC’s is for subsistence.

Is farming responsible?

Of course, farming can be carried out in a more responsible way. Please see the case study below to build up a picture of how a large scale commercial farm works in the USA.


System Definition and Hierarchy

  • An agricultural systemis an assemblage of components which are united by some form of interaction and interdependence and which operate within a prescribed boundary to achieve a specified agricultural objective on behalf of the beneficiaries of the system. This definition is analogous to the general definition of any artificial (i.e., man-made) sys…

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General Systems Classification

  • Discussion and analysis of systems can be of them as actual systems (e.g., of constituent physical processes in the case of natural physical systems) or as representational systems. Common representations or models of actual systems take such forms as written descriptions, physical models, mathematical models, flowcharts, tables of data and computer programs. In th…

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Agricultural Systems Classification and Order Hierarchy

  • Agricultural and particularly farming systems exhibit great diversity as shown by, e.g., Duckham and Masefield (1970), Grigg (1974), Kostrowicki (1974) and Ruthenberg (1980). They have been classified in various ways as reviewed by Fresco and Westphal (1988) who also present an ecologically-based classification and typology of farm systems. The hierarchical classification o…

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Structural Elements of The Farm-Household System

  • The definition of an agricultural system given in Section 1.1 is a general one and applies broadly to systems of all the Order Levels. When applied specifically to a farm-household system of Order Level 12 it implies the system involves ten structural elements or components: Those elements marked by an asterisk have been considered above as subsystems of the farm-household syste…

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Structural Model of A Farm-Household System

  • Before examining the elements of a farm-household system in more detail in later chapters it is useful to consider where they lie in relation to each other in the structure of a small mixed farm as exemplified in Figure 1.3. Element 1, system boundaries:Depending on the purpose of analysis, the farm-household system may be specified with different boundaries. In Figure 1.3, these are s…

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  • Ackoff, R.L. (1973). ‘Science in the Systems Age: Beyond IE, OR, and MS’, Operations Research 21(3): 661-671. Ackoff, R.L. and F.E. Emery (1972). On Purposeful Systems, Tavistock, London. Boulding, K.E. (1956). ‘General Systems Theory – The Skeleton of Science’, Management Science2: 197-208. Cederroth, S. (1995). Survival and Profit in Rural Java: The Case of an East Javanese Vi…

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