What is agricultural transformation pdf


What are the drivers of agricultural transformation?

The drivers of agricultural transformation are multidimensional, interrelated, and change over time, but they can be organized into categories to provide a better opportunity for pragmatic diagnostics and decision making on national priorities.

What makes a successful agricultural transformation plan successful?

Successful agricultural transformation plans differentially target agri-food systems and geographic areas with tailored strategies. For example, more productive land that is already well connected to markets, such as irrigated land in Morocco, can support large- or small-scale farms; agribusiness is easier to scale there.

Is agricultural transformation a uniform process?

The agricultural transformation has been a remarkably uniform process when viewed from outside the agricultural sector itself.

Can agricultural transformations meet multiple agricultural goals simultaneously?

This is especially true in an era in which governments are seeking agricultural transformations that meet multiple goals simultaneously.


What is agricultural transformations?

Agricultural transformation is the process by which an agri-food system 3 transforms over time from being subsistence-oriented and farm-centered into one that is more commercialized, productive, and off-farm centered (Timmer, 1988).

What are the stages of agricultural transformation?

The contemporary view recognizes the evolving role of agriculture in development, roughly definable in four phases: (i) Beginning phase—agricultural labor productivity starts to increase; (ii) Agricultural surplus—agricultural productivity growth generates surplus towards the development of the nonagricultural sector; …

How do you transform the agricultural sector?


How agricultural transformation can improve productivity?

The mechanisms by which agricultural growth promotes transformation in the wider economy includes: (a) Higher agricultural productivity of labor means that labor can be released from agriculture into employment in relatively well remunerated rural and urban non-agricultural sectors; (b) Increased demand for …

Why do we need agricultural transformation?

Successful agricultural transformations can rapidly reduce poverty because they create powerful engines of rural economic growth. The dynamics of an agricultural transformation start with increasing the income of rural households, higher productivity on farms, and greater demand in local markets.

What do you mean by transformation of agriculture into agribusiness?

Agricultural transformation is defined as a process that leads to higher productivity farms that are commercially oriented, which strengthens the link between farming and other sectors of the economy.

What is the transformation of agricultural products into food?

Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods.

What are the ways to improve agriculture?

Ways to improve agricultural productionImplementation of land reforms. Land reforms are the first and most important point for improving productivity. … Interplant. … Plant more densely. … Manuring. … Plant many crops. … Water use and soil management. … Sustainable agriculture. … Raised beds.More items…•

What is the aim of agricultural development?

Agricultural development is defined with the help of continuous rise in the overall production of the agricultural products, constant rise in the farmers’ income, rise in the productivity and rise in the yield per hectare.

What are the steps taken by government to improve agriculture?

Land reforms.Tenancy reforms.Regulation of higher rents.Provision of credit to rural farmers.Subsidies e.g Urea subsidy.Food security act 2013.Public distribution system.Minimum support price and Procurement pricing system.

What is egalitarian land reform?

Market-oriented land reform aims at economic efficiency of the market based allocation of resources to ensure the growth of export-oriented agricultural production. Egalitarian land reform focuses on human and the realization of his or her basic rights, while market land reform focuses on the economy. Empirical data on land reforms in China show that their egalitarian nature was based on the creation of a society with equal opportunities of its members in the management of and access to land resources and material benefits obtained from them, and on ensuring a wide spread of the benefits from rural growth in society as a whole. Currently, China is the only country in the world that progressed from a “country of low human development” in 1990 to a “country of high human development” in 2018. The author proves that the purpose of land reform cannot be primitivized to a simple division of land into plots for transfer to private ownership based on free market turnover. Guaranteeing basic human rights and achieving public welfare from a land reform are achieved not only via obtaining land in private ownership, but also via supporting these acts with a fair distribution of control over the production process. Imposing on society a pseudo-scientific concept that land is a commodity that, like an apartment, mobile phone or bag of feed, can be freely bought and sold on market at open auctions, which will consolidate the country’s economic power would inevitably lead to even greater income polarization, violation of basic human rights and, consequently, to social confrontations and significant social upheavals. The publication was prepared within research project on “Spatial justice in land use for sustainable development of rural areas” (State Registration No 0121U108142).

What is Ethiopia’s extension system?

Ethiopia is considered a leading country globally in the provision of extension services to farmers and has the highest extension agent-to-farmer ratio of any country. Ethiopia presents an interesting case, as it is one of few African countries to have placed agriculture at the forefront of its economic development policies, having invested heavily in the sector over the past two decades. Unlike many countries where private-sector extension services expanded following drastic public funding cuts to their extension systems in the 1980s and 1990s (Zhou and Babu 2015), Ethiopia’s extension system remains predominantly public.

How has the Indonesian economy changed?

The development of economy in the recent years has successfully changed the Indonesian economy from agricultural economy to Industrial economy . However, when the sectoral output contribution decreases sharply, it does not mean that agriculture sector becomes unimportant factor in the Indonesian Economy. In recent years, the data shows that the agricultural sector still absorbs high employment compared to other sectors, which amounted to 30.9% of the total 121.7 million workforce. Increasing instability in the management of the agricultural industry and increasing population resulted in reduced regional vitality and community productivity. Therefore, through the policy concept of The Sixth Order Industry, it is important for the Indonesian government to build policy support and measures to promote the local economy in maintaining the welfare of the agricultural community. The purpose of this study is to determine the priority of policy objectives and support related to the 6th-order agricultural industrialization policy and identify the rules of agricultural institutions in Indonesia through the concept of the 6th-order agricultural industrialization policy. The method used study of literature and SWOT. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be seen that marketing and financial support are the most important means among several policy tools in achieving the goals of The Sixth Order Industry. Improving governance, agricultural management from upstream to downstream, and increasing cooperation between farmers, industry and banking are the keys to the success of agricultural development in Indonesia in order to achieve food sovereignty.

How does change affect agriculture?

For example, improvements in agricultural extension and seed systems might enable farmers to switch to a more productive hybrid seed, but lack of access to fertilizer (upon which the hybrid depends) could prevent productivity increases and leave the farmer unwilling to buy hybrid seed next time. As in any complex economic system, when so many elements are interrelated, any one of them can become a constraint and stall progress.

How does a PMO help in agricultural transformation?

Our experience suggests that creating a project management office (PMO) can greatly increase the chances of carrying out a successful large-scale change program. A PMO can concentrate talent, monitor implementation, act as a source of truth, and, in general, help get things done. The office can apply accepted project management technologies to break the transformation into discrete initiatives, each with specific goals, timing, and responsibility. A PMO is also charged with engaging relevant stakeholders when problems arise.

What are the SDGs for agriculture?

In addition to traditional economic development and poverty reduction goals, governments are also focusing their agricultural transformation plans on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by considering, for example, climate-smart strategies, women’s economic empowerment, and biodiversity.

What are the elements of transformation readiness?

First, there are elements of “transformation readiness.”. Changes to a country’s institutional framework, governing mechanisms, and political environment can significantly influence the likelihood of accelerating an agricultural transformation. Second, the quality of the national agricultural plan or strategy is critical.

What do farmers do in developing countries?

Farming households in developing countries balance a portfolio of crops, livestock, and nonfarm work. Because they feed their families with some of the farm output as well as sell into markets, they make decisions based on their potential profit, risk, and cash flow across family food consumption as well as sales.

What are the goals of government?

Governments work toward a number of different goals, including growth in agro-processing, reduced unemployment, lower poverty incidence, food self-sufficiency, economic growth, increased exports, or lower rates of malnutrition.

Which countries have doubled their agricultural output?

Recent examples include Brazil, China, and Vietnam, each of which at least doubled the value of its agriculture sector within 20 years of starting its transformation. Many other countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are earlier on the path of transformation.

What is agricultural mechanization?

Mechanization is part of the agricultural intensification process. According to Boserup (1965) and Ruthenberg (1980), and from the perspectives of long-term evolution of farming systems and agricultural technology, agricultural intensification is defined as the increased application of labor and other inputs per unit of land (intensified use of inputs) and more frequent cropping of land through reducing fallow periods (intensified use of land). However, in agricultural economics literature that does not focus on the long-term evolution of farming systems, agricultural intensification is exclusively referred to the intensified use of inputs, while the intensified use of land that often leads to the expansion of cropping areas by reducing forest or fallow land is referred to as agricultural extensification (Tachibana et al 2001).

What is mechanization in agriculture?

FAO defines mechanization as “the application of tools, implements and machinery in order to achieve agricultural production” (Clarke 1997). These can all be operated by manual, animal or engine (fossil fuel or electric) power. Essentially, agricultural mechanization represents technological change through the adoption of non-human sources of power to undertake agricultural operations. Mechanized agricultural operations can be grouped into power and control intensive functions. Mechanization of power intensive agricultural operations, such as land preparation, threshing, grinding and milling, is characterized by non-human sources of energy input to replace human and animal ones required in the operations. On the other hand, mechanized control intensive operations, such as planting, weeding, winnowing, fruit harvesting, require greater human judgment and mental input in addition to energy (Pingali et al 2007). Grain harvesting can be thought of as both a power and control intensive operation (Binswanger 1986; Pingali 2007). Some literature also separates stationary operations, such as milling, water lifting, and threshing, from mobile operations, which include plowing, weeding, and harvesting (Rijk 1999). Distinctions between power and control intensive operations, and stationary and mobile operations, are important for understanding the demand for mechanization. As shown in later sections, mechanized operations often have certain sequential patterns. Engine-powered irrigation and transport are two activities that are sometimes included in mechanization. However, in this paper we exclude them in most cases, except where they complement the mechanization of other agricultural operations.

Why is farmer to farmer service provision important?

Farmer to farmer service provision has been increasingly noted in recent years as an important mechanism to promote mechanization among small farmers in Africa (Diao et al 2014). We consider it as an important supply model of mechanization, as it is often able to overcome the administrative and technical inefficiencies associated with other service provision models while enabling tractor and other machinery owners to fully utilize their machines – improving the incentives for some farmers to invest in machinery. In order for the hiring market to function effectively, sufficient demand for mechanization among small and medium farmers must exist, as well as there being enough large and medium farmers capable of making the investment in tractors and hence supplying services. While data constraints preclude quantifying the scale of hiring markets at country level or throughout Africa, private farmer to farmer service provision has been observed in many African countries by IFPRI staff. In both Ghana and Nigeria where more in-depth research has been conducted, this supply model appears to be vibrant in a number of locations in these countries (Houssou et al 2014; Takeshima et al 2014). Such a model has also been present in Tunisia and studies conducted for Asian countries (Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh, Nepal and China) by other researchers have captured the similar patterns of farmer to farmer service provision (See Success Story 2). Such services include plowing, harvesting, carting, and post-harvesting threshing (Biggs and Justice 2015).

Why are tractors important?

In a society where there are both large and small farmers, tractors can be essential for expanding the aggregate area cultivated by large farms, for whom hired labor represents a high proportion of their production cost. The economies of scale associated with a large machine such as a tractor have also made mechanization a more attractive technology to such farms (Binswanger 1986). As a result, the first tractor owners in most developing countries are typically larger farmers, who also provide hiring services to non-owners when it helps them maximize their tractors’ utilization.

What is supply chain?

supply chain refers to the processes of production and distribution of a good or service across different actors. Applying a supply chain approach to analyze mechanization is a useful framework to describe the extent and typology of mechanization processes taking place in Africa and to identify the bottlenecks where supply is not meeting demand. The supply chains for mechanization cover the manufacturing and importation of machines, mechanized service provision, and spare parts and repairs services for machinery maintenance. The supply chain for animal traction is integrated with broader livestock value chains and is therefore not discussed here in the supply chains for mechanization.

How can Africa achieve its growth and poverty reduction goals?

It is widely believed that in order for Africa to achieve its growth and poverty reduction goals, it will have to transform agricultural through sustainably intensifying production. (Pretty et al 2011). Efforts by African governments and the donor community, including the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), have focused on increasing investments and improving strategy implementation in response to this need. In the Maputo Declaration of 2003, African governments agreed to spend 10% of national budgets in the agricultural sector in order to achieve a target of 6% annual growth. The CAADP platform, along with many policymakers and scholars, recognizes the importance of agricultural mechanization in promoting the intensification that may be required to transform African agriculture and bring about broader growth and development outcomes.

Where are power tillers made?

The tractors, power tillers, and combine harvesters used in Africa are almost exclusively manufactured outside the continent, as local manufacturing capacity is virtually non-existent. Mechanization trends in Africa are responsive to the global manufacturing industry. While in the past, machinery was typically imported from Europe and Japan, an increase in imported machinery from India and China, along with Brazil, Korea, Thailand, Turkey and the Czech Republic, has followed the rise of these countries’ agricultural equipment manufacturing sectors. India is now the world’s largest tractor manufacturer, outpacing Japan and European countries (Mandal 2013). China has been the largest exporter of power tillers since 2000, followed by Thailand and Japan (FAOSTAT). Manufacturing of tractors, combine harvesters and other mechanization equipment is often subsidized in China and in India by substantial public R&D or consumer subsidies (India Ministry of Agriculture 2008; Zhang et al 2015).


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