What is agriculture expansion



What is the main reason for agricultural expansion?

The agricultural expansion is often explained as a direct consequence of the global increase in food and energy requirements due to continuing population growth (both which in turn have been attributed to agricultural expansion itself ), with an estimated expectation of 10 to 11 billion humans on Earth by end of this century.

What is Agri-agricultural expansion?

Agricultural expansion describes the growth of agricultural land ( arable land, pastures, etc.) especially in the 20th and 21st century.

What is agricultural extension?

1997: Extension is the organized exchange of information and the deliberate transfer of skills. 1999: The essence of agricultural extension is to facilitate interplay and nurture synergies within a total information system involving agricultural research, agricultural education and a vast complex of information-providing businesses.

Will the global footprint of agriculture increase in the future?

The global footprint of agriculture is likely to increase markedly this century–indeed, the global extent of cropland is currently expanding faster than at any time in the past 50 years [23].


What is the meaning of agricultural expansion?

Agricultural expansion is the conversion of nonagricultural lands to agricultural lands, for example, conversion of forested lands to crops, wetlands to rice fields or fishponds, or natural grasslands to pastures.

Why is agricultural expansion?

Many factors contributed to the recent doubling of world food production. The development of higher-yielding strains of crops and better agricultural practices were important, as were increased use of herbicides for weed control and insecticides and fungicides for pest control.

Why is agricultural expansion bad?

Agricultural expansion is a major driver of deforestation and other ecological destruction, decimating habitats and biodiversity. Oil palm displaces lowland forests in Indonesia while soy production damages the Cerrado and Atlantic Forests of Brazil and Paraguay.

How does agriculture expansion cause deforestation?

Cattle ranching, animal agriculture, and logging are the leading causes of deforestation in our forests. The forest is cut to provide timber to build houses and create specialty wood products, or burned to make room for cattle grazing and feed crop production.

How does agricultural expansion affect the diversity of plants and animals?

In addition to its effects on climate, the expansion of agriculture has caused massive losses in biodiversity around the world: natural habitats have been converted to farms and pastures, pesticides and fertilizers have polluted the environment, and soils have been degraded.

How agricultural expansion contributes on the global issues that we are facing today?

In addition, irrigation of agricultural crops comprises 70% of global water use, and agriculture directly contributes to around 11% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mostly through cattle). Expanding agricultural land can also lead to deforestation, additional GHG emissions, and a loss of biodiversity.

How does agriculture affect the economy?

What is agriculture’s share of the overall U.S. economy? Agriculture, food, and related industries contributed $1.055 trillion to the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020, a 5.0-percent share. The output of America’s farms contributed $134.7 billion of this sum—about 0.6 percent of GDP.

Why agriculture is so important?

Agriculture plays a critical role in the entire life of a given economy. Agriculture is the backbone of the economic system of a given country. In addition to providing food and raw material, agriculture also provides employment opportunities to a very large percentage of the population.

What are the positive and negative effects of agriculture?

While negative impacts are serious, and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming practices.

How does agriculture affect the environment?

Agriculture contributes to a number larger of environmental issues that cause environmental degradation including: climate change, deforestation, biodiversity loss, dead zones, genetic engineering, irrigation problems, pollutants, soil degradation, and waste.

What is agriculture deforestation?

The tropical rainforests of the Amazon Basin face the threat of deforestation . Deforestation is happening for the following reasons: Farming – large areas are cleared for pastoral farming . As the global demand for meat has increased, many cattle farms have opened in the Amazon Basin for beef farming.

How does agriculture cause desertification?

The role of agriculture in desertification. One of the most important causes of desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, is improper activities in agriculture. Dense and improper cultivation of crops reduce soil structure stability and lead to soil degradation and erosion [28].

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A tropical time bomb

Tropical ecosystems sustain much of Earth’s biological diversity [1], provide myriad natural products and services to local communities [2], and play key roles in the global carbon and hydrological cycles 3, 4. Unfortunately, many tropical ecosystems are being disrupted by large-scale land-use change and other environmental alterations [5].

Major trends

The global footprint of agriculture is likely to increase markedly this century–indeed, the global extent of cropland is currently expanding faster than at any time in the past 50 years [23].

Impacts of agricultural change on tropical nature

Because they are so far-reaching, the environmental changes detailed above will have a wide array of impacts on tropical ecosystems and biota. Here we highlight some of the most important potential changes.

Key challenges ahead

Over the course of the 21st century, humanity will face unprecedented environmental and societal challenges, many of which will play out in the tropics. Here we highlight some urgent priorities and opportunities for confronting these challenges.

Concluding remarks

Human societies are remarkably adaptable but, as the 21st century progresses, we are moving ever farther into uncharted territory. Tropical ecosystems are crucial for global biodiversity and provide vital ecosystem services, but are facing unprecedented pressures.


We thank Andrew Balmford, David Edwards, Ivette Perfecto, Ben Phalan, Thomas Rudel, Sean Sloan, John Vandermeer, and two anonymous referees for many useful insights.

What is extension in agriculture?

1973: Extension is a service or system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, bettering their standard of living and lifting social and educational standards.

What are the organizations that support agricultural extension?

Agricultural extension agencies in developing countries receive large amounts of support from international development organizations such as the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

What is extension in education?

The field of ‘extension’ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines, including agriculture, agricultural marketing, health, and business studies . Extension practitioners can be found throughout the world, usually working for government agencies.

What is the central task of extension?

1949: The central task of extension is to help rural families help themselves by applying science, whether physical or social, to the daily routines of farming, homemaking, and family and community living. 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people.

When did extension start?

Extension terminology. Modern extension began in Dublin, Ireland in 1847 with Lord Clarendon’s itinerant instructors during the great famine. It expanded in Germany in the 1850s, through the itinerant agricultural teachers Wanderlehrer and later in the USA via the cooperative extension system authorized by the Smith-Lever Act in 1914.

What were the main crops of the colonial agriculture?

The focus of attention was usually on export crops such as rubber, tea, cotton, and sugar. Technical advice was provided to plantation managers and large landowners.

When did Chinese farmers start to practice agriculture?

It is known, however, that Chinese officials were creating agricultural policies, documenting practical knowledge, and disseminating advice to farmers at least 2,000 years ago . For example, in approximately 800 BC, the minister responsible for agriculture under one of the Zhou dynasty emperors organized the teaching of crop rotation and drainage to farmers. The minister also leased equipment to farmers, built grain stores and supplied free food during times of famine.


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