What is agriculture irrigation



What are the different methods of irrigation?

  • This irrigation is convenient for any slope; land leveling is therefore not necessary
  • Sprinklers are easy to operate. Hence, no skilled personnel are required
  • It is effective for uniform distribution of pesticides, water and fertilizers
  • Conserves water and improves the quality and quantity of farm produce

What are four types of irrigation techniques?

What Are the Four Types of Irrigation Techniques?

  • Surface Irrigation. Surface irrigation is a standard irrigation method that relies on gravity to distribute water to the fields.
  • Sprinkler Irrigation. In sprinkler irrigation, crops get water from sprinklers set in the field based on the agricultural scale.
  • Drip Irrigation. …
  • Subsurface Irrigation. …
  • Conclusion. …

What are the different types of farm irrigation systems?

Types of irrigation methods are

  • Surface irrigation method
  • Drip irrigation method
  • Sprinkler irrigation method

What are examples of irrigation systems?

A simple example is al Zajra, an ancient unique whole system … Zajra , which is the unique system of farm irrigation has been maintained since ancient times. Al Zajira, as the administration of the Fort said, was used in the past to extract water from …


What percentage of the nation’s water is irrigation?

The irrigation of agricultural crops accounts for most (80 percent) of the Nation’s water consumption. That is why U.S. agriculture is central to the challenge of balancing increasing water demands for urban, industrial, and environmental uses.

What is the difference between gravity and pressurized irrigation?

There are two main types of irrigation systems: gravity and pressurized irrigation. Gravity irrigation uses the force of gravity and field borders or furrows to distribute water across a field. Open ditches or pipe systems along with siphon tubes, ditch gates, pipe valves or orifices deliver the water to the field. Pressurized irrigation, on the other hand, delivers water to the field under pressure in lateral, hand-move, and center-pivot pipe systems with attached sprinklers. It may also use drip/trickle tubes and micro-spray systems with drip emitters or micro-spray nozzles to distribute water.

Why is the USDA conservation program important?

USDA conservation programs provide financial and technical assistance to encourage the adoption of more efficient onfarm irrigation systems. Efficient irrigation systems can help maintain farm profitability in an era of increasingly limited and more costly water supplies.

What crops are irrigated on AIO?

Crops irrigated on AIO include corn, wheat, and soybeans as well as vegetables, berries, and nut trees. By comparison, crops irrigated on HUP (such as greenhouses) include floriculture crops, nursery crops, and mushrooms. In 2013, U.S. farms irrigated about 55.4 million acres.

Which region has the highest irrigation efficiency?

In the East, the Delta States region had the highest irrigation efficiency, with more efficient gravity systems accounting for nearly 60 percent of total irrigated acres.

Do irrigated farms use water?

Most Irrigated Farms Are Low-Sales Operations, But Large Farms Use Most of the Water. The distribution of irrigated farms and acres and applied water varies significantly across farm size. Most irrigated farms in 2013 were low-sales operations with under $150,000 in annual farm sales: 67 percent of Western irrigated farms and 64 percent of U.S.

What is irrigation in medicine?

in medicine, a therapeutic procedure that consists in the flooding of inflamed tissue with a stream of water or medicinal fluid. It has been widely used in surgery (on wound surfaces and the rectum, for example) and also in urology, gynaecology, and other branches of medicine. The most frequent use of the term “irrigation” pertains to the rinsing of the urethra without a catheter. Cystoscopes and urethroscopes used for irrigation are called irrigation cystoscopes and urethroscopes. Enemas, syringes, and the like are called irrigators.

How much land is irrigated?

(51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. Estimates of total irrigated land in the world range from 543 to 618 million acres (220 to 250 million hectares), almost half of them in India, Pakistan, and China. The United States had almost 60 million acres (23.8 million hectares) of irrigated farmland in 1991.

What is the supply of water to fields where a shortage of moisture exists?

the supply of water to fields where a shortage of moisture exists, and also the increase of reserves of moisture in the root zone of the soil; a type of land reclamation.

Why is irrigation important for agriculture?

Places that have sparse or seasonal rainfall could not sustain agriculture without irrigation. In areas that have irregular precipitation, irrigation improve s crop growth and quality. By allowing farmer s to grow crops on a consistent schedule, irrigation also creates more reliable food supplies.

What was the first form of irrigation?

The earliest form of irrigation probably involved people carrying buckets of water from well s or rivers to pour on their crops. As better techniques developed, societies in Egypt and China built irrigation canals, dam s, dike s, and water storage facilities. Ancient Rome built structures called aqueduct s to carry water from snowmelt in …

Which country has the most acreage of irrigated land?

Improved irrigation canals from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya also reduce the amount of water lost to agriculture. India, China, and the United States have the most acreage of irrigated land.

How does drip irrigation work?

Letting water drop onto plants through holes in pipes , known as drip irrigation, is considered one of the most efficient methods of irrigation. Drip irrigation focuses the water onto the plant itself. Other methods can waste water by letting it absorb into the ground where there are no plants.

What was the water used in ancient Rome?

Ancient Rome built structures called aqueduct s to carry water from snowmelt in the Alps to cities and towns in the valleys below. This water was used for drinking, washing, and irrigation. Modern irrigation systems use reservoir s, tanks, and wells to supply water for crops. Reservoirs include aquifer s, basins that collect snowmelt, lake s, …

What is the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops?

the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). a pipe or passage used for carrying water from a distance. an underground layer of rock or earth which holds groundwater. land used for, or capable of, producing crops or raising livestock. a geographic region.

What percentage of Australia’s water is used for irrigation?

The Australian government estimates that 70 percent of the water used in rural Australia is used for irrigation.

What is irrigation in agriculture?

What is Irrigation? Irrigation is the process of applying water to the crops artificially to fulfil their water requirements. Nutrients may also be provided to the crops through irrigation. The various sources of water for irrigation are wells, ponds, lakes, canals, tube-wells and even dams. Irrigation offers moisture required for growth …

How does irrigation help farmers?

Irrigation has stabilized the output and yield levels. Irrigation increases the availability of water supply, which in turn increases the income of the farmers.

What are the two methods of irrigation?

Two different methods of irrigation are- modern methods that include sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation ; traditional irrigation that includes manual irrigation where water is pulled out by the farmers themselves from the wells and canals to irrigate the land.

What is a sprinkler system?

Sprinkler System. A sprinkler system, as its name suggests, sprinkles water over the crop and helps in an even distribution of water. This method is much advisable in areas facing water scarcity. Here a pump is connected to pipes which generate pressure and water is sprinkled through nozzles of pipes.

Why is irrigation important?

The importance of irrigation can be explained in the following points: Insufficient and uncertain rainfall adversely affects agriculture. Droughts and famines are caused due to low rainfall. Irrigation helps to increase productivity even in low rainfall.

What is the process of supplying water to the land at regular intervals?

Irrigation is the process of supplying water to the land at regular intervals by means of canals and other artificial methods, to enhance agricultural growth and maintain the landscape during the periods of less average rainfall.

How is irrigation done?

In this method, irrigation is done manually. Here, a farmer pulls out water from wells or canals by himself or using cattle and carries to farming fields. This method can vary in different regions.

What is irrigation used for?

Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed .

How does irrigation work?

There are several methods of irrigation. They vary in how the water is supplied to the plants. The goal is to apply the water to the plants as uniformly as possible , so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little. Irrigation can also be understood whether it is supplementary to rainfall as happens in many parts of the world, or whether it is ‘ full irrigation’ whereby crops rarely depend on any contribution from rainfall. Full irrigation is less common and only happens in arid landscapes experiencing very low rainfall or when crops are grown in semi-arid areas outside of any rainy seasons.

How many zones are there in a sprinkler system?

A typical lawn sprinkler system will consist of one or more zones, limited in size by the capacity of the water source. Each zone will cover a designated portion of the landscape. Sections of the landscape will usually be divided by microclimate, type of plant material, and type of irrigation equipment.

What was the first irrigation system in Sri Lanka?

The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE in the reign of King Pandukabhaya, and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. These reservoirs and canal systems were used primarily to irrigate paddy fields, which require a lot of water to cultivate. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153–1186 CE ).

What is micro irrigation?

Micro-irrigation, sometimes called localized irrigation, low volume irrigation, or trickle irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Traditional drip irrigation use individual emitters, subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), micro-spray or micro-sprinklers, and mini-bubbler irrigation all belong to this category of irrigation methods.

Where is sprinkler irrigation used?

Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States. Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Americas.

What is the oldest form of irrigation?

Main article: Surface irrigation. Basin flood irrigation of wheat. Surface irrigation, also known as gravity irrigation, is the oldest form of irrigation and has been in use for thousands of years.

What are the challenges of surface irrigation?

Challenges in surface irrigation include minimizing losses throughout the system and insuring delivery is as uniform as possible. Scheduling of surface irrigation is, at worst, whenever there is water, however much there is, and, at best, based on combined data regarding the soil, crop, and weather.

How does a sprinkler system work?

Design of a sprinkler system relies on knowledge regarding pressure-flow relationships in laterals between sprinklers and in the emitters themselves.

Is irrigation good for the environment?

Irrigation is additionally beneficial to nutrient management and can promote food/nutrition security and crop quality. That said, irrigation is not without its disadvantages. Irrigation can confound water scarcity (depletion of water supplies), compete with other water consuming sectors, and raise environmental concerns including pollution, …

Is irrigation technology beneficial?

Irrigation technology can be beneficial only in context with the network of institutions, policies and practices that enact it (Venot et al. 2014). Community and institutional organization and support are necessary for its success.

What is the difference between irrigation and rainfed farming?

There are two main ways that farmers and ranchers use agricultural water to cultivate crops: Rain-fed farming. Irrigation. Rain-fed farming is the natural application of water to the soil through direct rainfall. Relying on rainfall is less likely to result in contamination of food products …

What are the different types of irrigation systems?

Some common types of irrigation systems include: Surface irrigation. Water is distributed over and across land by gravity, no mechanical pump involved. Localized irrigation.

How is water distributed in irrigation?

Water is distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns from a central location in the field or from sprinklers on moving platforms. Water is distributed by a system of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in a circular pattern.

Why is it important to protect agricultural water?

As a result, it is critical that farmers protect their agricultural water source to minimize the potential for contamination. As with any groundwater removal, users of irrigation water need to be careful in not pumping groundwater out of an aquifer faster than it is being recharged. Top of Page.

What is the artificial application of water to the soil?

On the other hand, artificial applications of water increase the risk of contamination. Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil through various systems of tubes, pumps, and sprays. Irrigation is usually used in areas where rainfall is irregular or dry times or drought is expected. There are many types of irrigation systems, in …

Which type of irrigation system is most effective in areas with high water tables?

This system tends to be less expensive but requires more labor than others. Sub-irrigation. Water is distributed across land by raising the water table, through a system of pumping stations, canals, gates, and ditches. This type of irrigation is most effective in areas with high water tables. Manual irrigation.

How is water distributed?

This system is common in flat areas of the United States. Water is distributed through a series of pipes, each with a wheel and a set of sprinklers, which are rotated either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism.

Why is irrigation important?

The efficiency of irrigation systems is particularly important in the arid Western States where water demand for agriculture is greatest, and where increases in competing demands and climate change impacts are expected to affect future water supplies for agriculture.

What are the topics examined in the irrigated agriculture?

Topics examined include the following: The value of irrigated agriculture to U.S. agriculture; Where irrigation occurs across the United States; Crops produced with irrigation; Trends in water use and onfarm irrigation efficiency; Private and public investment in irrigation improvements; and. Definitions.

How many acres of land were irrigated in 2012?

Roughly 56 million acres—or 7.6 percent of all U.S. cropland and pastureland—were irrigated in 2012. Nearly three-quarters of irrigated acres are in the 17 western-most contiguous States (referred to as the Western States hereafter).

What percentage of acres were irrigated in 1984?

In 1984, 62 percent of irrigated acres relied on gravity irrigation systems compared with only 34 percent of irrigated acres in 2013. Over the same period, the share of irrigated acres using pressure-sprinkler irrigation systems rose from 37 to 76 percent (note that some acres may be irrigated with both systems).

What is the largest share of the nation’s consumptive water use?

Irrigated agriculture , which accounts for the largest share of the Nation’s consumptive water use ( see definitions ), makes a significant contribution to the value of U.S. agricultural production. In 2012, irrigated farms accounted for roughly half of the total value of crop sales on 28 percent of U.S. harvested cropland.

What states have irrigated acres?

Contractions in State-level irrigated acreage exceeded 10 percent in Texas, Colorado, Oregon, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In recent decades, much of the expansion in irrigated acreage has occurred in the more humid Eastern States.

How much money was spent on irrigation in 2013?

Approximately $2.64 billion was spent on irrigation facilities and equipment on U.S. farms in 2013. About 72 percent ($1.91 billion) of these investments were on land in the West, where most of the Nation’s irrigated land is concentrated. The majority of U.S. irrigation investment is financed privately.


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