What is agriculture modernization

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This paper defines agricultural modernization as the use of industry-supplied inputs in farming, which primarily refers to the mechanization of the 19th century, but also includes chemical, biological and other agronomic innovations of later periods.

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What is pro-poor agricultural modernization?

In this study, the concept of pro-poor agricultural modernization refers to the advancement of agriculture technologies and institutions that improve the poor and small-scale farmers’ welfare relative to rich large-scale farmers.

Does modernization make agriculture more sustainable?

In more concrete terms we ask what forms of modernization makes agriculture more (or less) sustainable. Our literature review shows that while the term ‘sustainable agriculture’, has been extensively debated, the term ‘agricultural modernization’, while carrying a positive and forward-looking connotation, remains poorly defined.

What is mechanization strategy in agricultural modernization?

This means that agricultural modernization includes mechanization strategy as part of technological change and the modernization of agriculture behavior, structure and institutions. The choice of the technology, which depends on the factor price and public policies, must be centered on the technological need of small-scale farmers.

Why is industrial development necessary for the modernization of Agriculture?

Industrial development is a necessary precondition for the modernization of agriculture. Once agricultural modernization begins, per capita income breaks out of stasis and growth starts.

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What do you mean by Modernisation of agriculture?

Modernisation of agriculture is a process of. transforming agriculture from traditional. labour-based agriculture to technology-based. agriculture [25].


What is the importance of modernization in agriculture?

Agricultural modernization prepares conditions for industrialization by boosting labor productivity, increasing agricultural surplus to accumulate capital, and increasing foreign exchange via exports.


How can we modernize agriculture?

The primary objectives of modernizing agriculture system are as follows:Provision of loan.Use of agriculture tools and technology.Training and focus on agriculture education.Facility of irrigation.Joint farming system.Research and Innovation.Commercialization of agriculture.Crops diversification.


Why modernizing agriculture in the Philippines is important?

MANILA, September 9, 2020— Transforming Philippine agriculture into a dynamic, high-growth sector is essential for the country to speed up recovery, poverty reduction and inclusive growth, according to the latest report released by the World Bank.


What are the features of modern agriculture system?

The main characteristics of the modern farm are: new machinery and equipment, technologies, modern production buildings, farms apply a range of innovations, farmers are seeking knowledge are interested in innovation, take part in exhibitions, events, they are energetic, creative and implementing good management …


What are the factors of modernization?

Factors of Modernization: A number of factors are involved in modernization i.e., education, mass communication, ideology, values and attitude, growth of knowledge and science.


What hindered the modernization of agriculture in the Philippines?

The supply chain took a heavy hit with several obstacles, including lack of transportation, a decrease in demand and a low volume of exports. These factors all contribute to the decline of the agricultural industry and the country’s economy.


How can we improve agriculture in the Philippines?

Key policy recommendations to improve agriculture in the PhilippinesRefocus the policy package to improve food security.Focus on agricultural land policies, from land distribution to protection of property rights through land governance reforms.Budget support for long-term structural reforms.More items…•


What are the development of agriculture in the Philippines?

Through commercial agriculture and improved infrastructure, small-holder farmers can increase their incomes and slowly become more self-reliant. Developing irrigation systems in rural farming lands which is an important aspect of the project, makes farming more efficient for the people of the Philippines.


Additional information

This work was supported by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [grant number 033RA02]; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development [grant number CA 235175]; European Commission, 7th Framework Programme (FP 7, CA 235175).


Funding

This work was supported by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung [grant number 033RA02]; Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development [grant number CA 235175]; European Commission, 7th Framework Programme (FP 7, CA 235175).


How does modernization affect agriculture?

Growth is not sustainable until this relative price drops below a certain threshold, thus inducing farmers to adopt modern technology that employs industry-supplied inputs. Once agricultural modernization begins, per capita income emerges from stasis and accelerates toward modern growth. Our calibrated model is largely consistent with the set of historical data we have compiled on the English economy, accounting well for the growth experience of England encompassing the Industrial Revolution.


What are the factors that directly influence the use of modern agricultural technology?

This proposition identifies several factors that directly influence the use of modern agricultural technology. First, TFP parameter Aat and land-to-population ratio are negatively related to the adoption of modern technology. Second, the industrial TFP ( Ant) has a positive effect on the adoption of the modern farm technology. As we shall shortly elaborate on further, this is because a high level of industrial productivity lowers the price of the nonagricultural good, thus reducing the cost of using the industry-supplied input. 11


What is the ratio of the land devoted to new technology over the total land area?

The use of modern inputs in agriculture: The ratio of the land devoted to new technology over the total land area measures the extent of modern technology adoption. In an agrarian economy, the old technology prevails. Once the transition begins, however, if the TFP in nonagriculture Ant grows sufficiently fast, then increases over time, and the proportion of land (and labor) allocated to modern agricultural production increases from zero to one, as moves from to (see Eq. (12) ).


How did the Malthusian regime affect the economy?

1 They argue that for a long period in history, the economy was trapped in the Malthusian regime because people employed only land-intensive technology, which is subject to diminishing returns to labor. What triggered sustained growth was the adoption of a less land-intensive production process that, although available throughout history, had not previously been profitable for individual firms to operate. However, the growth of usable knowledge eventually made it profitable to use this technology that is free of diminishing returns, thus permitting an escape from Malthusian stagnation. Although Hansen and Prescott provide powerful insight into the transition from stagnation to growth, their model is highly stylized. In an aggregate framework with a single final good, the model is abstracted from several key features of long-term development such as structural transformation and the relationship between agricultural and industrial growth.


How long is the model economy?

For this quantitative exercise, each period in the model consists of 10 years, with the initial period starting in 1700–1709. We assume that the model economy is initially a traditional one with no modern technology used in agriculture; then, in the 1820–1829 period, it begins agricultural modernization, or the transition to modern growth. The technology parameters, subsistence consumption, initial TFP levels, and population growth profiles are calibrated. We then feed the TFP growth rates estimated from the historical data into the model to generate time series predictions for six key variables – per capita GDP, relative price, agricultural mechanization, farm employment share, real wage of agricultural workers, and land rents – and compare them to their counterparts in the data. The details are as follows.


Why does the price of industrial products decline with the growth of Ant?

The price of industrial products relative to agricultural products: In the traditional steady state, pt declines with the growth of Ant because is a constant (see Eq. (5) ). Once agricultural modernization begins, pt settles to a constant level at which farmers are indifferent about the adoption of either technology. Industrial TFP growth tends to lower the relative price, but this induces the more widespread use of modern technology, which helps to keep the relative price at a stable level.


What were the technological advances of the Middle Ages?

The inventions developed in China, including paper, printing, the magnetic compass and gun powder, raised production efficiency through diverse channels. In the Middle Ages, dramatic improvements in energy utilization through the use of windmills, waterwheels, and horse technologies effectively expanded the frontiers of production, and the creation of the mechanical clock marks the entry of a key machine of the modern industrial age. Turning to the Renaissance, in addition to its remarkable scientific achievements, innovations in shipbuilding, mining techniques, spinning wheels for textile production, and the use of blast furnaces raised the capacity of industrial production to new levels. Why then did these major technological advances fail to generate sustained improvement in living standards?

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