Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed. The term can refer to the practice of selectively breeding and raising livestock to promote desira…
is the technology applied to the keeping of animals for profit. This includes; feeding, breeding, housing and marketing. What are the benefits of animal production? Raising animals humanely can use less feed, fuel and water than intensive farming, reducing costs and pollution.
What is agricultural production?
What Is Agricultural Production? Jennifer Chait is a former writer for The Balance Small Business who covered organic businesses. She runs a family-oriented blog on green living. Agricultural production is the use of cultivated plants or animals to produce products for sustaining or enhancing human life.
What is animal agriculture?
What is Animal Agriculture? Animal agriculture, or factory farming as it’s commonly known, is the mass industrialization of the breeding, raising, and slaughter of animals for human consumption.
What is the modern animal production system like?
Modern animal production systems are very complex and highly variable. No two farms are the same.
Which animals are used for animal feed production in developed countries?
This concentration of animal production in specific areas in developed countries applies mainly to swine, cattle (beef, dairy, and veal), and poultry (chicken and turkey) production.
What defines animal production?
Animal Production is the technology applied to the keeping of animals for profit. This includes; feeding, breeding, housing and marketing.
What is animal agriculture?
Animal agriculture involves holding animals hostage simply so humans can eat their meat or their secretions, such as milk and eggs. Animals are dominated and controlled for their entire lives on these factory farms, also known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs).
Is animal production considered agriculture?
Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) are agricultural operations where animals are kept and raised in confined situations. AFOs generally congregate animals, feed, manure, dead animals, and production operations on a small land area.
What is the importance of animal production?
Livestock production constitutes a very important component of the agricultural economy of developing countries, a contribution that goes beyond direct food production to include multipurpose uses, such as skins, fibre, fertilizer and fuel, as well as capital accumulation.
Why animals are important for agriculture?
Farm animals contribute not only a source of high-quality food that improves nutritional status but also additional resources such as manure for fertilizer, on-farm power, and other by-products, and, in addition, provide economic diversification and risk distribution (12,13,16–18).
Why is animal production bad?
Livestock emit almost 64% of total ammonia emissions, contributing significantly to acid rain and to acidification of ecosystems. Livestock are also a highly significant source of methane emissions, contributing 35–40% of methane emissions worldwide.
What are the examples of animal production?
Animal production and milk production include the care of cows and calves, animals sold or animals sold for meat, animals maintained off the farm, type of management system and number and breed of animals, type of animal housing, manure handling, milking parlor operations, and milk storage on the farm.
How can we improve animal production?
Feed animals less human food. Around 70% of the grains used by developed countries are fed to animals. … Raise regionally appropriate animals. … Keep animals healthy. … Adopt smart supplements. … Eat quality not quantity. … Tailor practices to local culture. … Track costs and benefits. … Study best practice.
What are the factors to consider in farm animal production?
Factors Affecting Livestock FarmingAnimalsHuman/Economic factorsNatural/Physical factorsCattle, Goats, SheepMedication Provision of shelter Skills Mechanization (Machinery like used to milk cows, buffaloes, etc.Climate Vegetation Diseases Availability of waterJul 26, 2020
What are the economic benefits of animal production?
Production of animal source foods contributes to economic development by generating income and employment for livestock keepers and actors along livestock value chains.
What is animal and livestock production?
Livestock agriculture is concerned with raising and maintaining livestock, primarily for the purposes of producing meat, milk, and eggs. Livestock agriculture also includes wool and leather production and may include animals kept for recreation (riding or racing) and draft.
What are the tools used in animal production?
Tools for livestock productionTattoo Kit. Tattooing is one method of identification that is permanent if properly done. … Elastrator. And elastrator is a castration device that cuts off circulation to the testicles when utilized. … Bolus Applicator. … Ear Notcher. … Ear Tag Applicator/ Ear Tag. … Pig Tooth Nipper. … Hoof Knife.
What is the primary source of nitrogen and phosphorus in agriculture?
Estimated Animal Agriculture Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Manure – Animal agriculture manure is a primary source of nitrogen and phosphorus to surface and groundwater. Manure runoff from cropland and pastures or discharging animal feeding operations and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) often reaches surface and groundwater systems through surface runoff or infiltration.
How does animal waste enter water?
Animal waste and wastewater can enter water bodies from spills or breaks of waste storage structures (due to accidents or excessive rain), and non-agricultural application of manure to crop land. An AFO is a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met:
What is AADG in agriculture?
AADG is an informal and iterative group of animal agriculture stakeholders including representatives from the U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA), all sectors of the animal feeding industry and their associations, academia, and states. The group convenes via conference calls and face-to-face meetings twice per year.
Which bill exempts the reporting of air emissions from animal waste at a farm?
Title XI of the Omnibus Bill , called the “Fair Agricultural Reporting Method Act” or “FARM Act” exempts the reporting of “air emissions from animal waste at a farm” under CERCLA. Top of Page.
What is Agricultural Air Quality Conservation Measures Reference Guide for Poultry and Livestock Production Systems?
Agricultural Air Quality Conservation Measures Reference Guide for Poultry and Livestock Production Systems – This guide describes different conservation measures for poultry and livestock operations that have been successfully demonstrated to reduce emissions of various air pollutants on farms. In addition, it offers general comments on the applicability of the measures to different types of farms and ranges of potential emission reductions.
What are the inputs for animal production?
Animal production and milk production include the care of cows and calves, animals sold or animals sold for meat, animals maintained off the farm, type of management system and number and breed of animals, type of animal housing, manure handling, milking parlor operations, and milk storage on the farm. Resource inputs include fuel, electricity, water, machinery, and packaging material.
How has meat animal production changed?
Meat animal production has changed considerably from the initial domestication of livestock until the Industrial Revolution which resulted in a livestock revolution. Consumer criticism about meat animal production has resulted in the introduction of quality standards, codes of practices, and certification programs which enabled the global meat industry to better address some of the hostile consumer perceptions regarding meat production and quality, and ensure economical and environmentally sustainable production systems. Although the world is currently faced with the dilemmas of poverty, high urbanization rates and poor food distribution, predictions are that food scarcity is on the horizon due to the rapidly increasing human population, which may signify the next major global predicament. This moral dilemma far outweighs much of the culture-based ethical principles, although issues relating to food safety and quality are fixed. Although there is great emphasis on environmentally sustainable and ethically acceptable meat animal production, which can only be achieved by vertical integration of production systems, the use of unconventional species, and the responsible exploitation of modern production enhancing technologies. The use of such technologies will be the cause of considerable debate, although there are few other alternatives given the unavailability of more agricultural land and natural resources.
Why is organic farming important?
Animal production in the way of organic farming is a recent tool to avoid prevalence of antibiotic resistance (Faldynova et al., 2013 ). Most pathogenic strains are becoming highly virulent due to the unrestricted use of antibiotics, which is primarily responsible for major economic losses in the world ( Kutateladze and Adamia, 2010 ). These types of foodborne diseases are a concern as a main health problem of human society, developing as untreatable or uncontrollable bacterial infections. Moreover, farm animals such as swine, cattle, and poultry have played key roles in the emerging global public health crisis ( Marshall and Levy, 2011 ). Recently, Wall et al. (2016) reported that the bacterial isolates from chicken and swine has high resistance capability to tetracycline, penicillins, and sulfonamides. These antibiotic-resistant strains can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food animals and vice versa ( Woolhouse and Ward, 2013; WHO, 2015 ).
How much carbon does farming produce?
Farm animal production also results in releases of up to 28 million metric tons of CO 2 /year from cultivated soils. Soils, like forests, act as carbon sinks and store more than twice the carbon found in vegetation or in the atmosphere. Human activities, however, have significantly depleted the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil, contributing to GHG emissions:
What is artificial fertilizer used for?
Vast amounts of artificial nitrogenous fertilizer are used to grow farm animal feed, primarily composed of corn and soybeans. Most of this fertilizer is produced in factories dependent on fossil-fuel energy. The Haber–Bosch process, which produces ammonia in order to create nitrogen-based artificial fertilizer, is used to produce 100 million metric tons of fertilizer for feed crops annually.
How does traceability work in livestock?
Traceability requires that livestock producers commit to providing identifying data for each animal that can be followed through the production chain. The IDEA Project has demonstrated that it is possible to implement an identification system based on EID that will result in substantial benefits to the meat-production sector. Introducing EID for livestock will lead to a major improvement in the quantitative and qualitative data available to manage animal production and to provide information to the consumer. It will also provide solutions to existing problems, both general in the case of cattle and more particular in the case of small ruminants. The EID system will not only provide a way of unalterably and uniquely identifying individual animals, but it will also enable the automated control and veterinary management of livestock. Automating data collection and linkages to a central database will save time and lead to increased confidence in the information provided to the consumer.
What are the measures of animal production in Europe?
Animal production in Europe is undergoing major changes in response to measures introduced by the European Union itself and other international bodies such as the World Trade Organization (WTO or OMC), the Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUL), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA or ALCA). These measures are based on information flow, transparency and consistency of information across borders. In order to remain competitive, cattle production must introduce innovative methods of production and monitoring that will lead to improved quality, productivity and sustainability.
How much does livestock contribute to agriculture?
Livestock contributes to nearly 40 percent of total agricultural output in developed countries and 20 percent in developing ones, supporting the livelihoods of at least 1.3 billion people worldwide.
How much food does livestock consume?
Livestock consume annually about 6 billion tonnes of feed dry matter, about half being grass. Eighty-six percent of the global livestock feed intake is made of resources that are not edible by humans. Cereals represent about 13 percent of the intake, and about one third of global cereal production.
What is the role of FAO?
The Organization plays a policy advisory and awareness raising role and provides technical support, advocacy, information, knowledge and guidance to help produce high quality animal products, safely, efficiently and responsibly, while improving poor people’s livelihoods and meeting consumers’ needs. FAO also works alongside governments and farmers, responding during and after livestock emergencies and promotes dialogue amongst public, private and civil society partners whose ultimate goal is responsible and sustainable livestock production.
How can livestock feed be improved?
improving livestock feeding systems, for example through enlarging the feed resource base, increasing feed safety, promoting the use of novel feed sources and related technologies, and reducing food-feed competition;
How does FAO work?
FAO works to enhance livestock’s contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by supporting the transformation of animal production systems – small and large – in ways that are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable.
Why is livestock important to agriculture?
Livestock production can be an important component of a sustainable agricultural system because it can provide an quality source of plant nutrients, be an income generator, and provide a an environmentally sound use of certain lands. Some farm land is just not suitable for crop production, but may be utilized sustainably for livestock production.
Why are livestock and poultry producers receiving a small portion of the retail price of their products?
Livestock and poultry producers receive a very small portion of the retail price of their products because just a handful of companies control the vast majority of the livestock production in the United States. NSAC has dedicated years of work to advocating on behalf of farmers that raise poultry and livestock for large multinational corporations. This includes working to address the depressed prices paid to farmers and reduced choice experienced by consumers today caused by consolidation in the livestock industry.
Why do animals need antibiotics?
Many concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) operators give antibiotics to animals to make them grow faster and prevent diseases that are caused by the extreme crowding and other stresses on the animals. An estimated 70 percent of antibiotics and related drugs produced in this country are used in animal agriculture for nontherapeutic and subtherapeutic purposes. This amount is estimated to be more than eight times the amount of drugs used to treat human illness. Many of these antibiotics are the same antibiotics used to treat diseases in humans. The use of these antibiotics and other antibiotics at subtheraputic levels in CAFOs contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance in disease-causing pathogens. The result is fewer effective antibiotics for medical doctors to use against human diseases.
What is NSAC in agriculture?
The National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (NSAC) has consistently worked to include provisions in the farm bill’s research and conservation titles (and in the rules and funding notices that follow) that support systems used by sustainable livestock, dairy, and poultry farmers. These include rotational grazing and other systems …
What is sustainable livestock?
Sustainable Livestock. NSAC believes that agriculture production that is sustainable in the long-term relies on diverse crop rotations, increased use of perennial species, and the integration of livestock in range and pasture-based systems. Livestock production can be an important component of a sustainable agricultural system because it can …
What is sustainable agriculture?
Agriculture production that is sustainable over the long-term relies on diverse crop rotations, increased use of perennial species, and the integration of livestock in pasture and range based systems .
What is the purpose of competitive markets?
Competitive Markets: Working to ensure that farmers and livestock producers continue to have adequate markets to sell their products in, and that consumers continue to have choice in the marketplace.
How does animal production affect soil?
The nature of the animal production system directly affects the amount of manure available for use as a soil amendment. For example, unlike the manure from animals grown in confinement (e.g., barns, feedlots), manure is not regularly collected from animals mainly grown on grassland or rangeland. Thus the amount of ‘recoverable manure’ that is available for land application as a soil amendment can vary widely between and within countries. However, as intensive cattle, swine, and poultry operations are projected to account for an increasing proportion of animal production in both developed and developing countries, collection and spreading of manure will probably become more and more common in the future. Manure production by species also differs widely by country; for example goats are very common in Asia and Africa, while cattle are more predominant in North and South America. In global terms, poultry production has grown the most in the last few decades, followed by pig and goat production, while the number of cattle produced has only increased slightly (Figure 1a ). Indeed, in developed countries, poultry meat is seen as the only growth area toward 2010, in terms of per capita consumption. Despite these variations, the amount of manure produced by different animals is reasonably well known, as shown in Tables 2–4, which summarize manure production and characteristics for the major animal species raised today.
How are animal production systems associated with the emission of GHGs?
Animal production systems are also associated with the indirect emission of GHGs through the production of animal feed, the transformation of land for producing animal feed, and the GHGs associated with fertilizer production and use.
Why do animals need antibiotics?
Animal production systems have relied upon antibiotics for healthy animal development, but this comes with the known outcome of selection of resistant bacteria (Alekshun and Levy, 2007) and resulting in an increase in the reservoir of resistance genes that may enter the food chain and ultimately the human microbiome ( Sommer et al., 2010 ). For example, in poultry, Escherichia coli is often a natural component of the chicken gut flora inhabiting their mucosal surfaces ( Dho-Moulin and Fairbrother, 1999 ), but some pathogenic types such as avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) are associated with localized or systemic diseases collectively named colibacillosis ( Stordeur and Mainil, 2002 ). Because of APEC infections, the poultry industry suffers from the loss of chickens and birds, which affects food economy ( Dho-Moulin and Fairbrother, 1999 ). These APEC infections were first controlled using antibacterial drugs, but unfortunately, the misuse of the antibiotics led to the rise of antibiotic-resistant strains instead ( Nhung et al. 2017 ).
What are the metals in animal feed?
The intensification of animal production systems had led to the increasing use of additives in animal feeds that are often enriched with trace metals like Cu, Zn, manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) for optimal animal growth and for their antimicrobial properties (Qian et al., 2018 ). For example, Zn is added in large doses to pig feed to prevent diarrhea even without a veterinary prescription and most of the ingested Zn is excreted in the faeces ( Nicholson et al., 1999 ). Cadmium is a contaminant generally present in Zn compounds and so it is a plausible reason for its presence in high levels in manures, particularly in pig manure in China. Wang et al. (2014) reported Cd concentrations in pig feed ranged between 1.0 and 165 mg kg − 1. However, other studies indicate values from non-detectable up to 27.6 mg kg − 1 ( Li et al., 2010 ). The concentrations of Cd in manure reported in the study of Wang et al. (2014) show a right-tailed distribution suggesting that a smaller fraction of the feeds are highly contaminated with Cd, suggesting a need for more control of the quality of animal feed in China.
Why are antibiotics important in animal production?
It is clear that antibiotics used in human and veterinary chemotherapy act as an important selective pressure for the emergence and persistence of antibiotic resistance.
Why are antibiotics given in small amounts in animal diets?
The basal scientific ground for the common use of antibiotics given in small amounts in animal diet was their halting effect on the growth of bacteria, prevention of disease outbreaks and enhancement of growth rate , particularly in intensively reared animals ( NRS, 1980 ).
Who wrote the book Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat, 2005?
P.M. Fratamico, … J. van Kessel, in Improving the Safety of Fresh Meat, 2005
How has animal agriculture made it possible for food corporations to turn farms into efficient factories?
The advent of industrial animal agriculture has made it possible for food corporations to turn farms into efficient factories, by doing so, disregarding the fact that they are dealing with sentient beings and forcing them to endure a lifetime of suffering and cruelty.
What is factory farming?
Factory farming is the answer corporations found when the question was about turning animal agriculture into an industrial operation.
Why do multinationals have complete control over their own production?
And because they are able to contract the dwindling number of farms to produce animal products their way , they have complete control.
Why don’t humans need animals?
Humans don’t need to consume animals in order to be healthy and survive. And we certainly don’t need to treat animals like machinery or commodities. Industrial animal agriculture is responsible for the suffering and slaughter of trillions of animals each and every year around the globe. It is responsible for the degradation …
How does factory farming maximize profits?
Factory farming, from a business perspective, is a brilliant way to maximize profits by dramatically increasing the supply while at the same time bringing down production costs. And if factory farming was dealing with the production of cotton T-shirts or toys then it wouldn’t be as objectionable as it is.
What would happen if people cared about animals?
If they care about animals, they wouldn’t breed them into existence for imminent slaughter in the first place.
Why do farmers treat animals the same as workers treat equipment or machinery in a factory?
By treating farm animals the same as workers treat equipment or machinery in a factory, farmers are able to raise and produce animals at extraordinary rates. Doing so makes it final product, clothing or food in most cases, significantly cheaper for the consumer.
Why is the demand for animal products increasing?
Second, because they are recognized as high-quality foods, global demand for animal products is almost certain to continue to increase dramatically ( 10, 13 – 16 ). The drivers of the increased demand for animal products include not only population growth but also increased affluence, especially in the developing world, where most of the increase in population will occur ( 3 ).
What are the benefits of farm animals?
Farm animals contribute not only a source of high-quality food that improves nutritional status but also additional resources such as manure for fertilizer, on-farm power, and other by-products, and, in addition, provide economic diversification and risk distribution ( 12, 13, 16 – 18 ).
How does farming affect the environment?
However, sustainable farm animal production will also require a more complete understanding of their impact on the environment. For example, a report by the FAO of the UN estimated that livestock, and especially ruminants, contribute as much as 18% of greenhouse gas emissions ( 26 ), but others have suggested that this is a gross overestimate and that the actual value may be as low as 3% ( 27 ). Regardless, as farm animal production continues to increase, we need to be concerned with not only greenhouse gases but also the impact of farm animals on soil, water, and biodiversity ( 26, 28 ). We also need to better understand the specific role of animal products in the diet in the global increase in noncommunicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, because noncommunicable diseases are now responsible for more deaths worldwide than all other causes ( 29, 30 ). In this regard, recent reports from the National Research Council and from the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Department of Health and Human Services, argue strongly for renewed focus, including additional research, on these controversial and critical issues ( 15, 31 ).
Why is animal food important?
First, animal products are an important source of high-quality, balanced, and highly bioavailable protein and numerous critical micronutrients , including iron, zinc, and vitamins B-12 and A, many of which are deficient in a large portion of the world’s population ( 10 – 12 ). Thus, moderate consumption of animal-sourced foods plays an important role in achieving a nutritionally balanced diet, especially in the developing world ( 11 – 13 ).
What animals can be used to graze grasslands?
Fourth, ruminants such as buffalo, cattle, goats, and sheep, efficiently convert the forages from grasslands into high-quality animal products, and grazing also can promote the health and biodiversity of grasslands if managed appropriately ( 16, 19 – 23 ). This is important because grassland pastures cover >25% of the Earth’s land surface and, despite being home to nearly a billion people, comprise primarily marginally or non-arable land ( 24, 25 ).
What are the products of agriculture?
Fuel. Agricultural products can also be used to produce fuel. Ethanol—produced from corn, sugarcane, or sorghum —is the agricultural fuel product in widest use. Agricultural production byproducts can be used in industrial applications such as textiles or used to reinforce plastics. 2 .
What are crops and animal products used for?
Crops and animal products are used for food, animal feed, and non-food products used by humans.
What are some examples of agricultural products that NOP can certify?
Examples of agricultural items that the NOP can certify include such things as textiles, flowers, food, seed, plants, and feed. Items intended for other uses are not certified as organic. The basic guideline for what constitutes an agricultural product is as follows:
What is a livestock product?
Any agricultural commodity or product, whether raw or processed, including any commodity or product derived from livestock, that is marketed in the United States for human or livestock consumption. 3
What are the four groups of crops?
Agricultural crops turned into products fall into one of four groups: foods, fuels, fibers, or raw materials . Roughly 11% of the planet’s land is dedicated to crop production, and close to 26% is being used for animal pastures. 1 .
What is not included in Agricultural Production?
Tree and sod farms (if products are sold at retail and not replanted elsewhere by the grower) Agricultural production does not include: Storing or preserving raw materials before the start of the production process. Storing, preserving, handling, or moving finished goods.
What are some examples of food products?
Some examples of food products are grains and cereals. Some of the crops are turned into feed and fed to animals, which then produce dairy products like milk or are turned into food for humans or other animals. Honey and farmed fish are also some examples of food products.