What is bund in agriculture

Bunds are among the most common techniques used in agriculture to collect surface run-off, increase water infiltration and prevent soil erosion. Their principle is comparably simple: by building bunds along the contour lines, water runoff is slowed down, which leads to increased water infiltration and enhanced soil moisture.

Farm bunds are simply retaining walls along the boundary of agricultural fields. Their advantage is to contain rainwater in the field itself, which helps in retaining soil moisture for longer time, reducing soil erosion during heavy rain and protecting fertile soil.Dec 3, 2020

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What is the purpose of bunds in agriculture?

Being one of the most often used precipitation harvesting methods in agriculture, the main purpose of bunds is to slow down and filter runoff water from rainfall and hence reduce soil degradation.

What does Bund stand for?

A bund is a sovereign debt instrument issued by Germany’s federal government to finance outgoing expenditures. Bund in German is short for Bundesanleihe (“federal bond”); bunds are widely viewed as…

What is the size of a broad base Bund in agriculture?

The fields laid with broad base bunds can be operated by using tractors like wide machines for farming works. For determining bund size, the settled height of bund is counted as greater than 30 cm (most preferably up to 50 cm), which is measured from the ground surface. The side slopes are used as 5:1.

What are the features of a bund?

Bunds typically pay interest and principal once a year and represent an important source of financing for the German government. They can also be stripped, where their coupon payments are separated from their principal repayments and traded individually.


What are soil bunds?

A soil bund is a structural measure with an embankment of soil or stones, or soil and stones, constructed along the contour and stabilized with vegetative measures, such as grass and fodder trees. The height of the bunds depends on the availability of stones.


What is Bund field?

Bunds (also called teras) are small barriers to runoff coming from external catchments (and possibly to a field where crops are to be grown). Bunds slow down water sheet flow on the ground surface and encourage infiltration (groundwater recharge) and soil moisture. There are different types of bunds.


What is bund in rice field?

Bunds (dykes of the land surrounding the fields) form an extensive network connecting the rice fields typically composed of sparse semi-natural vegetation that can provide alternative food resources or refuges for natural enemies (Way and Heong, 1994). From: Advances in Ecological Research, 2020.


Why are bunds used?

Being one of the most often used precipitation harvesting methods in agriculture, the main purpose of bunds is to slow down and filter runoff water from rainfall and hence reduce soil degradation.


What bund means?

Definition of bund (Entry 1 of 2) 1 : an embankment used especially in India to control the flow of water. 2 : an embanked thoroughfare along a river or the sea especially in the Far East.


What is bund in irrigation?

Bunds are small earth embankments which contain irrigation water within basins. They are sometimes called ridges, dykes or levees. The height of bunds is determined by the irrigation depth and the freeboard. The freeboard is the height above the irrigation depth to be sure that water will not overtop the bund.


How do you make a bund?

How to construct bundsConstruct no wider and taller than 50 cm x 30 cm bunds, around the field.Make sure that bunds are well compacted and properly sealed, with no cracks, holes, etc. … Adjust the spillway height to 3−5 cm for storing the same depth of water.


Which is used for making bunds?

Dozer is used for agricultural land levelling, making bunds in the farms and terracing of farm, road making and site clearance, for trench filling at dam project, after laying cable or pipe etc.


What is bunds rule?

A bund should be able to contain 110% of the volume of the largest container stored within it. For drum storage, the bund capacity of 25% of the maximum volume of material stored is sufficient. A notice close to the bund should display the maximum number of barrels and containers that can be stored at any one time.


Why do we use bunds in fields?

Bunds are generally applied to sloping fields in order to reduce water runoff and erosion and may also be functional for severely degraded soils (RUFFINO 2009). Contour bunds can only be constructed on even ground, whereas semi-circular bunds can also be applied to uneven terrain.


Why are bunds important?

Being one of the most often used precipitation harvesting methods in agriculture, the main purpose of bunds is to slow down and filter runoff water from rainfall and hence reduce soil degradation. As the water flow is decelerated, higher amounts can infiltrate in the soil, leading to increased soil moisture (see also conservation of soil moisture ). Furthermore, water is spread more evenly, which can prevent gully formation. Bunds are basically the opposite of field trenches, where slots and trenches are excavated to stop, store and infiltrate floodwater and surface run-off.


What is a rainwater harvesting handbook?

A planning handbook that provides planners with practical tips on how rainwater harvesting can form an integrated part of district development efforts. The book also gives practical guidelines in the planning steps required to incorporate rainwater harvesting in development plans, and shows how to implement them in the farmers’ context.


How do bunds work?

Their principle is comparably simple: by building bunds along the contour lines, water runoff is slowed down , which leads to increased water infiltration and enhanced soil moisture. Using different designs, bunds are applicable to even and uneven grounds (with a gentle slope of up to 5 per cent). Bunds are usually constructed either with soil or stones.


What are contour bunds made of?

Contour bunds. Contour bunds can either be made of stones or soil (sometimes in variation with crop remains). They are constructed along a contour in order to best slow the water flowing down the slope, which increases the green water pool of the soil and prevents erosion.


Why are semi-circular bunds used?

Due to their half-moon design, semi-circular bunds are well suited for planting individual trees. In opposition to contour bunds, each bund has to be made singularly by hand, making them much more time consuming in their implementation. As a plus factor, semi-circular bunds can also be applied to steeper fields.


How many bunds should be next to each other?

There should always be several bunds next to each other, whereas the distance between them depends on the slope and the soil type of the field: the steeper the ground, the closer the bunds. Contour bunds can be used for both yearly field crops as well as the planting of trees. Their use is widespread throughout Africa.


How to determine the size of a bund?

Size of the Bunds: The height of the bund depends upon the slope of the land, spacing of the bunds and the maximum intensity of rainfall expected in the area . Once the height is determined, other dimensions of the bund viz., base width, top width and side slopes depend upon the natural of the soil.


Where should the construction of bunds start?

Construction of Bunds: Construction of bunds should start with the bund nearest the ridge and continued down the valley. This will ensure protection of the bunds if rains occur during construction. The bund position shown in the plan indicates the upstream toe of the bund.


What are surplus weirs?

These are –. (1) Surplus weirs (also known as waste weirs), and. (2) Grassed waterways. The surplus weirs do not require any land to be taken away from cultivation and they can be located at the desired location. Because of these reasons, the surplus weirs are used with contour bunds.


What is a weir in a bund?

This type of weir consists of a simple opening in the bund protected with grass. Stone pitching is done if stones are available at the site. This weir is simple in construction but cannot handle large volumes of water. This type of weir is also used as a ramp for the passage of cattle and for taking agricultural implements from one plot to another.


Where are the burrow pits located?

The burrow pits for the soil are generally located on the upstream side of the bund. It should have a uniform depth of 30 cm and width varied as per necessity. The burrow pit is to be continuous and no breaks need be left. The burrow pits should not be located in a gully or depression.


Can you put clods in a bund?

Clods more than 3 cm or stones should not be put in the bund. The earth should be put in layers of 15 cm and consolidated by trampling. Templates of the specified dimensions be used for checking the bund section. The bund section should be finally shaped, trimmed and slightly rammed on the top and the side surfaces.


How to determine the size of a bund?

The size of bund includes its height, top width, side slopes and bottom width. For deciding bund size, the height of it, is fixed, first. Once the height of the bund is fixed, the other dimensions such as top width and base width can be easily obtained. The height of bund mainly depends on the land slope, spacing of the bund and expected maximum rainfall intensity of the area. The side slopes of the bund depend on the nature of the soil (i.e. internal friction angle) used for construction.


How to find the earthwork of a bunding system?

The earthwork of any type of bund is obtained by multiplying the cross-sectional area to its total length.


What is the grade of a contour bund?

While in heavy and medium rainfall areas, the graded bunds are recommended for construction. The grade to be provided to the bund, should be from 0.2 to 0.3%.


What is the grade limit for bunding?

Therefore, the limit of grade should neither be less nor more, but within an optimum range. In usual way, the grade ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 percent is provided to the bund, depending on the soil types. For graded bunding system, someone prefer to provide variable grade rather uniform grade throughout the length.


Is length of bund a factor?

Apart from making the choice on types of grade to be given based on bund’s alignment, the length of bund should also be considered as a factor for deciding the same. As a thumb rule, for shorter length, uniform grade and for longer length of bund a variable grade is recommended to the bunding system.


Should bunds be straight?

Bunds should be constructed in straight line, and if possible the sharp curves should be avoided. ii. If there occur gullies or surface depressions, then bund should be constructed at right angles to them. However, a deviation up to 15 cm in crossing the ridges and up to 30 cm in case of gully is permissible.


What is a bund?

Bunds are nominal bonds with fixed maturities and fixed interest rates. Like all German government debt instruments, they are issued by making a claim in the government debt register, as opposed to producing paper certificates.


What is a bund in German?

Bund in German is short for Bundesanleihe (“federal bond”); bunds are widely viewed as the German equivalent of U.S. Treasury bonds (T-bonds).


How often do bunds pay interest?

Bunds typically pay interest and principal once a year and represent an important source of financing for the German government.


How much is a bund auctioned?

Accepted by the European Central Bank (ECB) as collateral for credit operations, bunds are auctioned in the primary market at volumes in excess of €1 billion. The German government typically follows up new issues with higher volumes by producing several increases, up to about €15 billion.


Why are bunds important?

Bunds account for about 50% of the German government’s outstanding debt, underscoring their importance in government funding. By issuing bunds and other long-term securities, German authorities obtain a more stable source of financing, thereby reducing the need to frequently roll over debt.


When did bund stripping become available?

Additional investment options became available with the introduction of bund stripping in 1997. This resulted in principle and interest coupons being separated and traded on a standalone basis, with the minimum amount of €50,000 and a minimum denomination of €0.01.


What are the objectives of stone bunds?

Objectives: Stone bunds need to be usually implemented by the community, with development projects supporting the technical, material and logistics aspects. Economic success requires optimal spacing of stone bunds based on the type of construction, materials transport cost, and how labour is organized.


Why do we need stone bunds?

When rainfall is erratic, the stone bunds contribute to conserving more moisture in the soil for longer, which helps to alleviate water stress during dry spells . Crops in plots with stones bunds could yield two to three times more than crops in control plots.


What is the effect of soil and water conservation measures such as stone bunds?

The low soil quality combined with the limited soil moisture conditions of the harsh Sahelian climate leads to a low efficiency of fertilizers. Conversely, the beneficial effect of soil & water conservation (SWC) measures such as stone bunds is limited under continuous non-fertilized cereal cropping. In addition, the lack of economic motivation has been one major constraint to increased use of plant nutrient sources in the sub-region.


Why are contour stone bunds important?

From the perspective of climate change adaptation, contour stone bunds protect the land from heavy rain in years with high rainfall.


How far apart are contour stone bunds?

Contour stone bunds are built with quarry rock or stones along the natural contour of the land to a height of 20-30 cm from the ground and spaced 20 to 50 m apart depending on the inclination of the terrain. The stone bunds form a barrier that slows down water runoff, allowing rainwater to seep into the soil and spread more evenly over the land.

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