What is cold storage in agriculture

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Cold storages are key requirements in the post-harvest storage and distribution function of perishable commodities and food products. It facilitates the delivery of perishable agricultural products like fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, milk and milk-based products from production centres to consumption centres.

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Answer

What is the importance of cold storage in agriculture industry?

The cold storage method stabilizes the price of the product, provides equal distribution and marketing of the product. It is being realized that proper and timely storage of produce is an essential factor in the agriculture industry and due importance is given for the same.

What is a cold storage unit?

A cold storage unit incorporates a refrigeration system to maintain the desired room environment for the commodities to be stored. A refrigeration system works on two principles: VAS, although comparatively costlier, is quite economical in operation and adequately compensates the higher initial investment.

What is the optimal storage temperature and shelf life of crops?

Storage and shelf life depends on intrinsic characteristic of items stored as well as the storage conditions. In general, the optimum storage temperature is as low as possible but still above the level of chilling sensitivity of the respective crop.

What products can be stored in cold storage facilities?

The cold storage facilities now available are mostly for a single commodity like potato, orange, apple, grapes, pomegranates, flowers, etc. which results in poor capacity utilization.

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When should cold storage be opened?

Cold storage is a very costly and energy intensive undertaking and therefore the door to the cold storage should be opened as few times as possible and that also in the early morning or evening hours. Also the usage of lighting and fans should be kept at a minimum. Further points should further be considered:


How to store produce after it has been precooled?

After produce has been pre-cooled, it needs to be transported and put into a cold storage facility where, in order to maximize shelf-life and quality, it should be stored at its optimum storage temperature which varies according to different items making the storage of several items in one facility problematic if multiple storage chambers are not available. Storage and shelf life depends on intrinsic characteristic of items stored as well as the storage conditions.


How does temperature affect product quality?

Molding, pests and other spoilage reasons which lead to quality deterioration, such as loss of water, thrive under warm and humid conditions – conditions which can be commonly found in India. Most factors causing product deterioration can be addressed through temperature control, i.e. cooling. A reduction in temperature lowers rates of physiological change (respiration, ethylene production, and enzymatic processes) and slows down the growth of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). Produce after the point of harvest is still ‘alive’ meaning that processes of the metabolism, such as respiration, as well as the activity of microorganisms remain ongoing leading to product deterioration. In order to lower respiration rates, delay ripening and to reduce water loss temperature needs to be controlled, either by avoiding the exposure of heat or by creating cooling conditions thereby increasing a product’s shelf life. Adequate storage facilities can, to a certain extent, control factors such as temperature, relative humidity and air velocity, increasing product quality, shelf-life and value.


How does temperate control affect shelf life?

Accordingly, any form of cooling, such as moving produce to a shaded and ventilated area or choosing harvest hours in the early morning or evening, is beneficial.


Why do you clean produce before you put it in a storage container?

produce needs to be cleaned (with clean water in order to avoid the spread of molds and fungi) before being put into storage containers and entering the storage rooms. Dirt bears the potential of introducing pests into the storage facility


What are the factors that contribute to post harvest loss?

Additionally, socioeconomic factors add to the post harvest loss issue: the lack of marketing systems, transportation facilities and market information are key hindering factors. Also, government regulation, often intended to keep prices low for consumers or to ensure a certain minimum price for farmers, can be counterproductive regarding incentivizing the production of high quality produce. Often, simply the required equipment, such as harvesting tools, containers, cleaning, packing and cooling equipment are not available. Furthermore, the knowledge on post harvest handling and marketing of farmers and other actors handling the produce, for example during transport, is generally very limited leading to suboptimal treatment of the produce .


Why is it important to harvest and handle fresh produce?

Adequate and proper harvesting and handling of fresh produce are crucial preconditions for long storage and shelf lives of fruit and vegetables. Considering the harvesting and subsequent handling stage of produce, the thumb rule of, the less the better should be followed, in order to minimize chances of mechanical injuries of produce. Once damaged, shelf life is considerably compromised.


Homogenization of temperature and humidity

Chambers that contain products of various kinds that require a homogeneous storage temperature. This is the case of the cold storage of most of the hotels, restaurants, and food processing businesses.


Moisture removal

In pharmaceutical and technology companies, spaces with humidity percentages close to 0% are required. The interaction with the water molecules contained in the environment can compromise the quality or safety of the elements contained in them. That is why they use efficient dehumidifiers, air extractors, and special moisture filters.


Comprehensive ventilation

In certain products in agriculture, the needs are opposite, higher humidity levels are required. In general, the temperature near the freezing point of the water can reduce the humidity to levels below the requirements. For this reason, humidifiers and internal circulation systems for the air in the cold storage are added.


What phases are involved in the cold chain?

The most recommended is to use refrigeration facilities and special transport that can have a constant temperature and maintain it so that the food is in a permanent state of safety.


Where are cold storage facilities in India?

More than 50% of the cold storage facilities in India are currently concentrated in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.


What is warehousing in agriculture?

Warehousing refers to the activities involving storage of goods on a large-scale in a systematic and orderly manner and making them available conveniently when needed. In other words, warehousing means holding or preserving goods in huge quantities from the time of their purchase or production till their actual use or sale. The agricultural warehousing and food processing industries contribute significantly to warehousing.


Why is the warehousing sector growing?

The warehousing sector has seen good growth in past few years due to various reasons. The ‘Make in India’ campaign ran big throughout the country encouraging enterprises to manufacture their products within India. India’s exports have considerably grown, which means the volume of goods being produced locally has increased. This has also propelled the demand for warehouses. The retail business also showed exponential growth because of relaxed FDI norms. This attracted both private and foreign investment.


How much agri warehousing capacity is there in India?

India has total agri warehousing capacity of around 91 MMT at present to store and conserve such large quantities with state agencies owning 41% of the capacity and the balance distributed among private entrepreneurs, cooperative societies, farmers, etc. Agricultural warehousing accounts for fifteen percent of the warehousing market in India and is estimated to be worth INR 8,500 crore. Indian logistics market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 12.17% by 2020 driven by the growth in the manufacturing, retail, FMCG and e-commerce sectors.


How does warehousing help farmers?

Warehousing plays a very vital role in promoting agriculture marketing, rural banking and financing and ensuring Food Security in the county. It enables the markets to ease the pressure during harvest season and to maintain uninterrupted supply of agricultural commodities during off season. Hence, it solves the problems of glut and scarcity, which are the usual problems in agricultural marketing. Though warehousing is an independent economic activity, yet is closely linked with production, consumption and trade. Warehousing is now seen as an integral part of the supply chain where goods are not only stored for safekeeping, but also where other value processes are implemented, thereby minimizing wastage and costs.


What is the most basic food preservation method?

India is the largest producer of fruits and second largest producer of vegetables in the world. Cold food storage is the most basic food preservation method. The cold storage facilities now available are mostly for a single commodity like potato, orange, apple, grapes, pomegranates, flowers, etc. which results in poor capacity utilization.


Why do we need warehouses in ecommerce?

In ecommerce, warehouses are mainly used to keep items on stock to make sure the short delivery times needed can be fulfilled. Agriculture, which is the backbone of Indian economy contributes to the overall economic growth of the country and determines the standard of life for more than 50% of the Indian population.


When is the cold storage report released?

The Cold Storage report is released around the 22th of the month. The report includes amounts in storage as of the last day of the previous month for about 150 items. Estimates are made for 9 regions and the U.S. Revisions to the previous month’s report are published at this time.


How long does NASS store products?

NASS maintains a list of cold storage facilities that store targeted products for 30 days or more. Questionnaires are mailed to about 600 firms monthly with telephone follow up to the nonrespondents. Data are received via e-mail from an additional 200 companies. Responses generally cover 78 percent of the U.S. storage capacity. Imputation is done for operations not reporting using historical data and current data relationships. Reports received late for the current month are processed for the revised estimates published the following month.


How does the industry use data?

The industry uses the data to gauge current supplies of products available to consumers. For some commodities, the estimates are factored into public price discovery. Producers also use the data for business decisions. Economists and other analysts use the data to monitor the health of the industry and to compute the industry’s contribution to the agricultural sector. Data frequently supplement production, import, and export data in balance sheets.


What is cold storage?

Cold storage is used to store a variety of already frozen fish and fish products and is a key component of wholesale, processed, export and retail value chain activities in many countries.


Why is cold storage important?

The use of “cold” handling and storage systems as an investment to prevent perishable food loss and waste (FLW) is widely used in developed countries. It can be highly cost effective compared to continually increasing production to meet increasing demands for these foods.


What is the FAO publication on fish freezing?

This FAO publication provides an introduction to the operations and equipment used in fish freezing and cold storage on shore and sea , and gives information on applying low temperatures to reduce deterioration of quality.


What causes FLW in cold storage?

Quality deterioration of products during cold storage is the main cause of FLW. If quality deterioration is severe, then products maybe discarded, which constitutes a food waste.


What temperature should fish be stored at?

This document describes changes that can occur in cold storage, effects of time and temperature on protein, factors limiting storage life, and emphasizes the need to store frozen fish and products at -30°C.


How does freezing affect fish?

Fish proteins become permanently changed during freezing and cold storage and the speed at which denaturation, or breakdown of protein, occurs depends largely upon temperature. Ensuring that cold storage is at as low a temperature as possible/practical slows the rate of quality deterioration due to protein denaturation.


What are cold storage facilities?

The cold storage facilities now available are mostly for a single commodity like potato, orange, apple, grapes, pomegranates, flowers, etc. which results in poor capacity utilization. Foods and many other commodities can be preserved by storage at low temperature, which retards the activities of micro organisms.


Which commodities benefit from storage at controlled temperature?

Commodities that benefit from storage at controlled temperature e.g. beer, tobacco, khandsari, etc.


What are the spoilage agents of food?

Micro organisms are the spoilage agents and consist of bacteria, yeasts and molds.


What are the foods that are alive at the time of storage, distribution and sale?

Foods that are alive at the time of storage, distribution and sale e.g. fruits and vegetables, Foods that are no longer alive and have been processed in some form e.g. meat and fish products, and. Commodities that benefit from storage at controlled temperature e.g. beer, tobacco, khandsari, etc. Living foods such as fruits …


How do refrigerants pick up heat?

In a refrigeration system, refrigerants are used to pick up heat by evaporation at a lower temperature and pressure from the storage space and give up the heat by condensation at a higher temperature and pressure in a condenser.


What is the low temperature needed for preservation?

The low temperature necessary for preservation depends on the storage time required often referred to as short or long term shortage and the type of product. In general, there are three groups of products: Foods that are alive at the time of storage, distribution and sale e.g. fruits and vegetables,


When was the first cold store in India?

The first cold store in India was reported to have been established in Calcutta in 1892. However significant progress in the expansion of the cold storage industry in the country has been made only …


Why is cold storage important in agriculture?

Post-harvest management of produce is a highly important aspect of farming because all vegetables or fruits that are produced can’t be sold fresh at the same time. Some quantity of produce needs to be stored for further processing or for future table use. Under such circumstances, cold storage becomes an integral aspect of the post-harvest management techniques. The losses that can occur by not storing the produce under proper conditions can be avoided using a cold storage. Storing farmed products enhances their shelf life and also facilitates continuous supply of produce in the market. The cold storage method stabilizes the price of the product, provides equal distribution and marketing of the product. It is being realized that proper and timely storage of produce is an essential factor in the agriculture industry and due importance is given for the same. Research has suggested that the Indian cold storage industry is making a steady growth and the annual growth rate is estimated to be 25.8%. Currently there are 6227 cold stores in India and they are capable of storing a produce of 30 million tonnes. Cold stores are generally used for storing agricultural produce, processed food, animal husbandry produce, pharmaceutical products etc.


What should be in a cold storage?

The cold storages should have alarms, fire extinguishers and fire exits designed properly .


How does refrigeration work in cold storage?

To store a product at a required temperature the refrigeration system within a cold storage plant work on two principles, they are: Vapor absorption system in the cold storage project : this system is economical and can compensate for the initial investment. It helps conserve energy and operational cost.


How does India lose food production?

India produces large quantities of fruits (11.36%) and vegetables (14.04%) on the global scale, but there is less motivation for storing the produce. Therefore the loss due to inefficient post-harvest management (cold storage) is estimated around 133 billion rupees per year. The present requirement for cold storage facility is around 61 million tonnes in India for both vegetables and fruits, but the availability of storage now in India is just around 26.85 million tonnes. The non-availability of storage space has resulted in loss of productivity, which is increasing gradually. Initially the loss was 25%, but now it has reached 40% of the total production. This loss creates a big difference between the quantities produced and consumed. Originally the average consumption quantity per head should be 120-280 g per day, whereas due to the loss of produce it has decreased to an average consumption quantity of 90-190 g per head in a day. This situation threatens the food and nutrition security of the people in the country.


How much does the Indian cold storage industry grow?

Research has suggested that the Indian cold storage industry is making a steady growth and the annual growth rate is estimated to be 25.8%.


What are the natural resources involved in the production cycle?

If the loss occurring due to non-availability of storage (post-harvest management) is analyzed in a broad way, then it is clearly known that all the natural resources involved in the production cycle, such as crop, power, labor, land, water, time, fertilizers etc. are all wasted in the process and such wastage for a developing country like India cannot be tolerated. The availability of gluts helps in storing the harvest of edible products like mango, potato, tomato, etc. in the areas where there is a shortage of storage space.


Why is temperature control important?

Temperature control: is important to avoid chilling injury to the produce because each variety of the produce needs different temperature. The maturity of the produce and the point of harvest affect the sensitivity of the produce. The symptoms of chilling injury are: Water soak.

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Introduction

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Roughly 30% of food that is consumed in developing countries is perishable. Cold storagefacilities are crucial to minimize post-harvest losses; however, losses occur at every step in the post harvest cycle, and therefore cold storages cannot be considered as independent solutions to prevent post harvest spoilage but as one …

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Harvest, Handling and Transport

  • Adequate and proper harvesting and handling of fresh produce are crucial preconditions for long storage and shelf lives of fruit and vegetables. Considering the harvesting and subsequent handling stage of produce, the thumb rule of, the less the better should be followed, in order to minimize chances of mechanical injuries of produce. Once damaged, shelf life is considerably c…

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Temperature Control – Cold Storage

  • Fresh food products are characterized by their perishability, and levels of vulnerability to pests and spoilage; however, in general the control of temperature and relative humidity and the prevention of damage can increase shelflife, especially of fresh vegetables and fruits, tremendously. Biological deterioration, caused by respiration rate, ethy…

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Cold Storage Management

  • Temperature control can have huge benefits for the improvement of shelf-life and product; however, benefits will only realize if the cold storage is managed properly with regards to temperature, relative humidity levels, air circulation, adequate space between storage bins, trays and containers, the mixing of compatible produce, as well as the management of product in and …

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