what is collectivization of agriculture



The process by which farmland is aggregated is called collectivization. In some countries (including the Soviet Union, the Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia, and Southeast Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union during the Cold War in opposition to the capitalist Western Bloc. Generally, in Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc referred to the USS…

countries, China and Vietnam), there have been both state-run and cooperative-run variants. For example, the Soviet Union had both kolkhozy (cooperative-run farms) and sovkhozy (state-run farms).

Collectivisation meant that peasants would work together on larger, supposedly more productive farms. Almost all the crops they produced would be given to the government at low prices to feed the industrial workers. Fewer workers were needed on these collective farms, so more peasants could become factory workers.


What was the policy of collectivisation?

collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants).

Why was collectivization a failure?

 · And the collectivization of agriculture was a form of appropriation of land, which became his sole possession. The creation of collective farms was not a one-time event declared in 1929. The process of transformation of individual farms belonging to wealthy peasants in the collective, the Bolsheviks were prepared in the years of the “war communism”.

What were the results of collectivization?

The collectivization of agriculture has created the necessary conditions for the transition from socialism to communism. By putting into practice Lenin’s cooperative plan, the CPSU achieved a fundamental revolution in the age-old economic order, way of life, and consciousness of millions and millions of peasants.

What happened as a result of collectivization?

The continuous collectivization of agriculture can be briefly defined as the ubiquitous process of the merger of small individual agricultural enterprises into large collective associations, abbreviated as collective farms.


What does the term collectivization mean?

Definition of collectivization the act of making something apply to a group of people as a whole rather than as individuals: The collectivization of guilt is a tool used to show that the community in which the crimes occurred has yet to become a community that can guarantee they will not be repeated.

What was the goal of collectivization of agriculture?

The drive to collectivize came without peasant support. The intent was to increase state grain procurements without giving the peasants the opportunity to withhold grain from the market. Collectivization would increase the total crop and food supply but the locals knew that they were not likely to benefit from it.

What was the collectivization of agriculture in China?

Collectivization of agriculture in China began in 1955; by 1956, 96% of all farming households were included in cooperatives. The system failed to free the labor and capital needed for industrial expansion, and in 1958 the commune system was established.

What was collectivisation short answer?

The collectivisation programme was started by Stalin. Under this programme, small landholdings of many peasants into one collective large farm. All large collectivised farms were cultivated by the farmers with the help of tools pooled together. The profits of the farms were shared among the cultivators.

What is collectivisation of land?

Answer: Collectivization : Redistributing of land. Consolidation of holdings : To bring together the scattered lands of different farmers and form a single holding. Abolition of zamindari : To stop the practice of zamindari system.

What is collectivisation Class 9 history?

The Collectivisation programme began in 1929. All peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms (Kolkhoz) by the Party. The ownership of collective farms received the implements and bulk of land. Kolkhoz profit was shared and peasants worked on the land.

When did China collectivisation?

In a process of collectivization that started in 1953, the farmers were first organized in so-called mutual help teams. These were gradually merged into lower agrarian cooperatives. During the Great Leap Forward, these lower forms of cooperatives would be merged into huge People’s Communes.

Where is the collective farming?

COLLECTIVE FARMING | Krishnagiri District, Government of Tamil Nadu | India.

How did collectivization affect peasants?

Collectivisation meant that peasants would work together on larger, supposedly more productive farms. Almost all the crops they produced would be given to the government at low prices to feed the industrial workers. Fewer workers were needed on these collective farms, so more peasants could become factory workers.

Who started the collectivization of agriculture Class 9?

Stalin, Joseph StalinStalin, Joseph Stalin, who was a revolutionary and was a part of the Soviet Union in Russia. He was the one who introduced the process of Collective farming in Russia.

What do you understand by collectivisation Mcq?

Collectivisation was the process whereby individuals land and farms were put together to form a collective farm of a Kolkhoz, this was then run by a committee were all of the animals and tools were handed over.

What is meant by collectivisation Who started it?

Due to acute shortages of grain supplies and outdated modes of production Stalin introduced the collectivization programme. Under this program, peasants were forced to cultivate on collective farms called as Kolkhoz. Those who resisted collectivization programme were severely punished and many were deported and exiled.


What was the pace of collectivization?

The pace of collectivization outlined in the decision took into account the diversity of conditons in different regions of the country and the extent to which the peasants were prepared to enter the kolkhozes. It was noted that collectivization in such major grain-growing areas as the lower and middle Volga regions and the Northern Caucasus could be basically completed by autumn 1930 or spring 1931. The decision emphasized the need to combat all attempts to delay the development of the kolkhoz movement on the grounds of shortages of tractors and complex machines. At the same time, the Central Committee warned party organizations against any “decreeing” of the kolkhoz movement from above.

Why was agriculture put on the path of large-scale socialist mechanized production?

The building of socialism demanded that agriculture be put on the path of large-scale socialist mechanized production, in order to increase the productivity of labor and the marketable surplus, eliminate the breeding ground for capitalist elements, and put an end to kulak exploitation. Table 1.

Where were Soviet tractors made?

When collectivization was first undertaken, tractors for Soviet agriculture came primarily from abroad, but in 1932 the USSR stopped importing tractors.

What were the successes of the first kolkhozes?

The successes in collectivization and in the organizational and economic consolidation of the first kolkhozes were achieved owing to the creation of a strong tractor and agricultural machinery industry in the USSR. Assembly-line production of wheeled tractors was organized in 1924 at the Krasnyi Putilovets Plant (now the Leningrad Kirov Plant). Other tractor plants were put into operation in Stalingrad in 1930, in Kharkov in 1931, and in Cheliabinsk in 1933. When collectivization was first undertaken, tractors for Soviet agriculture came primarily from abroad, but in 1932 the USSR stopped importing tractors. During the first five-year plan alone (1929–32), Soviet agriculture was equipped with 153,900 tractors, of which 94,300 were made in the USSR. At the same time, major agricultural machinery plants were established, such as the Rostsel’mash Plant in Rostov-on-Don, which began production in 1930, and the Kommunar Combine Plant in Zaporozh’e, which opened in 1931.The opening of these plants made it possible to reequip the kolkhozes and sovkhozes during collectivization. In 1932, 148,000 tractors (15-horsepower units) and 14,000 combine harvesters were being used in Soviet agriculture, and in 1940, 648,000 tractors and 182,000 combine harvesters.

What was the goal of the Communist Party in 1917?

Immediately after the victory of the October Socialist Revolution, the Communist Party and the Soviet government began to implement a policy aimed at the gradual socialist transformation of the countryside and the creation of large-scale agriculture. In the decree On the Socialization of the Land (January 1918) the All-Russian Central Executive Committee set the task of developing collective farms, which were to be guaranteed certain advantages over small individual farms. Between late 1917 and early 1919 the first collective farms were established in the countryside—in particular, the agricultural communes, the associations for the joint cultivation of the land (TOZ), and the agricultural artels. Lenin and the Communist Party studied the experience of socialist construction in the countryside very attentively. The decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee On Socialist Land Management and Measures for the Transition to Socialist Farming (Feburary 1919) outlined the tasks of collective farms and contained specific instructions on such fundamental questions as their operation, the organization of their management, their relations with government bodies, and the use of their goods.

What was the importance of the transition to large scale production in agriculture?

The transition to large-scale production in agriculture answered the fundamental interests of the peasants, for it provided a chance to solve the problem of raising their standard of living. Although the socialist state had provided assistance to the rural poor and to the middle peasants ( seredniaks), the applicability of machinery and the latest scientific advances to very small farms could only be extremely limited. Labor is not expended productively on the smallest farms, and the peasant is very much at the mercy of the elements. Only the transition to large-scale socialist production could secure a systematic improvement in the material and cultural conditions of life for the toiling farmers, eliminate rural overpopulation, and lighten the burden of agricultural labor.

What was the contradiction between socialist industry and small scale agriculture?

There was a deep contradiction between socialist industry, which was developing according to the laws of extended reproduction, and the predominantly small-scale commodity agriculture, which did not always achieve even simple reproduction.

How did collectivization affect the Chinese economy?

The collectivization of agriculture ( nongye jitihua 农业集体化) had a much more severe impact on the life of Chinese, as 80 per cent of the population were still peasants. It was also a critical issue because most party cadres hailed from the countryside. Collectivization was difficult because of “feudal traditions” thousands of years old prevailed, and because after the first land reform in 1950, “capitalist” tendencies had shown up on the part of the new small landowners. Some sold their land, others rented it out and thus created a new group of tenant farmers. Finally, some rich landowners had been spared in the first phase of land reform, and had regained considerable influence in the countryside, sometimes also by industrial and commercial activities. The only solution to these problems was apparently total collectivization of land ownership. Individual peasants were to be transformed into workers of production teams or production groups ( hezuoshe 合作社). The leadership was enthusiastic about the potential outputs of agriculture organized in this way, estimating it 20 per cent higher than the present state (Guillermaz 1976: 89).

Who advocated the introduction of machines before collectivization?

Resistance was rather found inside the Party. Some comrades, mainly Liu Shaoqi, Deng Zihui 邓子恢 (1896-1972), Peng Dehuai, and probably Gao Gang, advocated the introduction of machines before collectivization. Liu Shaoqi ‘s aim was to ensure high production figures which, in his eyes, was only possible by retaining the position of the rich peasants.

How many families worked in cooperatives in 1955?

At the end of 1955, 70 million families worked together in 1.9 million cooperatives, and half a year later already 110 million (Guillermaz 1976: 91). Yet production cooperatives were not fully nationalized. Part of them was semi-socialist ( chuji nongye shengchan hezuoshe 初级农业生产合作社, chujishe 初级社). Members (20-50 families) retained ownership of their land, tools, and animals, and were paid according to a complex system of points which evaluated basic financial contributions, land, tools and animals, quantity and quality of work. The second, or advanced or socialist, type of cooperatives ( gaoji nongye shenchan hezuoshe 高级农业生产合作社, gaojishe 高级社, jiti nongzhuang 集体农庄) was larger (100-250 families), considered only the work each individual contributed. Yet still, houses and small plots of land (for private production like grocery of poultry) remained in the families’ hands. Members were paid out in grain and money, of which a third was deducted as tax and for the management and development of the cooperative. The quota of compulsory sales of grain to the state was decided for a three-year period. The state received about a quarter of the agricultural output in the shape of either taxes or purchases at a fixed rate. The amount each person was granted annually was 560 pounds of unhusked rice, which is just above the subsistence level (Guillermaz 1976: 92-93). The cooperatives were managed relatively autonomously, and following the “Model Ruling for a Production Cooperative” ( Gaoji nongye shengchan hezuoshe shifan zhangcheng 高级农业生产合作社示范章程) adopted in March 1956.

What is collective farming?

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of “agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise”. There are two broad types of communal farms: Agricultural cooperatives, in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities as a collective, and state farms, …

When did the Soviet Union start collective farming?

The Soviet Union introduced collective farming in its constituent republics between 1927 and 1933. The Baltic states and most of the Central and East European countries (except Poland) adopted collective farming after World War II, with the accession of communist regimes to power. In Asia ( People’s Republic of China, North Korea, Vietnam) the adoption of collective farming was also driven by communist government policies.

What is the name of the farm in Poland?

The Polish name of a collective farm was Rolnicza spółdzielnia produkcyjna. Collectivisation in Poland was stopped in 1956, later nationalisation was supported.

What is the collective farm called in Germany?

Collective farms in the German Democratic Republic were typically called Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (LPG), and corresponded closely to the Soviet kolkhoz. East Germany also had a few state-owned farms which were equivalent to the Soviet sovkhoz, which were called the Volkseigenes Gut (VEG).

Why did cooperatives collapse?

Seeing the massive outflow of people from agriculture into cities , the government started to massively subsidize the cooperatives in order to make the standard of living of farmers equal to that of city inhabitants; this was the long-term official policy of the government. Funds, machinery, and fertilizers were provided; young people from villages were forced to study agriculture; and students were regularly sent (involuntarily) to help in cooperatives.

What is the name of the collective farms in Bulgaria?

Трудово кооперативно земеделско стопанство was the name of collective farms in Bulgaria .

How much of the Soviet agricultural production was private?

A Soviet article in March 1975 found that 27% of Soviet agricultural produce was produced by private farms despite the fact that they only consisted of less than 1% of arable land (approximately 20 million acres), making them roughly 40 times more efficient than collective farms.

What was the Soviet Union’s policy of collectivization?

Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants).

When did collectivism start?

As part of the first five-year plan, collectivization was introduced in the Soviet Union by general secretary Joseph Stalin in the late 1920s as a way, according to the policies of socialist leaders, to boost agricultural production through the organization of land and labor into large-scale collective farms (kolkhozy)

How many people died in the Kulak sabotage?

The resulting loss of life is estimated as at least five million. To escape from starvation, large numbers of peasants abandoned collective farms for the cities.

What did Stalin want?

Stalin wanted the Soviet Union to have more efficient farms. Collectivisation saw the creation of ‘collective’ farms. These, called kolkhozes, would replace smallholdings held by peasants with larger farms. The idea here is to have large fields in which crops can be sown, grown and harvested using modern machinery.

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