What is conservation agriculture pdf


How to practice conservation agriculture?

What are the main principles of Conservation agriculture?

  • Minimal soil disturbance,
  • Maintaining soil cover, and
  • Improved crop rotations

What are the environmental impacts of Agriculture?

Agriculture can have significant impacts on the environment. While negative impacts are serious, and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming practices.

What are disadvantages of Agriculture?

What are the pros and cons of Agriculture?

  • Lesser Costs, Higher Gains. …
  • More Job Opportunities. …
  • Increase of Food Production. …
  • Lower Costs of Produce. …
  • Presence of Pesticides. …
  • Health and Environmental Hazards. …
  • Disadvantageous to Small Farmers.

What is control environment agriculture?


  • What is the role of light in growing process?
  • Which light measurements are important for growing?
  • Describe the advantages of LED light.
  • What is the main problem with LED light?

What is conservation agriculture?

Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a farming system that can prevent losses of arable land while regenerating degraded lands. It promotes maintenance of a permanent soil cover, minimum soil disturbance, and diversification of plant species.

Why is conservation of agriculture important?

Conservation Agriculture is 20 to 50% less labour intensive and thus contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions through lower energy inputs and improved nutrient use efficiency. At the same time, it stabilizes and protects soil from breaking down and releasing carbon to the atmosphere.

What is conservation agriculture in India?

Conservation agriculture is a management system that maintains a soil cover through surface retention of crop residues with no till/zero and reduced tillage.

What are the principles of conservation agriculture?

The 3 principles of CA are: minimun tillage and soil disturbance. permanent soil cover with crop residues and live mulches. crop rotation and intercropping.

What are benefits of conservation?

Benefits of Land ConservationReducing air and water pollution.Preserving open and green spaces.Preserving fish and wildlife habitats, endangered species, and biodiversity.Managing and protecting watersheds and wetlands.Maintaining scenic landscapes and recreational amenities.More items…

What are the advantages of adopting conservation agriculture?

Three major economic benefits can result from CA adoption: Time saving and thus reduction in labour requirement. Reduction of costs, e.g. fuel, machinery operating costs and maintenance, as well as a reduced labour cost. Higher efficiency in the sense of more output for a lower input.

What is conservation agriculture Wikipedia?

Page Content. Conservation agriculture (CA) aims to achieve sustainable and profitable agriculture through the application of the three CA principles: continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance; permanent organic soil cover; and.

What is conservation agriculture Upsc?

Introduction. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is a set of soil management practices that minimize the disruption of the soil’s structure, composition and natural biodiversity. CA has proven potential to improve crop yields, while improving the long-term environmental and financial sustainability of farming.

What is the origin of conservation agriculture?

The term “conservation agriculture” was coined in the 1990s, but the idea to minimize soil disturbance has its origins in the 1930s, during the Dust Bowl in the United States of America. CIMMYT pioneered no-till training programs and trials in the 1970s, in maize and wheat systems in Latin America.

What are the types of conservation agriculture?

Conservation agriculture has three basic principles:Disturb the soil as little as possible. The ideal is to plant direct into the soil, without hoeing or ploughing. … Keep the soil covered as much as possible. … Mix and rotate crops.

What are the challenges in conservation agriculture?

These include increasing availability and affordability of inputs (herbicide, fertilizer and mechanization) without project support or subsidies, distribution of family workload and gender issues, farmer behaviour towards risk, land tenure issues, conflicting policies, lack of skilled extension services, opportunities …

How is conservation agriculture implemented?

Conservation agriculture: Farming practices which use three key characteristics: 1. minimal mechanical soil disturbance (i.e. no tillage and direct seeding); 2. maintenance of a mulch of organic matter covering and feeding the soil (e.g. straw or other crop residue including cover crops); and 3.

What is conservation agriculture?

Conservation agriculture means farming in harmony with nature. In a forest, the ground is covered with a per- manent layer of litter. The soil is rich in or- ganic matter and has many earthworms, beetles and other tiny animals. There is a wide range of different plants, all growing together.

Why is conservation important in agriculture?

Conservation agriculture helps these farmers cut costs while increasing their yields. To overcome shortages of labour and farm power. Many farm households suffer from a severe lack of labour and farm power. Hunger and malnutrition combine to make people weak, unable to work hard, and vulnerable to disease.

What do farmers use to pull implements?

Smallholder farming with draught animals. Farmers who own (or can hire) oxen or donkeys to pull implements can use a different set of conservation agricul- ture practices. They can use a subsoiler to break up the hardpan (if there is one). This is usually necessary only in the first year.

What is the purpose of mulch in conservation agriculture?

In conservation agriculture, crop residues left on the field, mulch and special cover crops protect the soil from erosion and limit weed growth throughout the year. Mix and rotate crops. In conventional farming, the same crop is sometimes planted each season.

How can conservation agriculture be sustainable?

Conservation agriculture has three basic principles: Disturb the soil as little as possible Keep the soil covered as much as possible Mix and rotate crops. We will look at each of these in turn. Disturb the soil as little as possible.

What is mix and rotate agriculture?

mix and rotate crops. ) can be applied in a wide range of conditions. How farmers put them into practice will vary from place to place, depending on many factors. Conservation agriculture can be practised on different types of farms, with different combinations of crops and sources of power.

Why do farmers use more and more fertilizer?

To get a good yield, farmers often apply more and more fertilizer. With less moisture in the soil, plants are more vulnerable to drought. They start to wilt after a few days without rain. Conservation agriculture enables farmers to reverse this trend.

What is conservation agriculture?

Conservation agriculture (CA) is characterized by minimal soil disturbance, diversified crop rotations, and surface crop residue retention to reduce soil and environmental degradation while sustaining crop production. CA involves changing many conventional farming practices as well as the mindset of farmers to overcome the conventional use of tillage operations. Although adoption of CA is increasing globally, in some regions it is either slow or nonexistent. The adoption of CA has both agricultural and environmental benefits but there is a lack of information on the effects and interactions of key CA components which affect yield and hinder its adoption. In this chapter, we discuss the basic concepts and brief history of CA, and its impacts on agricultural systems.

How does conservation agriculture help the environment?

enhancement of food security, improvement of water quality, reduction of erosion, and mitigation of climate change by increasing carbon sequestration, etc. As the CA systems maintain higher infiltration rates and conserve soil moisture, it will help to overcome seasonal dry spells. Thus, CA systems have a positive effect on adaptation to climate change and resilience in agricultural systems. Conservation agriculture becomes a fundamental element in sustainable production intensification; combining high production with the provision of environmental services. It could also play a major role to maintain SOC and the subsequent impacts on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties and yield. Organic amendments used in conservation agriculture generally improved soil chemical and nutrient indices of health i.e. soil carbon levels and nitrogen reserves in particular. Incorporation of cover crops to crop rotations tended to improve nitrogen recycling via reduced nitrate leaching risks, increased soil carbon levels, and weed suppression. Reduced tillage systems were rare, presenting an important challenge and opportunity for further improving soil health dynamics in crop production. CA can lead to higher amounts of SOC relative to conventionally managed systems as well as maintain soil health.

What is organic farming?

Organic farming is holistic food production system, which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health including quality and healthy food. There are generally two types of organic farming depending on the purpose. One is aimed at increasing efficiency of the large scale production of crops and focuses on broader based market, which also includes foreignmarket using organic certification system. This is extremely market and profit oriented, whereas the other focuses on food safety, environment consciousness and local sustainability. There is need to promote both types of organic farming, however, more emphasis should be given to traditional crops of the region. The total area under organic certification is 5.71 million hectare (2015-16) in India. This includes 26% cultivable area with 1.49 million hectare and rest 74% (4.22 million hectare) forest and wild area for collection of minor forest produces. Organic farming in hills offers the most sustainable solution for developing the agricultural sector and provides food security with least negative impacts on the environment and also offers solutions for sound rural development, provides healthy food and creates jobs. Soil and soil health is one of the basic principles of organic cultivation. The major challenge in organic farming is the availability of huge quantities of organic inputs for satisfying the farm demand. Use of animal excreta based manure alone is not sufficient for meeting the nutrient needs of the crops. It is therefore, necessary to utilize all the sources of nutrients available on and off farm effectively.

How has NT farming changed the world?

The adoption of NT systems has increased at an exponential rate since the 1990s and they are now used on 12.5% of global croplands. However, while the development of NT systems has seen much success, there can be significant agronomic, economic and/or social challenges associated with their use that limit large scale worldwide adoption. In addition, where NT is not implemented as part of an integrated system that incorporates stubble retention and appropriate crop rotations to help manage weeds, diseases, pests and soil fertility, decreases in yield can be observed. A combination of research, education and good policy development to remove economic/institutional and social barriers to uptake are required to ensure the continued success of NT. In particular, the tailoring of NT farming systems according to individual locations and the introduction of some flexibility in approach to tillage management can provide an opportunity to manage some of the challenges of NT farming systems.

Why do farmers use tillage?

Farmers usually use tillage equipment to improve the soil structure and to control weeds. But they actually damage the soil structure and reduced soil fertility by doing this again and again. In conservation agricultural systems, however, tillage is reduced or totally eliminated. The use of conservation agriculture (CA) is widely increasing in the world due to several advantages, such as conserving the soil and water resources, reconstructing the soil’s fertility, protecting the soil from erosion, and reducing labor needs. Adoption of any appropriate physical, biological or chemical weed management strategy to the existing cultural weed management of conservation agriculture fulfils the multiple approach of integrated weed management (IWM). IWM is valuable to conservation agriculture; as it assists in the management of weed problems and non-availability of some weed control options. Thus, this review article discusses integrated weed management in relation to conservation agriculture and environmental sustainability.

How does the soil of South Asia affect food security?

The soils of South Asia provide food to almost 1.8 billion people but are prone to many sustainability issues. The ever-increasing population has put enormous pressure on the available natural resources (land/soil and water), which is threatening future food security. The fertile farmlands are being encroached by urbanziation. Declining groundwater levels, increasing micronutrient deficiencies, the use of fertile soil for brick making, degrading soil structure and global warming are serious sustainability issues in South Asia. The extensive production of cereals and conventional soil management practices are increasing soil erosion; depleting soil organic matter, soil fertility, water resources; and increasing salinization. The restoration and management of soil organic matter, rainwater harvesting, and the efficient use of water and sustainable nutrient management are essential to sustain the long-term productivity of agricultural soils. Diversification of monocropping systems and the adoption of conservation agriculture may enhance the sequestration of soil carbon and increase biodiversity. However, site-specific technologies must be identified and made available to farmers. Prime agricultural land must be protected against urban encroachment. Communication and collaboration between scientists, farmers, and policymakers are needed to manage soils for ensuring food security in South Asia. The objective of this review is to deliberate the causes of soil degradation in South Asia and suggest soil management options to reverse the degradation trends and ensure long-term food security in the region.

What is conservation agriculture?

Conservation agriculture is based on the interrelated principles of minimal mechanical soil disturbance, permanent soil cover with living or dead plant material, and crop diversification through rotation or intercropping.

Why is conservation agriculture important?

While conservation agriculture provides many benefits for farmers and the environment, farmers can face constraints to adopt these practices. Wetlands or soils with poor drainage can make adoption challenging.

What do farmers use to remove weeds?

Organic farmers apply tillage to remove weeds without using inorganic fertilizers. Conservation agriculture farmers, on the other hand, use a permanent soil cover and plant seeds through this layer. They may initially use inorganic fertilizers to manage weeds, especially in soils with low fertility.

What is sustainable intensification?

Sustainable intensification is a process to increase agriculture yields without adverse impacts on the environment, taking the whole ecosystem into consideration. It aims for the same goals as conservation agriculture. Conservation agriculture practices lead to or enable sustainable intensification.

How does conservation agriculture help the environment?

Conservation agriculture conserves natural resources, biodiversity and labor. It increases available soil water, reduces heat and drought stress, and builds up soil health in the longer term.

What is zero tillage?

Zero tillage is combined with intercropping and crop rotation, which means either growing two or more crops at the same time on the same piece of land, or growing two different crops on the same land in a sequential manner . These are also core principles of sustainable intensification.

How can sustainable farming improve resilience?

However, sustainable farming methods can do the opposite — increase resilience to climate change, protect biodiversity and sustainably use natural resources . One of these methods is conservation agriculture. Conservation agriculture conserves natural resources, biodiversity and labor.


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