what is cultivar in agriculture



The word cultivar means a cultivated variety; thus, a cultivar is selected and cultivated by humans. Although some cultivars can occur in nature as plant mutations, most cultivars are developed by plant breeders and are called hybrids.Jan 30, 2016

What’s the difference between a cultivar and a variety?

 · The word cultivar, meaning cultivated variety, describes plants bred by humans for desired attributes and traits such as taste, smell, size, flavor, color, or …

What does cultivar stand for?

Definition of cultivar. : an organism and especially one of an agricultural or horticultural variety or strain originating and persistent under cultivation.

What is an example of a cultivar?

2 days ago · Cultivar, meaning cultivated variety, has been produced through selective breeding. Typically, cultivars are vegetatively grown through cuttings, grafting or from tissue cultures to …

What does cultivar mean in agriculture Dictionary?

In fact cultivar means “cultivated variety.” Therefore, a cultivar was selected and cultivated by humans. Some cultivars originate as sports or mutations on plants. Other cultivars could be hybrids of two plants. To propagate true-to-type clones, many cultivars must be propagated vegetatively through cuttings, grafting, and even tissue culture.


What’s an example of a cultivar?

There are many examples of cultivars, such as in crops. Tomatoes and apples have a vast number of cultivars, and there are some cultivars that are obviously man-made, such as seedless grapes and watermelons. Ornamental plants also have cultivars, including orchids and roses.

What are cultivars used for?

Cultivars (short for “cultivated varieties”) are plants you buy that often have been propagated not from seed, but rather vegetatively (for example, via stem cuttings). With this method of propagation, you can be sure that the offspring will retain the characteristics of the parents for only that one generation.

Does cultivar mean?

A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture, or carefully controlled seed production.

How do you know if a plant is a cultivar?

It also often has the abbreviation “var.” for variety preceding it. The first letter of a cultivar is capitalized and the term is never italicized. Cultivars are also surrounded by single quotation marks (never double quotation marks) or preceded by the abbreviation “cv.”.

What is cultivars in horticulture?

What Is a Cultivar in Horticulture? A plant cultivar refers to a variation within a plant species that has been developed by a human horticulturist through controlled plant breeding, as opposed to occurring naturally.

What is another word for cultivar?

•Other relevant words: (noun) tracheophyte, variety, vascular plant.

What is cultivar and variety?

A cultivar is intentionally bred using cultivation methods by plant breeders, whereas a variety is grown naturally without any human influence. • The nomenclature of cultivar is deferent from that of variety.

How do you make a plant cultivar?

The techniques used in creating a new cultivar are: mass selection, recurrent selection, top crossing, and synthetic variety development. In mass selection, the source population is examined and desirable plants or seed from those parent plants are selected.

What is difference between hybrid and cultivar?

Some cultivars originated as “sports” or mutations that were discovered in the wild. Most cultivars, however, are the result of selective breeding by humans. Hybrids are the result of a genetic cross between two different species.

What is the difference between a cultivar and a species?

As nouns the difference between species and cultivar is that species is a type or kind of thing while cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species or hybrid of two species.

What is a cultivar tree?

A “cultivar” is a cultivated variety of a species. It is reproduced from a single individual in such a way (usually asexual propagation) that traits can be kept. A low-maintenance street tree cultivar is one that has been selected for superior traits and that will increase safety and/or lower maintenance costs.

What is the difference between a native plant and a cultivar?

Nativar: A cultivar derived from native parents and bred for a particular trait, typically resulting in a loss of genetic diversity. Nativars can have sterile flowers and produce no seeds. Native plant: A plant that originally occurs within a region as the result of natural processes rather than human intervention.

What’s an example of a cultivar?

A cultivar is a plant bred by humans to exhibit a distinct and desired trait. For example, different types of tomato such as Big Boy and Heirloom a…

What are the types of cultivars?

There are two main types of cultivars, crop cultivars and ornamental cultivars. Crop cultivars involve food in agriculture. Ornamental cultivars ar…

What is the difference between a cultivar and a hybrid?

A cultivar is a plant bred by humans to express distinct traits. A hybrid results from crossing two different species, cultivars, or varieties of o…


What is a cultivar?

A cultivar selected for its intriguing and colourful flowers. A cultivar (cultivated variety) is an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, a cultivar is the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature …

What is a cultivar in plant classification?

There are two other classification categories for cultigens, the grex and the group. The Code then defines a cultivar as a “taxonomic unit within the classification category of cultivar”. This is the sense of cultivar that is most generally understood and which is used as a general definition.

What is asexually propagated plant?

In general, asexually propagated cultivars grown from seeds produce highly variable seedling plants, and should not be labelled with, or sold under, the parent cultivar’s name.

What is a clone plant?

Cultivars that are produced asexually are genetically identical and known as clones; this includes plants propagated by division, layering, cuttings, grafts, and budding. The propagating material may be taken from a particular part of the plant, such as a lateral branch, or from a particular phase of the life cycle, such as a juvenile leaf, or from aberrant growth as occurs with witch’s broom. Plants whose distinctive characters are derived from the presence of an intracellular organism may also form a cultivar provided the characters are reproduced reliably from generation to generation. Plants of the same chimera (which have mutant tissues close to normal tissue) or graft-chimeras (which have vegetative tissue from different kinds of plants and which originate by grafting) may also constitute a cultivar.

Why are plants named cultivars?

Which plants are chosen to be named as cultivars is simply a matter of convenience as the category was created to serve the practical needs of horticulture, agriculture, and forestry. Members of a particular cultivar are not necessarily genetically identical.

Why are all cultivars considered cultigens?

Therefore, all cultivars are cultigens, because they are cultivated, but not all cultigens are cultivars, because some cultigens have not been formally distinguished and named as cultivars.

Did Bailey use the word “cultigen”?

In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, and that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar . Bailey created the word cultivar.

What is a Cultivar?

In horticulture and agriculture, humans can choose desirable traits in plants through selective breeding. A classic experiment by monk Gregor Mendel in the mid-1850s demonstrated the effect of selecting genetic traits in simple garden peas.

Cultivar vs. Variety

There are often many subtypes within a species. For example, there are 164 different types of broccoli within North America. The species of broccoli has many cultivars and variations. Note that sometimes these terms are used interchangeably, but the meaning of cultivar and variety are not the same.

Examples of Plant Cultivars

Like broccoli, other plants can have hundreds of cultivars. For example, apples have cultivars and varieties in reds, yellows, greens, or even pinks that range from sweet to sour. Green Granny Smith apples are a type of apple cultivar, as are sweeter Golden Delicious. Orchards select for flavor, size, and color.

Nomenclature of Cultivars

Cultivars are named according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) rules. The code considers cultivar and variety as non-synonymous botanical terms. The proper way to write cultivar names is first stating the botanical Latin form followed by the cultivar name or epithet enclosed within apostrophes.

How do cultivars propagate?

To propagate true-to-type clones, many cultivars must be propagated vegetatively through cuttings, grafting, and even tissue culture. Propagation by seed usually produces something different than the parent plant.

What does “var” mean in plant propagation?

Propagation by seed usually produces something different than the parent plant. Varieties and cultivars also have differently naming conventions. A variety is always written in lower case and italicized. It also often has the abbreviation “var.” for variety preceding it.

Is a cultivar a variety?

Yet we often still refer to a type of plant species as a variety instead of what is actually is a cultivar. Let’s kick off the New Year by being more accurate and start using the term cultivar.

Can a plant have both a variety and a cultivar?

Can a plant have both a variety and a cultivar? Sure. One good example is Sunburst Honeylocust. Its scientific name is Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis ‘Sunburst’. The term “inermis” means without thorns and “Sunburst” refers to the bright golden spring leaf color.

Is a cultivar a type of plant?

If you were to germinate seed from this variety, most, if not all would also be white flowering. Cultivars are not necessarily true to type. In fact cultivar means “cultivated variety.”. Therefore, a cultivar was selected and cultivated by humans. Some cultivars originate as sports or mutations on plants.

What does “alba” mean in plants?

For example, there is a white flowering redbud that was found in nature. Its scientific name is Cercis canadensis var. alba. The varietal term “alba” means white.

Is variety important to horticulturists?

As a horticulturist, it is important that I use the right terms the right way (at least most of the time). Variety and cultivar are two terms often abused by gardeners and horticulturists. What’s the difference, you ask?

What is a cultivar in plants?

A cultivar is a plant (s) selected for desirable characteristics that can be maintained by propagation. Verma et al. (2013) studied the influence of cultivar on essential oil yield and composition of rose-scented geranium, that is, P. graveolens.

How much difference is there in CP between grass cultivars?

The maximum difference in CP between cultivars of four temperate grass species was only 22 g/kg ( Table 6.10 ), indicating that where forage is regularly cut there is little scope for selecting cultivars that have a higher CP content.

Who wrote the book Improving the Health-Promoting Properties of Fruit and Vegetable Products?

K. Crosby, D. Leskovar, in Improving the Health-Promoting Properties of Fruit and Vegetable Products, 2008

Why are rhubarb cultivars good for forcing?

Rhubarb cultivars with a good yield are needed for different harvest periods, for field cultivation and for forcing. Vigorous cultivars have the advantage that fewer plants are needed per unit area. The specific demand on cultivars for forcing is that they should develop rapidly to give a good yield of high-quality petioles under forcing conditions. The cold period needed for successful forcing varies significantly between cultivars and should be as short as possible.7

Which cultivar of ginger has the highest yield of essential oil?

A similar study was performed on essential oils of 17 cultivars of fresh ginger from North-Eastern India ( Kiran et al., 2013 ). Assam fibreless cultivar showed highest yield of essential oil (4.17%) and higher monoterpene hydrocarbon content (38.65%) than sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (25.38%), which was unique among all the studied cultivars. Among all these cultivars, Assam Tinsukia had the highest citral content (23.66%) and Meghalaya mahima had the highest zingiberene content (29.89%).

Why are grass cultivars different in CP?

Cultivars of grass species differ in CP when cut on the same day (Fig. 6.6 ), but this can often be attributed to differences in stage of maturity. The ranking order for CP concentration depends on whether cultivars are compared at the same cutting date, stage of development, or dry-matter digestibility ( Table 6.9 ). There may be large differences between cultivars in CP concentration when compared on the same date, but these differences disappear or are even reversed when the cultivars are compared at ear emergence or at the same dry-matter digestibility.

How was Avonearly bred?

The bolting-resi stant cultivar ‘Avonearly’ was bred by selecting from among a population derived from a large number of cultivars of the ‘Detroit’ type. The plants were raised early in the year and subjected to continuous light followed by cold treatment to induce bolting.14 The level of resistance had then to be maintained by selection during seed multiplication. 8 The cultivar ‘Boltardy’ was bred using a similar method. 25

What is the purpose of sterile cultivars?

These cannot cross-pollinate with their wild relatives. For example, many of the modern hydrangea cultivars are descendants of our native wild hydrangea ( Hydrangea arborescens ). Sterile cultivars may lack the pollen, nectar, and/or seed benefits to wildlife, but still have hostplant value for native insects. In any event, the main purpose is to buy a plant you enjoy that does not hurt natural areas.

What is it called when a plant crosses with a native plant?

The offspring of cultivars crossed with native plants are called hybrids . Many vegetable gardeners are familiar with the consequences of hybridization.

What are some examples of non-invasive plants?

4. Enjoy an assortment of non-invasive, non-native species. They come in every shape, height, and color. Examples include lilac, crepe myrtle, and many roses. Sterile alien cultivars are particularly safe for local ecosystems. Examples include German bearded irises and Karl Forster grasses. Plant breeders are currently working on sterile cultivars of many old landscaping favorites that turned out to be invasive, so there is much to look forward to in this regard.

How does cross pollination help plants?

2. It is true that cross-pollination with strong cultivars can make wild relatives stronger. In natural areas, this could benefit the plant species as well as the pollinators and songbirds that depend upon it. However, increased vigor would also make the wild relatives more effective at competing with other plant species. The switchgrass cultivar, ‘Shelter’, provides a good example. It has been bred for increased vigor, and it establishes quickly and takes over an area completely. Other meadow grasses and flowers, and all the insects and birds that depend upon them lose out. The balance of the ecosystem is at risk.

Can nativars pollinate native plants?

Nativars used in urban areas can’t contaminate native plant populations in natural areas. Facts to Consider: Some pollinators travel long distances, with migratory pollinators being extreme examples of this. Some plants are wind-pollinated, and their pollen is carried for miles.

Is cultivars harmful to the ecosystem?

Image credit: by Daderot via Wikimedia Commons. When cultivars are harmful to ecosystems, we must ask whether the benefit to people outweighs the risk to native plant species and pollinator populations. Cultivars of plants aren’t just bred for ornamental use, but for food and medicinal value as well.

Is American chestnut a cultivar?

American chestnut provides an example of cultivar development that is sensitive to, and in fact geared towards, the benefit native plants and natural areas. The cultivar is resistant to the invasive plant pathogen chestnut blight, and is being tested for interactions with other species in its habitat.

Why is irrigation important for fruit trees?

Also, irrigation management is important during flowering and fruit growth because drought conditions are associated with poor aril development and may accelerate water loss from the fruit via evapotranspiration.

What are the factors that influence rice grain selection?

Rice grain quality is characterized by traits grouped under physical appearance and cooking, sensory and nutritive properties ( Fitzgerald et al., 2009); of these, grain appearance and eating quality are the major factors that influence cultivar selection by farmers. High temperature greatly increases chalkiness in rice, and reduces gel consistency and amylose content, etc. Among these factors, chalk content is the principal determinant of market revenue. Temperature stress during the early grain-filling stage results in an increase in white core chalk, which determines the proportion of broken (<3/4 the size of a whole kernel) and the head rice (≥3/4 the size of the whole kernel) recovery, and, the greater the broken, the lower the market price (Counce et al., 2005 ). High temperatures during the later grain-filling period result in white belly (peripheral part of the endosperm) chalk, which does not contribute toward grain breakage but decreases the quality of the visual appearance and hence entails a penalty in the market price. At the same time, some varieties have high assimilate translocation efficiency to compensate for the reduced grain-filling duration in response to increased temperatures, so they can potentially overcome or reduce chalk formation ( Kobata and Uemuki, 2004 ). Furthermore, a rise in mean temperature (~31 °C) can result in a sharp decline in amylose content, resulting in changes in starch composition, which in turn increases the stickiness in cooked rice and reduces the degree of aroma ( Nagarajan et al., 2010 ). Effect of cold stress on rice quality traits is, however, poorly understood.

What is the most relevant new breeding technique?

The most relevant new breeding techniques are those dedicated to promote site-specific mutagenesis. Since small variations in a gene sequence can have a significant impact on plant phenotype, technology that allows modifying a specific sequence in the plant genome can be used to create new alleles.

Does planting arrangement affect weeds?

Planting arrangement has also been shown to have a considerable impact on weed management, often as part of the research studying sowing rates (see Section 5.9.3), and cultivar selection (see Section 5.7 ). For arable crops there are a number of approaches:

Can carrots be transmitted in the summer?

However, there can be high levels of secondary transmission within the carrot fields during the summer months. Howell and Mink (1977) suggested that green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was implicated in secondary spread though this seems unlikely because it is not a known vector of this disease.

What is a plant cultivar?

A plant cultivar refers to a variation within a plant species that has been developed by a human horticulturist through controlled plant breeding, as opposed to occurring naturally. The term “cultivar” is a portmanteau of “cultivated variety.”. When writing the complete scientific name of a plant cultivar, the cultivar name comes after the name …

What is the difference between a variety and a cultivar?

Varieties and cultivars both refer to a variation of a plant within a species, but there are a few key differences: Development: Varieties develop naturally, while cultivars are developed through human intervention. Characteristics: Seeds planted from a variety tend to grow true to type (i.e., the offspring retains the parent plant’s unique …

How do hybrid seeds form?

For example, when two different plant species grow near each other, the wind or a pollinating insect can cross-pollinate the plants. This produces a hybrid seed that falls onto the ground and grows into a new hybrid plant. Even though hybrid seeds can be made randomly in nature, hybrid seeds that you purchase in stores are deliberately produced by humans.

What is a variety in plant taxonomy?

In the classification system of plant taxonomy, variety is a taxon that falls below species and subspecies in taxonomic rank. There are guidelines for how to write a variety name on a plant label or in print.

What is a variety in plants?

A variety refers to a variation within a plant species that develops naturally in the environment. Unlike a cultivated plant, a variety does not require human intervention to grow and reproduce. Seeds from a specific variety will often grow true to type, meaning that their offspring will retain the parent plant’s unique characteristics.

How do you create a new cultivar?

To create a new cultivar, growers crossbreed parent plants that each have desirable characteristics in the hopes that their offspring will inherit those traits. Once a grower ends up with a new cultivar with the desired traits, the grower must then ensure future generations of that cultivar maintain those distinguishing characteristics. To accomplish this, the grower has to use either controlled pollination or various methods of asexual propagation (plant cloning), such as grafting, tissue culture, and cutting. If the grower tries to propagate the cultivar by seed, the offspring plant will most likely not be identical to the parent plant.

When writing a plant cultivar name, what is the first letter capitalized?

When writing the complete scientific name of a plant cultivar, the cultivar name comes after the name of the genus and species. The cultivar name is unitalicized, set off in single quotation marks, and the first letter of each word is capitalized. Here’s an example of how to write a cultivar name: Rudbeckia hirta ‘Denver Daisy’.


Different kinds

Which plants are chosen to be named as cultivars is simply a matter of convenience as the category was created to serve the practical needs of horticulture, agriculture, and forestry.
Members of a particular cultivar are not necessarily genetically identical. The Cultivated Plant Code emphasizes that different cultivated plants may be acce…


The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus (370–285 BC), the “Father of Botany”, who was keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantar…

Formal definition

The Cultivated Plant Code notes that the word cultivar is used in two different senses: first, as a “classification category” the cultivar is defined in Article 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (2009, 8th edition) as follows: The basic category of cultivated plants whose nomenclature is governed by this Code is the cultivar. There are two other classification categories for cultigens, the grex and the group. The Code then defines a cultivar a…

Cultivar names

Every unique cultivar has a unique name within its denomination class (which is almost always the genus). Names of cultivars are regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, and may be registered with an International Cultivar Registration Authority(ICRA). There are sometimes separate registration authorities for different plant types such as roses and ca…

Group names

Where several very similar cultivars exist they can be associated into a Group (formerly Cultivar-group). As Group names are used with cultivar names it is necessary to understand their way of presentation. Group names are presented in normal type and the first letter of each word capitalised as for cultivars, but they are not placed in single quotes. When used in a name, the first letter of the word “Group” is itself capitalized.

Legal protection of cultivars and their names

Since the 1990s there has been an increasing use of legal protection for newly produced cultivars. Plant breedersexpect legal protection for the cultivars they produce. According to proponents of such protections, if other growers can immediately propagate and sell these cultivars as soon as they come on the market, the breeder’s benefit is largely lost. Legal protection for cultivars is obtained through the use of Plant breeders’ rights and plant Patents but the specific legislation a…

International Cultivar Registration Authorities

An International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA) is a voluntary, non-statutory organization appointed by the Commission for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration of the International Society of Horticultural Science. ICRAs are generally formed by societies and institutions specializing in particular plant genera such as Dahlia or Rhododendron and are currently located in Europe, N…

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