What is development of agriculture


The development of agriculture involves an intensification of the processes used to extract resources from the environment: more food, medicine, fibre, and other resources can be obtained from a given area of land by encouraging useful plant and animal species and discouraging others.


What are three effects of the development of Agriculture?

Issues by region

  • Hedgerow removal in the United Kingdom.
  • Soil salinisation, especially in Australia.
  • Phosphate mining in Nauru
  • Methane emissions from livestock in New Zealand. …
  • Environmentalists attribute the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico as being encouraged by nitrogen fertilization of the algae bloom.

More items…

How did the development of Agriculture change people lives?

The development of agriculture changed daily life because we did not have to move around and hunt all day. We always had food, so we had time to do other things. We could also build larger communities with the steady food supply. Who did most of the food gathering in early societies?

What is the relationship between agriculture and development?

process of agricultural develop-ment. While its output may con-tinue to grow, agriculture’s share of both GDP and employment in-variably decreases as economies develop and industrialize. In-deed, at later stages of develop-ment, the absolute size of the la-bor force in agriculture declines, ultimately to a very small fraction of the total.

What are the four major challenges of Agriculture?

Modern agriculture. has many complex challenges. Farming is a complex, unpredictable and individual business. Farmers must meet the changing needs of our planet and the expectations of regulators, consumers, and food processors and retailers. There are increasing pressures from climate change, soil erosion and biodiversity loss and from …


What is agricultural developments?

Agricultural development is described as the process of creating the circumstances for agricultural potential to be realised. The accumulation of knowledge and the availability of technology, as well as the allocation of inputs and outputs, are among these conditions.

What is the development of agriculture called?

Neolithic RevolutionTaking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the “Neolithic Revolution.” Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements and …

Why development of agriculture is important?

Agriculture plays a major role in economic growth and development. As the provider of food it is a cornerstone of human existence. As a furnisher of industrial raw materials it is an important contributor to economic activity in other sectors of the economy.

What is agriculture development in India?

The agricultural sector is a central pillar of the Indian economy, employing 60 percent of the nation’s workforce and contributing to about 17 percent of its GDP. Productivity remains a challenge, however, and poverty and malnutrition in rural areas remain high.

Where was agriculture first developed?

Mehrgarh, one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BC to 3200 BC) sites in archaeology, lies on the “Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia.

What are the types of agriculture?

Top 12 Types of AgricultureSubsistence Farming: … Intensive Subsistence Farming (with or without Rice as a dominant crop): … Mediterranean Farming: … Commercial Grain Agriculture: … Arable Farming: … Shifting Cultivation: … Nomadic Herding: … Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage:More items…•

Why is development of agriculture and industry important for our country?

The agriculture sector is the backbone of an economy which provides the basic ingredients to mankind and now raw material for industrialisation. … Raising supply of food by agricultural sector has, therefore, great importance for economic growth of our country.

What do you know about development?

Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components.

How did the development of agriculture bring change to human society?

When early humans began farming, they were able to produce enough food that they no longer had to migrate to their food source. This meant they could build permanent structures, and develop villages, towns, and eventually even cities. Closely connected to the rise of settled societies was an increase in population.

Why is the development of agriculture essential for the Indian economy?

Answer: agriculture is an important sector of indian economy as it contribute about 17% to the total GDP and provides employment to over 60% of population. Agriculture is the only major source of food supply as it is providing regular supply food to such a huge size of population of our country.

What is the role of agriculture in economic development?

A strong agricultural economy brings social progress by increasing productivity, employment and income. Agriculture is the main driver of development in most rural areas. Demand for staple foods, agricultural commodities and – increasingly – processed food is growing in developing countries.

What is the role of agriculture in economic development of India?

Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy as it contributes about 17% to the total GDP and provides employment to over 60% of the population. Indian agriculture has registered impressive growth over last few decades.

What are the components of agricultural development?

Transportation is also a key component to agricultural development. Even if a farmer does grow enough agricultural items to sell, if there is no way to transport these products to the market, the farmer cannot sell the crops and make money. In some regions, problems with roads and infrastructure interfere with a farmer’s ability to sell his or her goods. Communication is another component to agricultural practices. This is because in order for a farmers to know the type of crop they must yield to generate a profit, they need to know the market prices for the types of crops they are growing.

How does agriculture help people?

Agricultural development can help people in developing countries get out of extreme poverty.

Why is agriculture important in rural areas?

Many small farmers in rural areas depend on agricultural sales for their livelihood to provide for their families. Large numbers of poor families rely on agricultural products for daily nourishment. Unfortunately, in many poor regions, soil conditions, seed supply and other factors are not ideal for successful farming, which leads to poverty in the developing world. Agricultural development promotes the proper conditions for farming so that planting, harvesting and processing of crops can be done effectively, which ultimately can reduce poverty and save lives.

What are the challenges of rural development?

Some of the obstacles facing the agricultural industry include soil that might have been damaged by overuse, in addition to shortages in seeds, fertilizers and other irrigation supplies. A farmer’s crops must be protected from disease and other threats, such as bugs and extreme weather conditions. Without the development of any of these basic farming components, a farmer cannot sell his or her goods to the market.

What do farmers depend on for their livelihood?

Many small farmers in rural areas depend on agricultural sales for their livelihood.

Is soil an obstacle to agricultural development?

Damaged soil may be an obstacle in agricultural development .

What is the meaning of “agriculture”?

agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). annual plant. Noun. plant with a life cycle of no more than one year, and often much less. barley. Noun. grass cultivated as a grain.

What was the farming revolution?

Taking root around 12,000 years ago, agriculture triggered such a change in society and the way in which people lived that its development has been dubbed the ” Neolithic Revolution.”. Traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyles, followed by humans since their evolution, were swept aside in favor of permanent settlements …

What is the meaning of civilization?

civilization. Noun. complex way of life that developed as humans began to develop urban settlements. crop. Noun. agricultural produce. cultivate. Verb. to encourage the growth of something through work and attention.

What mutation occurred during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe?

But at some point during the spread of farming into southeastern Europe, a mutation occurred for lactose tolerance that increased in frequency through natural selection thanks to the nourishing benefits of milk.

Where did goats come from?

Cattle, goats, sheep and pigs all have their origins as farmed animals in the so-called Fertile Crescent, a region covering eastern Turkey, Iraq and southwestern Iran. This region kick-started the Neolithic Revolution. Dates for the domestication of these animals range from between 13,000 to 10,000 years ago.

When was rice first grown?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E. The world’s oldest known rice paddy fields, discovered in eastern China in 2007, reveal evidence of ancient cultivation techniques such as flood and fire control.

When did rice and millet farming start?

The origins of rice and millet farming date to around 6,000 B.C.E.

How does agriculture affect biodiversity?

Agricultural development has historically been a major cause of reduced biodiversity. Agricultural land is created by converting wetlands, forests, prairies, and other landscapes into agricultural production. Typically, diverse plant and animal communities are replaced by much less diverse assemblages of commercially valuable species. Some of those species may have been engineered to combine traits unknown in nature. When a large fraction of the landscape is dominated by artificial communities, species that would otherwise have prospered can be edged out and replaced by ones better adapted to the new circumstances.

What are the causes of the conversion and degradation of the hotspots’ natural landscapes?

Agricultural development is one of the leading causes of the conversion and degradation of the hotspots’ natural landscapes, and Gorenflo and Brandon (2005) examined particularly agricultural suitability (land with high productivity potential) and the likelihood and implications of agricultural expansion affecting the high biodiversity forests of the hotspots.

Why do some states restrict the conversion of land to other uses?

In the United States, some states restrict the conversion of land to other uses (e.g., urban development) to limit losses of unusually rich ecological resources , such as wetlands ( National Research Council, 2001 ). The restrictions are coupled with markets where developers can trade ‘credits’ for ecological functions ( Mills, 1980 ).

What is agricultural development?

As such, agricultural development is best seen as a problem of public economics. Public economics is an explicitly normative (prescriptive) discipline. 5 Just as surgery requires an understanding of anatomy, agricultural policy analysis requires a positive theory in order to evaluate the potential consequences of policy reform. A positive theory suitable for evaluating the consequences of rural development policy needs to include two central components—a theory of farm-household behavior and a theory of agricultural organization. The current section is devoted to the first of these; part 3 is concerned with the second.

How did India develop rural development?

They included irrigation projects; the promotion of scientifically developed cash crops through the provision of improved seeds, equipment and fertilizer (the so-called Green Revolution approach to making agriculture productive); providing credit for agricultural investments to stimulate agricultural production; and the establishment of a system of extension services to introduce scientific farming techniques at the village level. They also regulated markets to stimulate trade in agricultural commodities; invested in roads and communications; and founded cooperatives to buy and sell agricultural products and facilitate the marketing of goods in rural areas.

What is an AGROVOC?

AGROVOC: A multilingual controlled vocabulary AGROVAC has been developed to standardize the indexing process in order to make searching simpler and more efficient. AGROVOC covers all areas of interest to FAO, including food, nutrition, agriculture, fisheries, forestry, environment, etc. At present AGROVOC contains over 32,000 concepts in a hierarchy, each concept may have labels in up to 22 languages [9,11].

How did the national policy of investing in industry and commercial agriculture affect the rural economy?

The national policy of investing in industry and commercial agriculture increased the gap between those involved in the corporate formal sectors of the economy, urban and rural, and those in the informal, traditional, subsistence sectors. Rural landless and land poor, squeezed out of traditional positions in village society, migrated to the city in unprecedented numbers. Cities were unable to accommodate the massive influx of displaced, often unskilled, rural laborers and their families and urban environments deteriorated as slum settlements of the poor proliferated. Responding to this phenomenon inspired a new set of rural planning policies. Stemming migration to the city by improving rural life and diversifying the rural economy emerged as prime planning objectives. Making rural living more attractive included provision of postal service, healthcare facilities, clean drinking water, and electricity in the countryside. As this policy evolved, its objectives also expanded to include increasing equity and distributing the benefits of development to the poor more explicitly. This change inspired such planning measures as putting a ceiling on individual land holdings, reforming tenancy to enhance the rights to the land of those who cultivated it, initiating programs to support traditional artisans with better tools, establishing credit and marketing networks to allow them to compete with industry or at least sustain them until alternative jobs were created. Finally, the Indian government emphasized free, mandatory elementary school education throughout rural areas to improve skills the poor needed to compete for development benefits.

How did India achieve rapid socioeconomic change?

At the point of independence from British rule, India embraced rural planning directly. Initial Indian national planning efforts to achieve rapid socioeconomic change concentrated on industrialization at chosen metropolitan centers, on the assumption that the benefits would ‘trickle down’ through the economy. Planners believed that although initially benefits would be concentrated in the core cities, they would spread to rural areas. However, they also recognized the need to promote complementary rural planning to reduce existing and anticipated urban–rural disparities in wealth.

What was the Indian model?

The Indian Model. At the point of independence from British rule, India embraced rural planning directly. Initial Indian national planning efforts to achieve rapid socioeconomic change concentrated on industrialization at chosen metropolitan centers, on the assumption that the benefits would ‘trickle down’ through the economy.

When did UNDP declare its own program a success?

The UNDP’s official assessment of its own program declared it a success in 2005, stating that the schemes were ‘making a significant contribution in promoting the income and savings of the poor.’ It added that they had proved, in Myanmar, that the ‘poor are bankable.’

Where did agriculture originate?

By 8000 BC, farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, probably in China, with rice rather than wheat as the primary crop. Maize was domesticated from the wild grass teosinte in southern Mexico by 6700 BC.

How long ago did agriculture start?

Wild grains were collected and eaten from at least 105,000 years ago.

How did the Industrial Revolution affect agriculture?

Between the 17th century and the mid-19th century, Britain saw a large increase in agricultural productivity and net output. New agricultural practices like enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation to maintain soil nutrients, and selective breeding enabled an unprecedented population growth to 5.7 million in 1750, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. The productivity of wheat went up from 19 US bushels (670 l; 150 US dry gal; 150 imp gal) per acre in 1720 to around 30 US bushels (1,100 l; 240 US dry gal; 230 imp gal) by 1840, marking a major turning point in history.

What are the social issues that modern agriculture has raised?

Modern agriculture has raised social, political, and environmental issues including overpopulation, water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies. In response, organic farming developed in the twentieth century as an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides.

How has agriculture changed since 1900?

Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthe tic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding.

What were the crops that were introduced in the Middle Ages?

In the Middle Ages, both in the Islamic world and in Europe, agriculture was transformed with improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus.

Why was clover important to agriculture?

The use of clover was especially important as the legume roots replenished soil nitrates. The mechanisation and rationalisation of agriculture was another important factor.

How did farming start?

The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweeping enclosure acts regulated land management, selective cross-breeding began on an industrial scale to increase crop size as well as yields creating several cultivars in the process. Animal husbandry also improved, leading to a greater surplus than had been permissible under the old system. It is said that these changes permitted the industrial revolution and even greater concentration of urban development, fueling the empire. How so? More crops for fewer workers, better methods of keeping and replacing nutrients in the soil meant that more people could work in industry. When the Corn Laws in England were repealed, it began the global food economy; about the same time, Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution put agriculture on the modern path of a science as we began to understand the development of crops.

What is agriculture in the US?

Agriculture is defined as the cultivation and exploitation of animals, plants (including fungi) and other forms of organic life for human use including food, fiber, medicines, fuel and anything else. It is, and has been since there was an agricultural market, one of the largest employers of people; in the USA today, agriculture represents 20% of the US economy (1). Before organised agriculture, it is believed that the food supply could provide for just 4 million people globally (21).

What were the crops of Mesoamerica?

In Mesoamerica and South America, with the Inca, the Maya, Olmecs and the Aztecs, relatively early development of agriculture permitted the building of enormous cities that impressed the European colonizers; it was quickly identified that these civilizations had an impressive agriculture-based economy that stood on a par with Europe, challenging what was then understood about the development of civilization. In Mesoamerica it was corn and in South America it was the humble potato (18) – today the staple crop of most people in the western world, along with coca and the domestication of animal species such as llama and alpaca.

What was the Middle East’s agricultural revolution?

The Middle East continued to see much innovation in the agricultural industries, something that historians refer to as The Arab Agricultural Revolution (10). This was thanks to the diversity of the local topographies, the crops grown in the Middle East and Indus Valley that European societies coveted, and later acted as a trade bridge between Far East and Europe (11).

What is the early civilization?

Early Civilization. Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC (7, p26-28), the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive.

When did agriculture start in North America?

It is likely that agriculture came to the North America relatively late, perhaps between 2500 and 2000 BC and we see it extensively with such civilizations as the Hohokam, the Anasazi and ancient Pueblos (17), possibly developing in Mesoamerica around 6000 BC with the domestication of maize.

Where did maize come from?

When we look at the south-western states, particularly Arizona and New Mexico, we see agriculture on an industrial scale – especially the cultivation of maize crops that were introduced from modern Mexico, the rest of Mesoamerica and beyond.

How did agriculture start?

The beginning of agriculture was in the gradual transition of nomadic people who hunted animals and gathered plants into a more stationary people who planted, harvested, and tended plants and animals in one place. By making the cultivation of crops and domestication of animals the main source of human sustenance, humans distanced themselves from the wild food webs of their ancestors. Archaeologists believe that this stationary agricultural lifestyle arose independently in at least 11 regions around the globe.

What is the history of agriculture?

Historical Development of Agriculture. (Latin for “wise man”) The species to which all modern human beings belong. Homo sapiens is one of several species grouped into the genus Homo, but it is the only one that is not extinct. View Source. species that has inhabited this planet for approximately 180,000 years.

How did Borlaug hope to reduce deforestation?

Borlaug hoped that by improving crop yield, deforestation could be decreased. But, as noted above, the increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and the increased scale of mechanization and irrigation mobilized alongside crop hybridization have increased global deforestation. Since the Green Revolution, more forests have been cut down, more swamps and wetlands have been drained, more animal habitats have been degraded, more plant and insect species have gone extinct, and more indigenous people and small, local farmers have been removed from their land than in any period of recorded human history.

How did humans distance themselves from the food webs of their ancestors?

By making the cultivation of crops and domestication of animals the main source of human sustenance, humans distanced themselves from the wild food webs of their ancestors. Archaeologists believe that this stationary agricultural lifestyle arose independently in at least 11 regions around the globe.

What is the development of fishing?

The modern development of fishing techniques has been similar to that of agriculture’s Green Revolution. For most of its existence, fishing took place on a small scale within natural aquatic ecosystems. Fishing boats were dependent on human or wind power, and modest nets and lines were hauled in by hand.

Where did plants originate?

of plants occurred about 11,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, what is now Iran (Figure 12). Other locations of early plant and animal domestication were Northern and Southern China, New Guinea, India, Africa’s Sahel region, and several parts of the Americas.

Why did Norman Borlaug develop hybridized seed strains?

Norman Borlaug was motivated to develop hybridized seed strains in order to increase crop yield and thereby reduce the necessity for further deforestation of the planet. Hybridization has increased crop yield but has not prevented deforestation. Why do you think Borlaug’s goal of preventing deforestation has not been achieved?


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