What is extension in agriculture

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Agricultural and rural extension: definitions

  • 1.1 Extension: a function. Extension, in general terms, is a function that can be applied to various areas of society. …
  • 1.2 Agricultural extension: a knowledge system. …
  • 1.3 Agricultural and rural extension: an expanded concept. …
  • 1.4 Alternative extension approaches. …
  • 1.5 Government’s role in agricultural and rural extension reform. …

Full
Answer

What are the principles of agricultural extension?

these principles as related to agricultural extension as mentioned below. Basic principles in agricultural extension system There are basic principles and guidelines used as a tools in community intervention: 1. Principle of interest & need. Extension work must be based on the needs & interests of the people.

What is the meaning of ‘agricultural extension’?

What is agricultural extension? Agricultural extension is another name for agricultural advisory services. In practical terms, extension means giving farmers – for us, smallholders in developing countries – knowledge of agronomic techniques and skills to improve their productivity, food security and livelihoods.

What is the importance of agricultural extension?

  • Towards a New Paradigm. …
  • The Role of the Private Sector. …
  • Training Modes and Models. …
  • Assessing the Impact of Agricultural Extension. …
  • Lessons Learned from Project Failures and Successes. …
  • Synthesis on the Opportunities for IPI in Agricultural Extension. …
  • References. …
  • GADD: The Ghana Agro-Dealer Development Project. …

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What to do with a degree in agriculture?

Typical employers include:

  • agricultural and agri-pharmaceutical consultancies
  • agricultural machinery firms
  • environmental consultancies
  • farm management and commercial ancillary companies
  • food processing companies
  • food retail companies
  • government and local authorities – in a range of advisory and administration roles
  • trade associations such as the NFU

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What is the meaning of agriculture extension?

Agricultural extension is another name for agricultural advisory services. In practical terms, extension means giving farmers – for us, smallholders in developing countries – knowledge of agronomic techniques and skills to improve their productivity, food security and livelihoods.


What is the role of agricultural extension?

Agricultural extension (also known as agricultural advisory services) plays a crucial role in boosting agricultural productivity, increasing food security, improving rural livelihoods, and promoting agriculture as an engine of pro-poor economic growth.


What are the different types of extension in agriculture?

Recognized extension techniques include training and visit, demonstration farm projects, producers’ meetings, educational materials, and use of mass media. Extension activities must be multi-media to direct the process of technological change and development effectively.


What is the principle of extension?

1. Principle of interest & need. Extension work must be based on the needs & interests of the people. These needs & interests differ from individual to individual, from village to village, from block to block, & from state to state &, therefore, there cannot be one programmed for all people.


What is the main objective of extension education?

The basic objectives of extension education is to raise the standard of the people living of the rural area by helping them in using their natural resources (Like land; water, livestock) in the right way.


How many types of extension are there?

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What are the 5 principles of extension?

A principle is a universal truth that has been observed and found to be truth and a settled rule of action.The principles of extension education are given hereunder: … Principle of cultural change: … Principle of grass-root organization: … Principle of interests and needs: … Principle of interests and needs:More items…


How many sources of agricultural extension are there?

There are three main sources of agricultural extension.


Which countries have strong agricultural extension services?

Many countries with advanced agricultural sectors, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and Denmark, enjoy strong extension services. In the developing world, however, agricultural extension has not always met farmers’ needs.


What is the difference between Extension and Research?

Research institutions focus on the technical aspects of generating useful technologies. Extension focuses on the acceptance and adoption of those technologies by farmers. The two areas must work in partnership.


What are the components of a farm?

This has two important components: 1 dissemination of practical information, including on improved seeds, soil quality, tools, water management, crop protection, agricultural practices and livestock, and 2 application of this knowledge on the farm.


What is extension in agriculture?

The field of ‘extension’ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for farmers. face-to-face training, training “products” such as manuals and videos, or information and communication technologies, such as radio and short message system (SMS).


What is the agricultural extension program?

The Agricultural and Extension Education Program in the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources allows students to complete concentrations in either “Agricultural Education” or “Agricultural Extension Education. Continue Reading.


What is agricultural expert?

This is a government program. Agricultural experts are hired to provide support and information to farmers. We had one when I was a farm kid in Ontario in the 1940s. He and my dad were acquainted. On one visit to our farm we had about 30 young pigs in a pen that were on a feeding scheme where they kd eat as much as they wanted. Dad had built a feeder open at the top and bottom with an attached board at the bottom so that the pigs kd eat without spilling the dry chop out onto the floor. The Ag. Rep. told Dad he’d mention him on his CKNX Wingham farm program if the pigs all went “select” when sold. They did, except for one that had a crooked back bone.


What is the difference between national education and agricultural extension?

National education encompasses children of a certain age, say 5 to 18 and occurs in school buildings. By contrast, agricultural extension deals with grownups and actually takes the education to the beneficiary farmers (i.e., extends it through the extension agents) and occurs at the the farm. Sponsored by Identiv.


What is the purpose of the cooperative extension service?

Extension is one of the program areas of research and study of the Cooperative Extension Service that is charged with the duty and responsibility to take research from the land-grant university system , out to the people of the state they serve. Each state got a land grant from the fed. gov’t to develop a university and hence the term land grant.


What is extension in education?

The field of ‘extension’ now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines, including agriculture, agricultural marketing, health, and business studies.


What is rural development?

But rural development is a holistic growth of the rural society. Rural development may include health, education, livelihood, gender empowerment and other related factors, similarly we can have extension in all the sated factors of development for instance health extension and the like.


How to spread extension messages?

The most effective and economic means to spread specific extension messages is through campaigns, using well publicized meetings at demonstration plots and appropriate mass media. However, such campaigns should not replace regular training for developing a deeper understanding, for example, on the roles that fertilizers play in plant husbandry.


What is agricultural advisory?

Agricultural advisory services are under an obligation to demonstrate that they have made an economic and social impact on the well-being of the farmers they serve, mainly through the quantitative and qualitative enhancement in crop productivity and in farmers’ net income. This impact should be environmentally and economically sustainable.


What countries use pesticides to control brown rice hoppers?

For example, as a result of training, rice farmers in Indonesia, Vietnam and Bangladesh moved from prophylactic spraying against brown rice hoppers to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and reduced the use of pesticides by 35-92 percent.


How difficult is it to find two groups of farmers who are equal enough to set-up a controlled experiment?

In addition, it is extremely challenging to find two groups of farmers who are “equal” enough to set-up a controlled experiment. Models developed for experiments with genetically identical plants are not necessarily suitable for measuring human behavior. Trying to differentiate between the separate contributions of research and extension to a new agricultural practice is very problematic. Furthermore, a rise in productivity could be the outcome of many factors: Extension interventions, different levels of farmer’s education, better market opportunities, availability and low prices of inputs, optimal weather etc. The nature of agricultural extension interventions makes randomization difficult. Several meta-studies have shown different types of biases in the selection of the samples (Romani, 2003).


Why did many agricultural development projects fail?

Unfortunately, many agricultural development projects, financed by foreign donors, failed once donor funding ended, usually because national governments did not have the budget or the political will to continue. These projects were either too expensive for a developing country or they did not fit the national development programs. Some lessons can be learned:


Why do extension systems use sociological impact evaluations?

Because of the weaknesses of purely economic impact evaluations, extension systems often use more sociological impact evaluations, in which farmers’ experiences, expectations, opinions and other non-economic factors are considered.


Do farmers pay for agricultural extension?

Over the past few decades, central governments of most countries have curtailed their direct involvement in agricultural extension. In industrialized countries, advisory services (4) have been “privatized”, and farmers, as clients, have to pay for most extension activities. In developing countries, there has also been a move to privatize, outsource or regionalize extension and to demand that farmers pay for services, which in the past were provided free-of-charge by governmental agricultural advisory services.

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What Is Agriculturalextension?

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Agricultural extension is another name for agricultural advisory services. In practical terms, extensionmeans giving farmers – for us, smallholders in developing countries – knowledge of agronomic techniques and skills to improve their productivity, food security andlivelihoods. This has two important c…

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Who Provides Agricultural Extension Services?

  • There are three main sources of agricultural extension. 1. The public sector Ministries and departments of agriculture, and agricultural research centres. 1. The private non-profit sector Local and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs), foundations, community boards andassociations; bilateral and multilateral aid projects, and other non-commercial associations. …

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Agricultural Extension in The Developing World

  • Many countries with advanced agricultural sectors, such as the United States, Canada, Australia, andDenmark, enjoy strong extension services. In the developing world, however, agricultural extension has not always met farmers’ needs. The World Bank-devised ‘training and visit’ system played an important role in India’s Green Revolution from the late 1970sbut also failed in some i…

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New Approaches to Agricultural Extension

  • Addressing new and growing challenges in agricultural markets, technology and sustainability demandnew thinking. Extensionnow needs to focus on 1. Participatory approaches to shape demand-driven services 2. Multiple providers of extension services, and 3. Strategies to develop agricultural innovation systems The public sector has been the traditional source of research an…

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Learn More

  • Find out more about our work in extension and other agriservices. Yuan Zhou is our Foundation’s Head of Research & Policy Analysis. She is also co-editor of “Knowledge Driven Development; Private Extension and Global Lessons”. Here is a synopsis. Together with Suresh Babu of IFPRI, Yuan and the many other contributors draw on real-life examples. These illustrate the role and c…

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