What is fertility in agriculture

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Fertility can refer to the ability of soil to sustain plant growth, or it can refer to the number of live births occurring in a population. Fertile Soil. Agronomists, or people who study the uses of plants, use the term to refer to soil. Plants grow easily in fertile soil because it contains large amounts of nutrients.May 19, 2022

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Answer

What is fertility?

Physiological, the term fertility refers to the ability to conceive a baby. Before people had a better understanding of the human population, the term fertility was applied to a woman but now the term fertility may apply to either sex.

What is effective fertility management in organic farming?

Effective fertility management considers plants, soil organic matter (SOM), and soil biology. Ideally, organic farming systems are designed to enhance soil fertility to achieve multiple goals.

Why is it important to know the fertilization history of crops?

Before a fertilization program can be planned it is important to know the cropping and soil fertilization history of the field. Information thus gleaned provides a good foundation for future nutrient management programs. Below are management aspects of some key nutrients:

What is soil fertility and nutrient management?

Soil fertility and nutrient management is one of the important factors that have a direct impact on crop yield and quality. Irrespective of the size of your field or plot, supplying plants with the right amount of nutrients at the right time is the key to a successful vegetable production enterprise.

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What is fertility in soils?

Soil fertility is the ability of soil to sustain plant growth and optimize crop yield. This can be enhanced through organic and inorganic fertilizers to the soil. Nuclear techniques provide data that enhances soil fertility and crop production while minimizing the environmental impact.


What is fertility of soil 9th class?

“Soil fertility refers to the ability of the soil to sustain plant growth.” Fertile soil results in high yield and better quality of plants. Fertile soil is rich in fundamental elements and minerals, has good aeration, water holding capacity, and good texture.


Why is soil fertility important?

Soil fertility and nutrient management is one of the important factors that have a direct impact on crop yield and quality. Irrespective of the size of your field or plot, supplying plants with the right amount of nutrients at the right time is the key to a successful vegetable production enterprise.


What are the types of soil fertility?

Types of Soil Fertility:(i) Inherent or Natural Fertility:(ii) Acquired Fertility:(i) Natural Factors:(ii) Artificial Factors:


What is the fertility?

Overview. Fertility is a person’s ability to conceive children. In general, when a woman is unable to get pregnant even after at least one year of unprotected sex, she is considered to have infertility and her doctor will begin evaluating the possible causes.


What is soil fertility class 7?

Answer: Soil fertility refers to the ability of soil to provide nutrients in adequate quantity and balance to allow growth of plants.


What is soil fertility and productivity?

Soil Fertility: Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to provide all essential plant nutrients in available forms and in a suitable balance. Soil productivity: The capability of soil to produce specified crop yield under well-defined and specified systems of management of inputs and environmental conditions.


How can agricultural land increase fertility?

The most effective technique to improve soil fertility is to incorporate a variety of organic matter. To begin with, manure must be added to give nitrogen, which is a necessary component of productive soil. In this case, manure from farm animals (cows and pigs) is an excellent choice.


What is the role of soil fertility in food production?

Soils supply the essential nutrients, water, oxygen and root support that our food-producing plants need to grow and flourish. They also serve as a buffer to protect delicate plant roots from drastic fluctuations in temperature.


Where is fertile soil found?

Fertile soil is usually found in river basins or in places where glaciers deposited minerals during the last Ice Age. Valleys and plains are usually more fertile than mountains.


What are the three causes of soil fertility?

In Ethiopia the major causes to soil fertility decline are the soil erosion, continuous cultivation and low nutrient application that increase the imbalance of soil nutrients from year to year.


What are the 3 ways of making soil fertile?

Soil can be make fertile in the following ways:Adding fertilizer.Mulching.Crop rotation.leaving fallow.Afforestation.


1. What Does Infertility in Humans Mean?

Ans: Infertility in women older than 35 occurs if they cannot get pregnant after having regular unprotected sexual intercourse for 12 or 6 months….


2. What is Meant By the Term Fertility Rate?

Ans: The fertility rate is defined as the average number of children born to women during their reproductive age. A fertility rate of 2.1 is requir…


3. What Does Soil Fertility Mean?

Ans: Soil fertility refers to the capability of the soil to preserve the growth of the plant i.e. to provide habitat to plants and results in a sus…


What is organic fertilizer?

Organic fertilizer in its natural, moist form includes all animal manures and compost made from manure and other plant or animal by-products. Commercial organic fertilizers include dried manures, bone and blood meal, and cottonseed and soybean meals. The nutrients are available more slowly over a longer period and are less likely to be leached from the soil. Organic fertilizers generally cost more than inorganic types and are unavailable to the plants until soil microbes break them down.


What are the three elements that are needed for fertilizer?

All crops require a well-balanced supply of the major plant nutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca). A “complete” fertilizer contains various amounts of the first three elements, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Plant nutrient availability directly relates to soil pH.


Why is organic matter important for soil?

When incorporated into soil, compost produces a spongy texture that acts to increase soil water-holding capacity, provides needed pore space, which lets in the air essential to good plant growth. Organic matter prevents tiny particles of clay from cementing themselves into a solid mass. This enables plant roots to move easily throughout the soil. It increases the cation exchange capacity or C.E.C., which is a measurement of a soil’s ability to hold nutrients. While organic matter helps soil hold and release more nutrients, it also promotes the growth of microorganisms, which help to condition the soil. Bottom line: it is good stuff.


What is the best fertilizer for a garden?

Fertilizer formulations suitable for general lawn and garden use are 5-10-5 and 5-10-10. For the most part, fertilizers with a nutrient ratio of 1-2-2 or 1-3-1 for N, P, and K will meet your needs. For planting vegetable and flower transplants, you may wish to use one of the high ratio, water-soluble fertilizers such as 10-55-10 (1:5:1).


What is the nitrogen in a fertilizer bag?

Each number equals the percentage of the element in the bag. A bag of 5-10-5 contains 5% nitrogen, 10% phosphorus, and 5% potassium. The rest of the bag is filler.


What are the problems with manure?

Some organic matter, especially manure, is relatively high in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. This can imbalance the nutrient balance ratio of the soil, which can cause problems with your plant s. In addition, surplus nutrients, whether from soil amendments or fertilizers, can wash away.


Where do organic materials come from?

Organic materials originate from living organisms. They are broken down in the soil by bacteria, into inorganic, water-soluble forms. Inorganic materials are mineral salts that are water-soluble. They do not need bacteria to make them available to plants.


What are the nutrients that support plant growth?

Plant nutrients include the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, sulfur, calcium and magnesium. Micronutrients are essentially boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and zinc. Fertilizers are chemical or natural substance or material that is used to provide nutrients to plants, usually via application to the soil, but also to foliage or through water in rice systems, fertigation or hydroponics or aquaculture operations. Nutrient sources include chemical and mineral fertilizers, organic fertilizers, such as livestock manures and composts, and sources of recycled nutrients.


What is the Champion Farmers programme?

The programme provides champion farmers with trainings, educational material and soil testing kits to build capacity on soil science and promote sustainable soil management.


How can soil be improved?

It can be maintained or increased through several management practices. Farmers can improve soil fertility and soil health by optimizing soil nutrient management in terms of maximizing net returns, minimizing the soil nutrients depletion, and minimizing nutrient losses or negative impacts on the environment. Governments should promote sustainable agricultural practices, technologies and management in order to improve soil fertility and nutrient management as a whole, such as Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) and Sustainable Soil Management (SSM). The International Code of Conduct for the Sustainable Use and Management of Fertilizers promotes practices including nutrient recycling, and agronomic and land management to improve soil health; it recommends regulation related to the sale, distribution and labelling of fertilizer products, wherever appropriate. It also promotes capacity development and education programmes for all stakeholders involved in the fertilizer value chain, and encourages developed countries to assist others in developing infrastructures and capacity to manage fertilizers throughout their life cycle.


What is soil fertility?

Ans: Soil fertility refers to the capability of the soil to preserve the growth of the plant i.e . to provide habitat to plants and results in a sustained and consistent yield of superior quality. Fertile soil has the following properties:


What is the definition of fertility?

The term ‘fertility’ is defined as the state or quality of being fertile.


How does natural fertility work?

Natural fertility requires the production of enough healthy sperm by the male and living egg by female, successful transit of the sperm through open ducts from the male testis to the fallopian tube, penetration of a healthy woman, and implantation of the fertilized egg in the lining of a uterus. An issue with any of these steps can cause infertility. Human fertility depends on a number of factors like nutrition, culture, endocrinology, instinct, timings, consanguinity, and emotions.


What is the purpose of a fertility specialist?

A fertility specialist conducts a test to evaluate symptoms and find out the cause of infertility in women struggling to reproduce. Hormone imbalance, Ovulatory Dysfunction, and Structural issues of the reproductive system are some of the common causes of infertility in women.


What is replacement level fertility?

As per the UN Population Division, a total fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman is known as replacement-level fertility.


What is the ability of soil to support the growth of the plants?

In agriculture, fertility means the ability of soil to support the growth of the plants because it contains the right proportion of minerals and nutrients.


When do men become fertile?

The arrival of menopause near the age of 50 marks the stoppage of the women’s menstruation cycle and her ability to reproduce. However, men remain sexually fertile throughout most of their adulthood. After the arrival of puberty, when the pesticides begin to function, males can produce a continuous supply of sperms, capable of impregnating women (though males fertility does diminish with age).


How does lifestyle affect fertility?

Factors, such as couple’s age during conception, body weight, smoking tobacco, alcohol and caffeine consumption, diet and exercise, use of illicit drugs, and sexually transmitted infections, can influence the couple’s fertility potential. Adopting a healthier lifestyle contributes toward optimal fertility, which will enhance natural conception, promote a safer pregnancy leading to the live birth of a healthy baby. This chapter reviews studies on these individual lifestyle factors and discusses their findings. Knowledge on how these factors can impair fertility is essential to create awareness among couples who are planning to start a family or those who are already pregnant, in order to maximize their natural fertility potential and outcome.


How do anthracyclines affect fertility?

There is no conclusive evidence about whether anthracyclines adversely affect human fertility or are teratogenic. In 26 of 28 pregnancies, three or more chemotherapeutic agents were used to treat acute leukemia (n = 20), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n = 3), Ewing’s sarcoma (n = 2), breast cancer (n = 2), and myoblastoma (n = 1) [ 88 ]. The anthracyclines were introduced at various gestational ages, ranging from time of conception to 38 weeks, but in most cases chemotherapy was started in the second trimester. The outcomes were 24 normal infants, including a set of twins. Four of the five cases of infant death occurred in those with hematological malignancies (acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), one each due to maternal death and therapeutic abortion and two resulting from spontaneous abortion. Neonatal pathological examination showed no congenital anomalies or organ defects, one case of marrow hypoplasia, and one case of neonatal sepsis. These findings suggest that anthracyclines have no detectable effect on the offspring up to the age of 54 months. However, bias inherent in reporting pregnancies with a successful outcome is obvious, so extreme caution must be exercised in the use of anthracyclines in pregnancy, and they should be avoided if at all possible.


What is the role of the membrane in sperm cell activation?

The membrane or nongenomic pathway plays a vital role in human sperm cell activation, modulation of pain perception by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and oocyte maturation , but the molecular determinants of this pathway are poorly understood. It is possible that DRG neurons and spermatozoa are activated similarly by progesterone and share common molecular features of this cascade. Interestingly, pain thresholds in women tend to be higher during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, when levels of estradiol and progesterone are increased. Transcriptionally and translationally silent spermatozoa lack conventional genomic progesterone signaling; therefore they represent an ideal model to identify the nongenomic progesterone receptor. Although it is still possible that progesterone may bind to CatSper channel directly and hence activate the channel, it may also initiate a lipid cascade through its nongenomic progesterone receptor. The latter would produce a bioactive signaling lipid, thereby altering CatSper activity. This bioactive lipid could be a true CatSper modulator, which also can alter the activity of other ion channels. Although the molecular identity of sperm progesterone receptor is still unknown, the binding site for a cell impermeant analog of this steroid is accessible from the extracellular space. 50 Furthermore, evidence for nongenomic progesterone signaling in cells lacking CatSper channel expression 13 suggests that the initiation of membrane progesterone signaling is through a yet unidentified protein separate from the CatSper complex.


What are the barriers to successful implantation?

Despite scientific advances in human fertility by assisted reproductive technologies, the implantation rate and number of ‘take-home’ babies still remain low (Norwitz et al., 2001). Poor embryo quality, transfer of embryos into uteri of unknown states of receptivity, and complications from inferior quality of implantation are all barriers to successful pregnancy. Indeed, defective implantation was shown to propagate adverse ripple effects throughout the remainder of pregnancy, resulting in compromised pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth and preeclampsia which can have life-long health effects on the offspring.


How effective is contraception?

An ideal contraceptive would be 100% effective with no side effects, easy to use, reversible, effective for men and women, and free. Although no single current contraceptive method lives up to all of these standards, many options are available. This chapter reviews current methods of contraception, including their usage, advantages and disadvantages, mechanisms of action, effectiveness, and major and minor adverse side effects. In addition, possible future methods of contraception are discussed.


Why is it important to adopt a healthy lifestyle?

Adopting a healthier lifestyle contributes toward optimal fertility, which will enhance natural conception, promote a safer pregnancy leading to the live birth of a healthy baby. This chapter reviews studies on these individual lifestyle factors and discusses their findings.


Can decidualization cause pregnancy?

Aberrant decidualization can also give rise to adverse pregnancy phenotypes including aberrations in parturition. Preterm birth is one example of an adverse pregnancy effect of defective decidualization . The Dey lab has shown that mice with uterine deletion of Trp53 (encoding p53; Trp53d/d) show normal implantation, however, 50–60% of Trp53 d/d mice exhibit preterm birth with dystocia and fetal death (Hirota et al., 2010). These mice have compromised decidualization with more terminally differentiated decidual cells than control littermates with increased polyploidy, senescence-associated growth restriction, and heightened expression of pAkt, p21 and Cox2. Many risk factors, such as genetic mutation, infection, inflammation and stress that lead to preterm birth are also reported to exacerbate cellular senescence via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Rapamycin attenuates senescence and increase life span in mice (Harrison et al., 2009). Trp53 d/d decidua have increased mTORC1 activity, which is inhibited by rapamycin or metformin with attenuation of premature decidual senescence and rescue of preterm birth (Hirota et al., 2010; Cha et al., 2013a ). This finding is intriguing since women of advanced age exhibit higher rates of preterm birth (Cnattingius et al., 1992) and a cohort of Japanese women who delivered preterm showed increased decidual senescence compared to term counterparts (Cha et al., 2013a). These results are a paradigm shift in our understanding of the physiology of birth timing and pathogenesis of preterm birth by identifying a decidual origin of preterm birth which can be targeted using mTORC1 inhibitors ( Fig. 2 ). Whether this intervention can be applied broadly remains to be studied; clinical research to study decidual senescence in women with higher risk factors for preterm birth will be useful to target this global problem.


How does organic farming improve soil fertility?

In organic farming systems, soil fertility means more than just providing plants with macro- and micronutrients. Effective fertility management considers plants, soil organic matter (SOM), and soil biology. Ideally, organic farming systems are designed to enhance soil fertility to achieve multiple goals. Important goals include: the protection and, if possible, improvement of soil physical condition so that the soil supports healthy plants and soil-dwelling organisms and has the ability to resist and recover from stresses like flooding or aggressive tillage; the maintenance of soil buffering capacity to minimize environmental degradation caused by soil loss or soils’ failure to filter nutrients or degrade harmful compounds; and increased water and nutrient use efficiency by increasing biological fixation and retention of needed nutrients while reducing their loss from the system to the extent possible. Organic farming systems are designed with the aim of maintaining nutrients in organic reservoirs or in bioavailable mineral forms instead of just supplying nutrients through frequent fertilizer additions. This is achieved by cycling nutrients through organic reservoirs. Soil fertility is improved by organic matter management and not through input substitution. The remainder of this article explains why.


What are the four fertility management practices typically used in organic cropping systems?

There are four soil fertility management practices typically used in organic cropping systems that determine the cycling and availability of nutrients in the soil: use of organic residues as soil amendments or sparingly soluble minerals; use biological N-fixation as the major N source;


What is the purpose of organic systems?

The intention of organic systems is to manage the full range of soil organic and inorganic nutrient reservoirs and prevent unwanted loss by retaining them in forms that can be accessed by crops through biological leveraging. One objective during transition is to enhance symbiotic associations between plants and their microbial partners, organic reserves, and the physical environment. For more on the role that microbes play in N cycling see Soil Microbial Nitrogen Cycling for Organic Farms.


Why do organic production systems require their own suite of management tools?

First, organic soil amendments vary in quantity and quality. Second , the condition of the soil resource plays a large role because it supplies and recycles added nutrients.


Why are plant species diversified?

plant species are diversified in space and time to fulfill a variety of functions (minimize weeds and pests, support below-ground processes, erosion control, N fixation, build SOM etc.).


Do organic farmers use soil tests?

Although many organic producers do use soil testing to assess soil nutrient levels, they report that while these tests often indicate that plant-available N or P may be limiting, their yields do not reflect these soil test results.


Is conventional agriculture a non point source?

Off-site problems caused by over-application of nutrients are better recognized than are problems caused on-site. Conventional agriculture is cited as the primary source of non-point source and P pollution that contributes to myriad environmental and health risks.


Why do crops need P fertilizer?

The need for P by crops needs to be balanced with the environmental risk of having too much P in the soil.


What are the factors that affect crop yield?

Soil fertility and nutrient management is one of the important factors that have a direct impact on crop yield and quality. Irrespective of the size of your field or plot, supplying plants with the right amount of nutrients at the right time is the key to a successful vegetable production enterprise. In order to achieve this objective the first …


What is the most important nutrient to manage in vegetable production systems?

Information thus gleaned provides a good foundation for future nutrient management programs. Below are management aspects of some key nutrients: Nitrogen: Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients to manage in vegetable production systems.


Why is it important to know the soil nutrient levels?

Managing optimum soil nutrient levels is the key to maintaining a sustainable and productive vegetable production enterprise. Before a fertilization program can be planned it is important to know the cropping and soil fertilization history of the field. Information thus gleaned provides a good foundation for future nutrient management programs. Below are management aspects of some key nutrients:


What crops are sensitive to low pH?

Crops such as asparagus, brassicas, garlic, onions, and spinach are crops that are sensitive to low pH, requiring pH maintenance above 6.5. To track soil pH trends across years, measure soil pH at about the same time each year, during the fall or early spring. Managing optimum soil nutrient levels is the key to maintaining a sustainable …


What is the best pH for vegetable crops?

Maintaining a soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0 is recommended for most crop rotations that include vegetable crops. A large number of vegetables grow well in that range as most of the nutrients are easily available. Crops such as asparagus, brassicas, garlic, onions, and spinach are crops that are sensitive to low pH, requiring pH maintenance above 6.5.


Why is phosphorus important for plants?

Although phosphorus is required in lower amounts than other major nutrients, it is critical in the early developmental stages of growth, and in energy transfer within the plant throughout the growing season.


What is fertilizer?

Fertilizer, natural or artificial substance containing the chemical elements that improve growth and productiveness of plants. Fertilizers enhance the natural fertility of the soil or replace the chemical elements taken from the soil by previous crops. Read More on This Topic.


What is the treatment of fertilizer?

A brief treatment of fertilizer follows. For full treatment, seeagricultural technology: Fertilizing and conditioning the soil.


What is agricultural technology?

agricultural technology: Fertilizing and conditioning the soil. …plant nutrients; these are called fertilizers, although the term is generally applied to largely inorganic materials other than lime or… A brief treatment of fertilizer follows. For full treatment, see agricultural technology: Fertilizing and conditioning the soil.


How is synthetic fertilizer applied?

On modern farms a variety of machines are used to apply synthetic fertilizer in solid, gaseous, or liquid form. One type distributes anhydrous ammonia, a liquid under pressure, which becomes a nitrogenous gas when freed from pressure as it enters the soil. A metering device operates valves to release the liquid from the tank. Solid-fertilizer distributors have a wide hopper, with holes in the bottom; distribution is effected by various means, such as rollers, agitators, or endless chains traversingthe hopper bottom. Broadcast distributors have a tub-shaped hopper from which the material falls onto revolving disks that distribute it in a broad swath. See alsomanure.


What are the three nutrients in mixed fertilizer?

Mixed fertilizers contain more than one of the three major nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorus, and po tassium. Mixed fertilizers can be formulated in hundreds of ways. ammonium nitrate.


What are the elements that are used in fertilizer?

Modern chemical fertilizers include one or more of the three elements that are most important in plantnutrition: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Of secondary importance are the elements sulfur, magnesium, and calcium.


What are the elements that are most important in plant nutrition?

Modern chemical fertilizers include one or more of the three elements that are most important in plant nutrition: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.


MATT MILES – MCGEHEE, ARKANSAS

Matt Miles is a fourth-generation farmer in southeast Arkansas who grows corn, soybeans, rice, and cotton.


KELLY GARRETT – ARION, IOWA

A fifth-generation farmer, Kelly Garrett farms corn, soybeans, and winter wheat in western Iowa.


KEVIN MATTHEWS – EAST BEND, NORTH CAROLINA

Kevin and his wife, Cindy, own and operate Matthews Family Farms of North Carolina, Inc., Precision Nutrient Management, Inc., and Deep Creek Grain, Inc. in East Bend and Yadkinville.


What is the ability of sperm to fertilize the egg when they meet?

the sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg when they meet. the ability of the fertil ized egg (embryo) to become implanted in the woman’s uterus. sufficient embryo quality. Finally, for the pregnancy to progress to full term the embryo must be healthy and the woman’s hormonal environment adequate for its development.


What causes infertility in men?

In rare cases, infertility in men is caused by a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis or a chromosomal abnormality.


How is infertility treated?

Approximately 85-90% of infertility cases are treated with conventional therapies such as drug treatment or surgical repair of reproductive organs. Assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization account for the remaining infertility treatment options. Some people find it helpful to hear about the experiences of other infertile couples and to communicate with them. The pregnancy forums of APA or Shared Journey are sites where you can read and share stories.


Why do men have infertility?

In rare cases, infertility in men is caused by a genetic disease such as cystic fibrosis or a chromosomal abnormality. For men with low sperm count or motility issues, clinically proven supplements are available that can improve sperm parameters. SpermCheck is a corporate sponsor of the American Pregnancy Association and they provide an at-home …


What is the natural ability to conceive?

Simply put, fertility is the natural capability to conceive or induce conception. Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that prevents the conception of children. It affects approximately 10-15% of couples throughout the United States. The diagnosis of infertility is usually given to couples who have been attempting to conceive …


How many infertility cases are related to women alone?

It is a common assumption that infertility is primarily related to the woman. In reality, only one-third of infertility cases are related to the woman alone. Statistically, one-third of infertility problems are related to men and the remaining one-third is a combination of fertility factors involving both partners or unknown causes. Unknown causes account for approximately twenty percent of infertility cases.


When was IVF first used?

IVF has received a great deal of media attention since it was first introduced in 1978 and currently accounts for less than five percent of all infertility treatments in the United States.

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