What is gm agriculture

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What is GM technology in agriculture?

GM is a technology that involves inserting DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells. Usually, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants. The seeds produced by these plants will inherit the new DNA.

What are GM crops?

Quick Facts… Genetic modification (GM) technology allows the transfer of genes for specific traits between species using laboratory techniques. GM crops were first introduced in the U.S. in the mid-1990s. Most current GM crops grown in the U.S. are engineered for insect resistance or herbicide tolerance.

What is genetically modified food (GM)?

Genetic modification (GM) technology allows the transfer of genes for specific traits between species using laboratory techniques. GM crops were first introduced in the U.S. in the mid-1990s.

Are GM crops safe for human consumption?

However, there are still concerns as to the safety of GM crops for human consumption and the environment. In this review I explore the need for GM crops, the way they are produced, and their impact and safety.

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What does GM mean in agriculture?

Genetically modifiedDNA sequencing results Genetically modified (GM) plants: questions and answers Show menu. GM is a technology that involves inserting DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells. Usually, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants.


What is GM crop example?

Many GMO crops are used to make ingredients that Americans eat such as cornstarch, corn syrup, corn oil, soybean oil, canola oil, or granulated sugar. A few fresh fruits and vegetables are available in GMO varieties, including potatoes, summer squash, apples, and papayas.


What is GM food production?

Genetically modified foods (GM foods), also known as genetically engineered foods (GE foods), or bioengineered foods are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.


How GM help farmers?

GMO crops that are tolerant to herbicides help farmers control weeds without damaging the crops. When farmers use these herbicide-tolerant crops they do not need to till the soil, which they normally do to get rid of weeds. This no-till planting helps to maintain soil health and lower fuel and labor use.


What is GM crops in India?

Of the three gm food crops in India — brinjal, mustard and potato — awaiting permission for large-scale field trials and seed production, brinjal is the first one to get geac approval. Bt cotton is the only other gm crop permitted in the country.


How are GM plants useful?

Some benefits of genetic engineering in agriculture are increased crop yields, reduced costs for food or drug production, reduced need for pesticides, enhanced nutrient composition and food quality, resistance to pests and disease, greater food security, and medical benefits to the world’s growing population.


Why is GMO harmful?

The main concerns around GMOs involve allergies, cancer, and environmental issues — all of which may affect the consumer. While current research suggests few risks, more long-term research is needed.


What are GMOs give two examples?

Solution : GMOs are the genetically modified organisms. E.g., Bt -cotton, rice, Bt- corn ,potato and tomato.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified crops?

The pros of GMO crops are that they may contain more nutrients, are grown with fewer pesticides, and are usually cheaper than their non-GMO counterparts. The cons of GMO foods are that they may cause allergic reactions because of their altered DNA and they may increase antibiotic resistance.


Why GMOs are good for farmers?

GMOs help farmers reduce agriculture’s impact on the environment and protect the land for future generations. Over the last 20 years, GMOs have helped to reduce pesticide applications by 8.1 percent and increase crop yields by 22 percent.


How do genetically modified crops affect farmers?

GMO agriculture has led to superweeds and superpests that are extraordinarily difficult for farmers to manage. Farmers affected by resistant pests must revert to older and more toxic chemicals, more labor or more intensive tillage, which overshadow the promised benefits of GMO technology.


Why do we need genetically modified foods?

Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to feed the world. Biotech crops will have an essential role in ensuring that there’s enough to eat.


How successful are GM crops?

GM crops have been largely successful in mitigating the above major agriculture challenges while providing numerous benefits to growers worldwide. From 1996–2013, they generated $117.6 bn over 17 years in global farm income benefit alone. The global yearly net income increased by 34.3% in 2010–2012.13,14Furthermore, while increasing global yield by 22%, GM crops reduced pesticide (active ingredient) usage by 37% and environmental impact (insecticide and herbicide use) by 18%.15To achieve the same yield standards more than 300 million acres of conventional crops would have been needed, which would have further compounded current environmental and socioeconomic problems in agriculture.2


How have GM crops been beneficial to the environment?

The global food crop yield (1996–2013) has increased by > 370 million tonnes over a relatively small acreage area.2Furthermore, GM crops have been recorded to reduce environmental and ecological impacts, leading to increases in species diversity. It is therefore unsurprising that GM crops have been commended by agricultural scientists, growers and most environmentalists worldwide.


How much is agriculture worth?

The agriculture industry has been valued at an estimated US$ 3.2 trillion worldwide and accounts for a large share of the GDP and employment in developing and underdeveloped nations.5For instance: Agriculture contributes only 1.4% towards the GDP and 1.62% of the workforce in US in comparison with South Asian regions, where it contributes 18.6% towards the GDP and 50% of the workforce.6However, despite employing nearly 1 in 5 people worldwide (19% of the world’s population),7the agriculture industry is projected to suffer significant global setbacks (population growth, pest resistance and burden on natural resources) by 2050, which has been elaborated further in this section.


What are the problems with GM crops?

Moreover, poor science communication by seed companies, a significant lack of safety studies and current mistrust regarding GMOs have only compounded problems. These have led many countries, particularly the European Union and Middle East to implement partial or full restrictions on GM crops. GM agriculture is now widely discussed in both positive and negative frames, and currently serves as a hotbed of debate in public and policymaking levels.


How did corn evolve?

The evolution of modern corn/maize (top) from teosinte plants (bottom) by repetitive selective breeding over several generations. [Sources: 50(top figure),51(bottom figure)].


What is genetic modification?

Genetic modification (GM) is the area of biotechnology which concerns itself with the manipulation of the genetic material in living organisms, enabling them to perform specific functions.1,2 The earliest concept of modification for domestication and consumption of plants dates back ∼10,000 years where human ancestors practiced “selective breeding” and “artificial selection” – the Darwinian-coined terms broadly referring to selection of parent organisms having desirable traits (eg: hardier stems) and breeding them for propagating their traits. The most dramatic alteration of plant genetics using these methods occurred through artificial selection of corn – from a weedy grass possessing tiny ears and few kernels (teosinte; earliest recorded growth: central Balsas river valley, southern Mexico 6300 years ago) to the current cultivars of edible corn and maize plants (Doebley et al.,2016, Fig 1). The use of similar techniques has also been reported to derive current variants of apples, broccoli and bananas different from their ancestral plant forms which are vastly desirable for human consumption.3


Where did genetic modification originate?

Genetic modification in plants was first recorded 10,000 years ago in Southwest Asia where humans first bred plants through artificial selection and selective breeding. Since then, advancements in agriculture science and technology have brought about the current GM crop revolution. GM crops are promising to mitigate current and future problems in commercial agriculture, with proven case studies in Indian cotton and Australian canola. However, controversial studies such as the Monarch Butterfly study (1999) and the Séralini affair (2012) along with current problems linked to insect resistance and potential health risks have jeopardised its standing with the public and policymakers, even leading to full and partial bans in certain countries. Nevertheless, the current growth rate of the GM seed market at 9.83–10% CAGR along with promising research avenues in biofortification, precise DNA integration and stress tolerance have forecast it to bring productivity and prosperity to commercial agriculture.


What is GM in agriculture?

Genetically modified crops ( GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the delivery of sequences hosted in T-DNA binary vectors. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to a herbicide ), or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation.


When did the EU ban GM crops?

The EU had a ‘de facto’ ban on the approval of new GM crops, from 1999 until 2004. GM crops are now regulated by the EU. In 2015, genetically engineered crops are banned in 38 countries worldwide, 19 of them in Europe. Developing countries grew 54 percent of genetically engineered crops in 2013.


Why is glyphosate used in agriculture?

Thus, developing crops that could withstand spraying with glyphosate would both reduce environmental and health risks, and give an agricultural edge to the farmer.


What are transgenic plants?

Transgenic plants have genes inserted into them that are derived from another species. The inserted genes can come from species within the same kingdom (plant to plant), or between kingdoms (for example, bacteria to plant). In many cases the inserted DNA has to be modified slightly in order to be correctly and efficiently expressed in the host organism. Transgenic plants are used to express proteins, like the cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, herbicide -resistant genes, antibodies, and antigens for vaccinations. A study led by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) also found viral genes in transgenic plants.


How can genetically modified plants be modified?

Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant without incorporating genes from other plants. In 2014, Chinese researcher Gao Caixia filed patents on the creation of a strain of wheat that is resistant to powdery mildew. The strain lacks genes that encode proteins that repress defenses against the mildew. The researchers deleted all three copies of the genes from wheat’s hexaploid genome. Gao used the TALENs and CRISPR gene editing tools without adding or changing any other genes. No field trials were immediately planned. The CRISPR technique has also been used by Penn State researcher Yinong Yang to modify white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) to be non-browning, and by DuPont Pioneer to make a new variety of corn.


What are some examples of non-food crops?

Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents, biofuels, and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation. Farmers have widely adopted GM technology. Acreage increased from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 185.1 million hectares in 2016, some 12% of global cropland.


Why are some crops genetically modified?

Genetic modifications to some crops also exist, which make it easier to process the crop, i.e. by growing in a more compact form. Also, some crops (such as tomatoes) have been genetic modified to contain no seed at all.


What are the issues with banning GM crops?

Issues with banning GM crops. The ban on GM crops is also promoting an illegal market to flourish in India. Bangladesh is reaping the benefits of Bt Brinjal while its cultivation is banned in India.


What is genetic modification?

Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. Inserted genes usually come from a different organism (e.g. In Bt cotton, Bt genes from bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are induced). Genetic modification is done to induce a desirable new trait which does not occur naturally in the species.


What is golden rice?

Golden rice is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced to biosynthesize beta-carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A, in the edible parts of rice. It is mostly consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A.


What is the role of nitrogen fixation in agriculture?

Controlling certain pests, diseases, or environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, inducing resistance to chemical treatments (e.g. resistance to an herbicide), improving the nutrient profile of the crop, atmospheric nitrogen fixation by cereal crops,


Is there a danger of genetically modified brinjal?

There is a grave danger of illegal genetically modified brinjal cultivation proliferating.


What are the most successful GM crops?

…hectares) worldwide were planted with genetically modified (GM) crops. Among the most successful GM crops are corn (maize), soybeans, and cotton, all of which have proved valuable to farmers with respect to producing increased yields and having economic advantages.


When was GM first used?

agricultural sciences. Genetically modified (GM) foods were first approved for human consumption in the United States in 1994, and by 2014–15 about 90 percent of the corn, cotton, and soybeans planted in the United States was GM.


Where is GM barley grown?

Genetically modified (GM) barley grown by researchers on a site belonging to Giessen University (Justus-Liebig-Universität) in Germany. The GM barley was investigated for its effects on soil quality. Genetically engineered corn (maize).


When were GMOs first approved?

In genetically modified organism: GMOs in agriculture. Genetically modified (GM) foods were first approved for human consumption in the United States in 1994, and by 2014–15 about 90 percent of the corn, cotton, and soybeans planted in the United States were GM.


Is soybean genetically modified?

soybeans. …majority of soybean crops are genetically modified for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The soybean may be cultivated in most types of soil, but it thrives in warm, fertile, well-drained, sandy loam. The crop is planted after all danger of frost is past.


What is the challenge of GM crops?

To meet the challenge of improving yields requires a constant commitment to generating a steady supply of improved cultivars and lines for all major crops. Conventional breeding cannot keep pace with what is required; to meet the targets biotechnology and the production of genetically-modified (GM) crops is filling the gap. However, there are still concerns as to the safety of GM crops for human consumption and the environment. In this review I explore the need for GM crops, the way they are produced, and their impact and safety.


How long has GM been around?

It has been thirty years since the first genetically engineered plants were generated, and it has been eighteen years since the first introduction of a transgenic crop into U.S. agriculture. Since their emergence the acreage planted with GM crops has steadily increased such that in 2013, 433 million acres (175.2 hectares) of land were dedicated to their production, 56% of which were grown in developing countries. 28 As of 2013, a total more than four billion acres of GMA crops have been grown in 27 countries world-wide, primarily in corn, soybean and cotton, although new crops are being introduced at an increasing rate. The economic benefits of the deployment of these crops have been substantial. Mannion and Morse 29 report that on a global level, from 1996 to 2006, GM crops increased farm income by $40.7 billion, occurring in both developed (47%) and developing agricultures (53%). In the following six years (as of 2012) the global increase in farm income from GM crops had almost tripled that of the previous 10 years to reach $116 billion. 28, 30 Both studies estimate that 42% of this economic gain is derived from the increased yield associated with lower weed and pest damage as well as superior genetics. The remaining 58% accrued from a decrease in production costs (decreased herbicide and pesticide costs and a reduction in tillage). These figures indicate that the underlying agronomic benefits derived from GM crops are equally impressive: with a global yield increase of 377 million tons from 1996 to 2012. In 2012 the increase in yield attributed to GM crops for the U.S. was 47 million tons. 28, 30 Brooks and Barfoot 30 estimate that to attain an equal yield increase to that delivered by GM crops between 1996 and 2012, an additional 303 million acres (123 million hectares) of conventional crops would have been required. As James 28 postulates that to attain this extra land industrial nations would have to use marginal lands that are generally characterized by poor soils (requiring substantial inputs such as fertilizer and irrigation) and developing countries would primarily target tropical forests. Certainly such an added conversion of land to agricultural purposes would have serious ecological and environmental impacts regardless of what part of the world it is acquired.


How does GM affect biodiversity?

The adoption of GM herbicide tolerant crops does alter the biodiversity of plant populations (weeds) in agricultural ecosystems and some of the insects and other organisms that rely upon them but this is related to weed management and herbicide use not the GM crop. Alterations in biodiversity also occur in conventional agriculture where weed management strategies are employed. 48 Nevertheless there is great deal of evidence that the adoption of GM herbicide tolerant crops has had a beneficial impact on the environment. The conversion of natural habitat and ecosystems to urban development and agriculture is clearly the most detrimental aspect of human activity as it relates to environmental impact and loss of biodiversity. As yields increase with the adoption of GM crops, as discussed previously, the need to dedicate land for agriculture decreases. Apart from the reduced conversion of land to agricultural use the emergence of GM herbicide tolerant crops has accelerated and enabled the adoption of conservative tillage (no-till and reduced-till) practices. 30, 45, 48 Such practices enhance soil quality, reduce water run-off, conserves nutrients, increases water infiltration, and contributes to a reduction in greenhouse gases.


Why are people against GMOs?

The reasons for this opposition are complex and multifaceted, but from what is articulated and communicated by those who oppose GMOs, they are based on the perception that such crops pose an unacceptable risk to both human health and the environment. Such sentiment exists even though there have been no adverse health or environmental affects from the almost four billion acres of GMO crops grown since their introduction in 1996. Several National Research Council committees and European Commissions (as well as joint commissions) have concluded that with the extensive scientific inquiry into the safety issues surrounding the adoption of GM crops, genetic engineering using biotechnology is no different from conventional breeding in terms of unintended consequences to the environment or animal and human health. 33 The European Commission funded more 50 research programs from 2001–2010 to address concerns regarding the use of GM crops to reach this same determination. 34 Nicolia et al. 24 constructed a database of 1,783 scientific original research papers, reviews, relevant opinion articles, and reports published between 2002 and October of 2010 on GMO safety issues, and reviewed the contents to generate a comprehensive overview of the accumulated knowledge. The overall conclusion of this mammoth undertaking was that “the scientific research conducted so far has not detected any significant hazards directly connected with the use of GM crops.


How has Bt-GM changed the world?

The deployment of Bt-GM crops has resulted in a significant decrease in the use of chemical pesticides in all countries where they have been adopted, along with the reduction in environmental impact and associated human exposure. 29 – 31 The reductions are both in quantities of active ingredient and the overall field EIQs for each major crop. In the U.S. the use of Bt-GM maize reduced the amount of pesticide used on corn to target corn borers and root-worms by 80% and the field EIQ load by 54%. Since 1966 the overall decrease in pesticide use on corn was 45% with a reduction of 38% for the field IEQ load. Where data is available, the reductions in total pesticide use and EIQ in all countries that have adopted Bt-maize cultivation. Similar figures are also available for Bt-cotton and other crops. 30 The beneficial economic, environmental, and human health effects resulting from a reduction in pesticide use (and reduced need for toxic pesticide alternatives) can be directly attributed to the ability of GM technologies to contain the pesticide within the plant that is targeted by specific insects (or other invertebrate pests) and to deliver the pesticide only to those pests that ingest the tissues of the plant. The reduction in the need to expose the environment and workers to chemical sprays is clearly a positive outcome of the deployment of GM crops.


What is golden rice?

Golden Rice (far right, yellow color) was envisioned as a non-commercial venture to deliver a cheap and effective (easy to distribute and deliver) dietary source of vitamin A for areas of the world where rice is the staple. Source: Wikipedia


What is the future of GM?

The future is very promising for GM technologies to enhance our efforts to meet the future global needs for food , feed and fiber in a sustainable and responsible way. Conventional breeding methods, especially with the advent of genome level technologies, that are designed to both generate and exploit genetic variation in order to isolate effective alleles (variants) of genes that generate yield increases, disease resistance, pest resistance etc., also clearly play a role in this effort. Organic farming practices also have a place at the global table 63 where such practices make sense. Agriculture is a diverse endeavor, and if we are to be successful we need to embrace that diversity.

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Overview

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GM is a technology that involves inserting DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a GM plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells. Usually, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants. The seeds produced by these plants will inherit the new DNA.

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History


Methods


Types of modifications


Economics


Yield

Genetically modified crops (GM crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods. Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the delivery of sequences hosted in T-DNA binary vectors. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, diseases, environmental co…


Traits

Humans have directly influenced the genetic makeup of plants to increase their value as a crop through domestication. The first evidence of plant domestication comes from emmer and einkorn wheat found in pre-Pottery Neolithic A villages in Southwest Asia dated about 10,500 to 10,100 BC. The Fertile Crescent of Western Asia, Egypt, and India were sites of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in the wild. Independent development of …


Crops

Genetically engineered crops have genes added or removed using genetic engineering techniques, originally including gene guns, electroporation, microinjection and agrobacterium. More recently, CRISPR and TALEN offered much more precise and convenient editing techniques.
Gene guns (also known as biolistics) “shoot” (direct high energy particles or radiations against ) target genes into plant cells. It is the most common method. DNA is bound to tiny particles of gol…

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