Green Revolution: History, Technologies, and Impact
- History. The Green Revolution transformed rural economies using industrial food production systems already widespread in wealthy western countries, but with new plant varieties.
- Technologies. …
- Impacts. …
- Agriculture Today. …
What are the main causes of Green Revolution?
It is to find and extract lithium carbonate, so lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries can power our new ‘green revolution‘. And as you probably … New ones are coming for Japan, South Korea and India. Other major car makers are doing the same.
What are the disadvantages of Green Revolution?
What are the disadvantages of Green Revolution in India?
- Inter-Crop Imbalances: The effect of Green Revolution is primarily felt on food-grains.
- Regional Disparities:
- Increase in Inter-Personal Inequalities:
- Other Problems:
What is the Green Revolution and what are its significance?
green revolution, great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century. Its early dramatic successes were in Mexico and the Indian subcontinent. The new varieties require large amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to produce their high yields, raising concerns about cost and potentially harmful environmental effects.
What are two techniques of the Green Revolution?
Terms in this set (8)
- First, find an organism that naturally contains the desired trait.
- The DNA is extracted from that organism. This is like taking out the entire cookbook.
- The one desired gene (recipe) must be located and copied from thousands of genes that were extracted. …
What is the green revolution in agriculture?
green revolution, great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century.
What is Green Revolution short answer?
Definition of green revolution : the great increase in production of food grains (such as rice and wheat) due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, to the use of pesticides, and to better management techniques.
What is Green Revolution in agriculture PDF?
Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between 1943 and the late 1970s, that increased industrialized agriculture production in India; however, the yield increase has also occurred world wide.
What is Green Revolution and its effects?
The Green Revolution resulted in a great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) due to the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding variety seeds, beginning in the mid-20th century. Its early dramatic successes were in Mexico and the Indian subcontinent.
What is Green Revolution example?
The green revolution led to high productivity of crops through adapted measures, such as (1) increased area under farming, (2) double-cropping, which includes planting two crops rather than one, annually, (3) adoption of HYV of seeds, (4) highly increased use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides, (5) improved …
What is Green Revolution Wikipedia?
The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution (after the Neolithic Revolution and the British Agricultural Revolution), is the set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in …
What is Green Revolution essay?
Green Revolution in India Major milestones in this undertaking were the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat. The Green revolution is revolutionary in character due to the introduction of new technology, new ideas, the new application of inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, irrigation water, pesticides, etc.
What are the main objectives of Green Revolution?
It was the first time when High Yield Variety seeds were introduced in Indian Agriculture. The main aim of Green Revolution was to make India self- sufficient when it came to food grains. High Yielding Variety seeds are coupled with efficient irrigation and the correct use of fertilizers.
Who started the Green Revolution?
Norman BorlaugNorman Borlaug, who was the originator of what was a dwarf wheat variety in Mexico, is considered the godfather of the Green Revolution. The varieties of wheat that he developed there became a model for what could be done in other staple crops around the world.
What is the importance of Green Revolution in India?
1. Green Revolution has resulted in the substantial increase in crop production which resulted in achieving self-sufficiency. 2. The farmers were able to produce more crops from small land.
What is Green Revolution write the types of farming?
Green Revolution is associated with agricultural production. It is the period when agriculture of the country was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and techniques like the use of high yielding variety seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers.
What is the impact of Green Revolution on environment?
The increases achieved by the Green Revolution have created several environmental problems, viz. deforestation, waterlogging, salinity, alkalinity, soil erosion and decline and rise of the ground water table linked to brackish water, etc.
What was the Green Revolution?
In the mid- and late-20th century a revolution occurred that dramatically changed the field of agriculture, and this revolution was known as the Green Revolution.
How did the Green Revolution help the economy?
In addition to producing larger quantities of food, the Green Revolution was also beneficial because it made it possible to grow more crops on roughly the same amount of land with a similar amount of effort . This reduced production costs and also resulted in cheaper prices for food in the market.
How did the Green Revolution affect the environment?
Although the Green Revolution had several benefits, there were also some issues associated with this period that affected both the environment and society. The use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides dramatically influenced the environment by increasing pollution and erosion. The new materials added to the soil and plants polluted the soil and water systems around the fields. The pollution of the water exposed people and the environment downstream to the chemicals being used in the farm fields. The pollution of the soil resulted in lower soil quality, which increased the risk of erosion of the topsoil.
How did chemical fertilizers increase crop yield?
The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.
What is multiple cropping?
Multiple cropping is when a field is used to grow two or more crops throughout the year, so that the field constantly has something growing on it.
How did the environment affect the growth of plants?
In addition to pollution, the environment was also influenced by the large irrigation systems that were required to sustain the growth of the plants. The large amount of water required put pressure on the natural water reserves and resulted in water shortages and droughts.
How did the ability to grow more food on the same amount of land help the environment?
The ability to grow more food on the same amount of land was also beneficial to the environment because it meant that less forest or natural land needed to be converted to farmland to produce more food.
How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?
The spread of Green Revolution agriculture affected both agricultural biodiversity (or agrodiversity) and wild biodiversity. There is little disagreement that the Green Revolution acted to reduce agricultural biodiversity, as it relied on just a few high-yield varieties of each crop.
Why is the Green Revolution not so successful?
Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa.
What is CGIAR response?
CGIAR has responded, at least in part, to criticisms of Green Revolution methodologies. This began in the 1980s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations. Methods like agroecosystem analysis and farming system research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture.
What was the main goal of the Chinese government?
When the Chinese Communists came to power in 1949, the Chinese state came to play a major role in agricultural policy and scientific research. It sought to solve China’s food security issues, eliminating hunger and starvation, seeking to transform traditional cultivation of existing strains of rice and to apply new science and technology to agricultural production. Through agrarian reform over the 1950s, it eliminated absentee landlords and created collective farms, which could utilize mechanized cultivation. However, grain production did not increase significantly until the state began promoting state-supported agricultural research and investment in infrastructure. The development of strains of hybrid rice had long been a practice in Chinese agriculture, but in the 1960s, this ramped up through government supported agricultural science. Prominent in the development of productive hybrid rice was Yuan Longping, whose research hybridized wild strains of rice with existing strains. He has been dubbed “the father of hybrid rice,” and was considered a national hero in China. The Chinese government’s policies gave cultivators technical assistance, access to affordable HYVs, fertilizers, and pesticides, and developed infrastructure. Chinese rice production met the nation’s food security needs. In recent years, however, extensive use of ground water for irrigation has drawn down aquifers and extensive use of fertilizers has increased greenhouse gas emissions. China has not expanded the area of cultivable land, but the Green Revolution with high yields per hectare gave China the food security it sought.
What happened in the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution?
In the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution, the government had redistributed land to peasants in some parts of the country which had broken the back of the hacienda system. During the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas (1934-1940), land reform in Mexico reached its apex in the center and south of Mexico.
What was Mexico called during the Green Revolution?
Mexico has been called the ‘birthplace’ and ‘burial ground’ of the Green Revolution. It began with great promise and it has been argued that “during the twentieth century two ‘revolutions’ transformed rural Mexico: the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) and the Green Revolution (1950–1970).”.
What were the key elements of the Revolution?
The key elements of the revolution include: 1) Use of the latest technological and capital inputs, 2) adoption of modern scientific methods of farming, 3) use of high yielding varieties of seeds, 4) proper use of chemical fertilizers, 5) consolidation of land holdings.
What was the Green Revolution?
The Green Revolution refers to the development of high-yielding plant varieties – especially of wheat and rice, that increased food supplies in the 1940s–60s and staved off widespread starvation in developing countries. The rapid increase in the human population, adding 1 billion people every 14 years, placed, and continues to place, a heavy burden on the world’s ability to meet the consequential food demand. Around 1 billion people in the world are currently malnourished. The Green Revolution of today needs to significantly increase food supplies, but, without harming the environment, causing a loss of biodiversity, or fostering high food prices that especially affect the poor.
How did the Green Revolution help the world?
The Green Revolution played a major role in providing food for an exponentially growing world population . Norman Borlaug and co-workers developed dwarf wheat strains while working at CIMMYT (The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) in Mexico during the 1950s and 1960s. Dwarf strains have a high Harvest Index, which means that they put more of their energy resources into seeds rather than leaves, stems, and other plant structures. More importantly, these plants proved to be more responsive to fertilizer than standard wheat varieties.
How did the Green Revolution affect consumers?
The Green revolution has motivated consumers toward more environmentally friendly products. A product can be only qualified as being environmentally friendly when its life cycle ‘from cradle to grave’ respects the needs of the environment (Stauffer, 1997).
How many ecosystem services have been impaired by the Green Revolution?
The success of the Green Revolution came at the expense of the natural capital, such that 18 of the 24 currently acknowledged ecosystem services have been impaired.
How did capitalism help the Green Revolution?
Capitalism, as championed by the United States, saw progress as being achieved through the transfer of science and technology. In this case, traditional agriculture would be transformed by the adoption of a new, imported technology, forming the basis of the Green Revolution.
What were the consequences of the Green Revolution?
The political consequences of the Green Revolution were seen, particularly by the United States, to be very important as a solution to food shortages and famine in Asia in particular, and therefore a bulwark to the spread of socialism in that continent at the height of the Cold War.
Where did the Green Revolution take place?
These states are part of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), where Punjab and Haryana fall in Trans IGP and western UP in the middle and upper IGP (Fig. 6.3 ).
How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?
As such, due to the Green Revolution, global agricultural production dramatically increased as farms all over the world were adapting to the new advancements while also adopting the new techniques that allowed them to produce food more efficiently and effectively.
Why did the Green Revolution start?
One of the reasons why the Green Revolution began was that different companies were beginning to divert their investments towards agricultural research right after the Second Great War as populations began booming and as more and more people were starting to work in the agricultural sector.
Why were agricultural sectors more concerned with the use of natural fertilizers?
In the past, agricultural sectors were much more concerned with the use of natural fertilizers as scientific advancements were still far off from producing synthetic fertilizers that were quicker, cheaper, and much more effective than natural variants.
What was the most advanced irrigation technique introduced during the Green Revolution?
In that sense, one of the more advanced irrigation techniques introduced during the Green Revolution was a method where water was allowed to slowly drip into the roots of the plants to make the use of water more efficient. Sprinklers were also some of the more advanced and efficient methods of irrigation introduced during that time.
What were the most important techniques developed during the Green Revolution?
Green Revolution Techniques. 1. Irrigation. When it came down to one of the most important techniques developed and utilized during the Green Revolution, the improvements in irrigation became vital especially in places where there were often droughts and where water was used inefficiently.
Why did the United States support the Green Revolution?
The United States also saw the Green Revolution as a way for them to increase their influence in Asia and in other developing countries during the Cold War period. During this time, many different Asian nations were beginning to adopt socialism as their primary political belief.
What was the result of the Green Revolution?
This resulted in higher overall productivity. It was the dawn of the Green Revolution during the 60s to 70s period that ultimately led to how quick food production is in today’s modern world as we are basically looking at more advanced means of farming in many different countries all over the world.
What was the Green Revolution?
The term Green Revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices beginning in Mexico in the 1940s. Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there, Green Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s, significantly increasing the number of calories produced per acre of agriculture.
What were the crops that were developed during the Green Revolution?
The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties – meaning they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted.
How did fertilizers affect the Green Revolution?
Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible, they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers.
What was the name of the research institute that helped Mexico in the Green Revolution?
In 1963 with the help of this funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center . Countries all over the world, in turn, benefited from the Green Revolution work conducted by Borlaug and this research institution.
What was Mexico able to produce in the 1960s?
By combining Borlaug’s wheat varieties with new mechanized agricultural technologies, Mexico was able to produce more wheat than was needed by its own citizens, leading to them becoming an exporter of wheat by the 1960s. Prior to the use of these varieties, the country was importing almost half of its wheat supply.
How many varieties of rice were there before the Green Revolution?
In addition, the development of high yield varieties meant that only a few species of say, rice started being grown. In India, for example, there were about 30,000 rice varieties prior to the Green Revolution, today there are around ten – all the most productive types.
What are the criticisms of the Green Revolution?
The first is that the increased amount of food production has led to overpopulation worldwide .
What was the Green Revolution?
Rating: 5. ( 1) The Green revolution was an agricultural reform which increased the production of crops world wide between 1950 up till the late 1960s. It includes the use of high-end techniques and technologies along with good quality raw material to enhance the production of crops. The advent to this technology changed global agriculture …
How did the Green Revolution help people?
Employment: As the scheme involved transportation, irrigation, food processing, marketing and various other opportunities; Green Revolution helped people combat unemployment. Relief to the Farmers: The miserable conditions of farmers due to depletion of the agricultural sector was no longer the same.
Why did the Green Revolution use inland irrigation?
Green Revolution initiated the use of an inland irrigation system as the country cannot depend only on monsoon for their water needs.
What were the problems of the Indian agriculture system?
The initial years of the post-independence period saw the Indian agricultural system at its worst. Lack of funds, low yielding raw material, a dearth of machinery and technology; were some of the main problems at that time. Understanding the deteriorating condition of the agriculture sector, the Indian Government launched the Green Revolution through which the use of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds was adopted in the country. Along with this, took place the up-gradation in irrigation facilities as well as the use of more effective fertilizers. All this together led to mass production of high-quality crops in India. To find an optimum solution for these issues, in the year 1965 under the guidance of M.S. Swaminathan, the Indian government launched the Green Revolution that lasted from 1967- 1978.
What crops were included in the Green Revolution?
Auto greens like wheat, rice, bajra, jowar and maize would be a part of the plan but it mainly empowered wheat. HYV seeds for crops like pulses, oilseeds, cereals, etc are not developed yet or they are not highly efficient. Regional disparities begin to ignite with the widespread Green Revolution.
When did the Green Revolution start in India?
Swaminathan, the Indian government launched the Green Revolution that lasted from 1967- 1978. Credits – BW Businessworld.
Which country was at the verge of famine in the early 1960s?
Following US, many countries around the globe benefited from the Green Revolution. India was also one amongst them which was at the verge of famine in the early 1960s due to its massive growth in population but later on became a wheat exporter.
What was the green revolution?
Before those grim visions could come to pass, the green revolution transformed global agriculture, especially wheat and rice. Through selective breeding, Norman Borlaug, an American biologist, created a dwarf variety of wheat that put most of its energy into edible kernels rather than long, inedible stems.
What are the four chemical compounds that make up the green revolution?
The genes of all living things on Earth—including the sunflower, a valuable oil crop—consist of varying sequences of four chemical compounds: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, abbreviated as A, T, C, and G. By identifying genes and manipulating them, scientists hope to create new crops …
How does rice turn into a C4 crop?
His plan is to convert rice into a C4 crop by manipulating its own genes. C4 photosynthesis, unlike the submergence tolerance of Sub1 rice, is controlled by many genes, not just one, which makes it a challenging trait to introduce. On the other hand, says Quick, “it has evolved independently 62 times.
How many countries have GM crops?
First released in the 1990s, they’ve been adopted by 28 countries and planted on 11 percent of the world’s arable land, including half the cropland in the U.S. About 90 percent of the corn, cotton, and soybeans grown in the U.S. are genetically modified. Americans have been eating GM products for nearly two decades.
Which type of photosynthesis is used in rice?
Rice, wheat, and many other plants use a type of photosynthesis known as C3 , for the three-carbon compound they produce when sunlight is absorbed. Corn, sugarcane, and some other plants use C4 photosynthesis.
What is the rate of population growth in 2050?
“We want to raise that to 2 percent,” Gregorio says. The world’s population growth rate, now 1.14 percent a year, is projected to slow to 0.5 percent by 2050.
What was the Green Revolution?
The Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between 1943 and the late 1970s in Mexico , which increased industrialized agriculture production in many developing nations . The initiatives involved the development of high-yielding cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, …
What is the focus of the research paper on the Green Revolution?
Focus of the research, however, is to analyze the role of Green Revolution in the development process of Pakistan and its short and long term impact on the economy. The paper analyzes weaknesses due to which the Green Revolution remained a shortterm phenomena.
Why are inoculants important in agriculture?
Inoculants or biofertilizers aiming to partially or fully replace chemical fertilizers are becoming increasingly important in agriculture, as there is a global perception of the need to increase sustainability. In this review, we discuss some important results of inoculation of a variety of crops with rhizobia and other plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Important improvements in the quality of the inoculants and on the release of new strains and formulations have been achieved. However, agriculture will continue to demand chemical pesticides, and their low compatibility with inoculants, especially when applied to seeds, represents a major limitation to the success of inoculation. The differences in the compatibility between pesticides and inoculants depend on their active principle, formulation, time of application, and period of contact with living microorganisms; however, in general they have a high impact on cell survival and metabolism, affecting the microbial contribution to plant growth. New strategies to solve the incompatibility between pesticides and inoculants are needed, as those that have been proposed to date are still very modest in terms of demand.
When did rice increase?
In the case of rice, a significant increase in yields began to occur as early as the end of the 19th century. Between 1895 and 1940 yields in this crop increased by about 3 times. In the USA, a similar increase in rice yields occurred only after World War II. This article is protected by copyright.
When did the world increase in rice production?
The global production of wheat, maize, and rice in many parts of the world increased regularly since the 1960s, and it nearly doubled within a mere two decades that consequently reduced famine and hunger crises .
What factors are considered in plant transformation?
implementation of any plant transformation study. 1) Plant tissue to be transformed. 2) The vector used to deliver the transgene into the. gienome of the plant. 3) The strain of Agrobacterium used. Although this is a specific example, most.
The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution (after the Neolithic Revolution and the British Agricultural Revolution), is the set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, i…
Agricultural production and food security
Norman Borlaug’s response to criticism
Borlaug dismissed certain claims of critics, but also cautioned, “There are no miracles in agricultural production. Nor is there such a thing as a miracle variety of wheat, rice, or maize which can serve as an elixir to cure all ills of a stagnant, traditional agriculture.”
Of environmental lobbyists, he said:
some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many o…
Second Green Revolution
Although the Green Revolution has been able to improve agricultural output in some regions in the world, there was and is still room for improvement. As a result, many organizations continue to invent new ways to improve the techniques already used in the Green Revolution. Frequently quoted inventions are the System of Rice Intensification, marker-assisted selection, agroecology, and applying existing technologies to agricultural problems of the developing world. Current cha…
• Arab Agricultural Revolution
• British Agricultural Revolution
• Columbian exchange
• Environmental impact of agriculture
• Cotter, Joseph (2003). Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880–2002. Westport, CT: Prager
• Deb, Debal, “Restoring Rice Biodiversity”, Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 54–61.
• Harwood, Andrew (14 June 2013). “Development policy and history: lessons from the Green Revolution”.
• Norman Borlaug talk transcript, 1996
• The Green Revolution in the Punjab, by Vandana Shiva
• Africa’s Turn: A New Green Revolution for the 21st Century, Rockefeller Foundation
• Moseley, W. G. (14 May 2008). “In search of a better revolution”. Minneapolis StarTribune. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018.