what is green revolution in agriculture



Green Revolution

  • Green Revolution. The Green Revolution started in 1965 with the first introduction of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds in Indian agriculture.
  • Features of the Green Revolution. The introduction of the HYV seeds for the first time in Indian agriculture. …
  • Market Surplus. …
  • Impact of the Green Revolution. …
  • Solved Question for You. …


What are the main causes of Green Revolution?

green revolution, great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century. Its early dramatic successes were in Mexico and the Indian subcontinent. The new varieties require large amounts of chemical fertilizers and …

What are the disadvantages of Green Revolution?

 · The Green Revolution was a period when the productivity of global agriculture increased drastically as a result of new advances. During this time period, new chemical fertilizers and synthetic…

What is the Green Revolution and what are its significance?

The “ green revolution,” the name given to the transformation of agriculture using technological and science-based methods since the mid-20th century, is a key element of the global modernization project and has brought about enormous changes in traditional peasant societies. The green revolution has been widely criticized in recent years for its technocratic …

What are two techniques of the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution describes the period in human history in which food and crop production rapidly increased to the point that different farms and agricultural bodies and groups began to produce more crops at rates higher than ever. This happened sometime during the 60s to …


What is the green agricultural revolution?

American Experience: What was the Green Revolution and what were its goals? Ray Offenheiser: The Green Revolution was the emergence of new varieties of crops, specifically wheat and rice varietals, that were able to double if not triple production of those crops in two countries.

What is Green Revolution short answer?

Definition of green revolution : the great increase in production of food grains (such as rice and wheat) due to the introduction of high-yielding varieties, to the use of pesticides, and to better management techniques.

What is Green Revolution and its benefits?

A large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties is called as Green Revolution. Advantages: 1. It allows agricultural operations on a large scale. The Green Revolution has brought farming to a massive scale.

What is Green Revolution in agriculture PDF?

Green Revolution refers to a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between 1943 and the late 1970s, that increased industrialized agriculture production in India; however, the yield increase has also occurred world wide.

Who started Green Revolution?

scientist Norman BorlaugOne key leader was agricultural scientist Norman Borlaug, the “Father of the Green Revolution”, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. He is credited with saving over a billion people from starvation.

When was the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution was initiated in the 1960’s to address the issue of malnutrition in the developing world. The technology of the Green Revolution involved bio-engineered seeds that worked in conjunction with chemical fertilizers and heavy irrigation to increase crop yields.

What are the main objectives of Green Revolution?

The main aim of Green Revolution was to make India self- sufficient when it came to food grains. High Yielding Variety seeds are coupled with efficient irrigation and the correct use of fertilizers.

What is the advantages and disadvantages of Green Revolution?

Advantages and DisadvantagesAdvantagesDisadvantagesReduced production costs and resulted in cheaper food prices.Had a few side effects on health.The agricultural industry was able to produce much larger quantities of food.The use of chemical fertilizers, synthetic herbicides increased environmental and soil pollution.2 more rows

What is the main features of Green Revolution?

Main features of green revolution are introduction of new and high yielding variety of seeds, increased use of fertilizers, pesticides and weedicides to reduce agricultural loses, etc.

What is Green Revolution discuss its impact on Indian agriculture?

The Green Revolution resulted in a record grain output of 131 million tonnes in 1978/79. This established India as one of the world’s biggest agricultural producers. Yield per unit of farmland improved by more than 30% between1947 (when India gained political independence) and 1979.

What is Green Revolution write the types of farming?

The Green Revolution was a period that began in the 1960s during which agriculture in India was converted into a modern industrial system by the adoption of technology, such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, mechanised farm tools, irrigation facilities, pesticides and fertilizers.

Who started Green Revolution in India?

M S SwaminathanA part of a larger initiative by Norman Borlaug, Green Revolution in India was founded by M S Swaminathan. The aim was to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world with use of technology and agricultural research.


How did the Green Revolution affect the world?

According to a 2012 review in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the existing academic literature, the Green Revolution “contributed to widespread poverty reduction, averted hunger for millions of people, and avoided the conversion of thousands of hectares of land into agricultural cultivation.”

Why is the Green Revolution not so successful?

Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Yet environmental factors, such as the availability of water for irrigation, the high diversity in slope and soil types in one given area are also reasons why the Green Revolution is not so successful in Africa.

How much has the world grown since the Green Revolution?

The world population has grown by about five billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and many believe that, without the Revolution, there would have been greater famine and malnutrition. India saw annual wheat production rise from 10 million tons in the 1960s to 73 million in 2006. The average person in the developing world consumes roughly 25% more calories per day now than before the Green Revolution. Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by about 160%.

What was Mexico called during the Green Revolution?

Mexico has been called the ‘birthplace’ and ‘burial ground’ of the Green Revolution. It began with great promise and it has been argued that “during the twentieth century two ‘revolutions’ transformed rural Mexico: the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) and the Green Revolution (1950–1970).”.

How much did the green revolution increase in 2021?

By one 2021 estimate, the Green Revolution increased yields by 44% between 1965 and 2010. Cereal production more than doubled in developing nations between the years 1961–1985. Yields of rice, maize, and wheat increased steadily during that period. The production increases can be attributed roughly equally to irrigation, fertilizer, and seed development, at least in the case of Asian rice.

What were the key elements of the Revolution?

The key elements of the revolution include: 1) Use of the latest technological and capital inputs, 2) adoption of modern scientific methods of farming, 3) use of high yielding varieties of seeds, 4) proper use of chemical fertilizers, 5) consolidation of land holdings.

Why is the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture unfair?

Altieri, (a pioneer of agroecology and peasant-advocate), writes that the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture has been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture produces monocultures of cereal grains, while traditional agriculture usually incorporates polycultures.

What was the Green Revolution?

In the mid- and late-20th century a revolution occurred that dramatically changed the field of agriculture, and this revolution was known as the Green Revolution.

How did the Green Revolution help the economy?

In addition to producing larger quantities of food, the Green Revolution was also beneficial because it made it possible to grow more crops on roughly the same amount of land with a similar amount of effort . This reduced production costs and also resulted in cheaper prices for food in the market.

How did the Green Revolution affect the environment?

Although the Green Revolution had several benefits, there were also some issues associated with this period that affected both the environment and society. The use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides dramatically influenced the environment by increasing pollution and erosion. The new materials added to the soil and plants polluted the soil and water systems around the fields. The pollution of the water exposed people and the environment downstream to the chemicals being used in the farm fields. The pollution of the soil resulted in lower soil quality, which increased the risk of erosion of the topsoil.

How did chemical fertilizers increase crop yield?

The chemical fertilizers made it possible to supply crops with extra nutrients and, therefore, increase yield. The newly developed synthetic herbicides and pesticides controlled weeds, deterred or kill insects, and prevented diseases, which also resulted in higher productivity.

What is multiple cropping?

Multiple cropping is when a field is used to grow two or more crops throughout the year, so that the field constantly has something growing on it.

How did the environment affect the growth of plants?

In addition to pollution, the environment was also influenced by the large irrigation systems that were required to sustain the growth of the plants. The large amount of water required put pressure on the natural water reserves and resulted in water shortages and droughts.

Why is it important to grow more food on the same amount of land?

The ability to grow more food on the same amount of land was also beneficial to the environment because it meant that less forest or natural land needed to be converted to farmland to produce more food. This is demonstrated by the fact that from 1961 to 2008, as the human population increased by 100% and the production of food rose by 150%, the amount of forests and natural land converted to farm only increased by 10%. The natural land that is currently not needed for agricultural land is safe for the time being, and can be utilized by animals and plants for their natural habitat.

What was the Green Revolution?

The term Green Revolution refers to the renovation of agricultural practices beginning in Mexico in the 1940s. Because of its success in producing more agricultural products there, Green Revolution technologies spread worldwide in the 1950s and 1960s, significantly increasing the number of calories produced per acre of agriculture.

How did the Green Revolution affect food production?

Finally, the use of Green Revolution technologies exponentially increased the amount of food production worldwide. Places like India and China that once feared famine have not experienced it since implementing the use of IR8 rice and other food varieties.

How did fertilizers affect the Green Revolution?

Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible, they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers.

What were the crops that were developed during the Green Revolution?

The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties – meaning they were domesticated plants bred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted.

What was the name of the research institute that helped Mexico in the Green Revolution?

In 1963 with the help of this funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center . Countries all over the world, in turn, benefited from the Green Revolution work conducted by Borlaug and this research institution.

What did the Rockefeller Foundation do to help the Green Revolution?

In order to continue using Green Revolution technologies to produce more food for a growing population worldwide, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation, as well as many government agencies around the world funded increased research. In 1963 with the help of this funding, Mexico formed an international research institution called The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center .

How many varieties of rice were there before the Green Revolution?

In addition, the development of high yield varieties meant that only a few species of say, rice started being grown. In India, for example, there were about 30,000 rice varieties prior to the Green Revolution, today there are around ten – all the most productive types.

How did the Green Revolution help the world?

The Green Revolution played a major role in providing food for an exponentially growing world population . Norman Borlaug and co-workers developed dwarf wheat strains while working at CIMMYT (The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) in Mexico during the 1950s and 1960s. Dwarf strains have a high Harvest Index, which means that they put more of their energy resources into seeds rather than leaves, stems, and other plant structures. More importantly, these plants proved to be more responsive to fertilizer than standard wheat varieties.

Where did the green revolution start?

Green revolution technologies in India were originally introduced in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh (UP). These states are part of the Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), where Punjab and Haryana fall in Trans IGP and western UP in the middle and upper IGP (Fig. 6.3 ). These plains are believed to be formed by alluvium brought from the Himalayas by the Indus and Ganges river systems about 7000 years ago ( Pal et al., 2009 ). The soils in the region are generally deep alluvium, sandy loam to loam in texture, alkaline in reaction, and poor in organic matter content. In pre-green revolution period, rice cultivation in this region was limited to a small area that too mostly aromatic basmati variety with productive potential of about 1 t ha −1 ( Kumar and Nagarajan, 2004 ). With the ushering of green revolution, rice–wheat emerged as the major cropping system in this region.

What is organic agriculture?

Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. [ IFOAM, 2008]

What are the problems with rice and wheat?

With the increased production of rice and wheat came the problem of residue management. Most of the rice residue is burnt in situ, which, in addition to causing environmental pollution and health hazards, leads to loss of carbon and other nutrients.

What are the two states that are intensively cultivated?

Both Punjab and Haryana are intensively cultivated states. During 1966–2012, area under rice increased 10-fold (from 0.28 to 2.85 mha) in Punjab and six-fold (from 0.19 to 1.22 mha) in Haryana. During this period, the area under wheat cultivation in both the states increased 2–3.5 times (from 1.62 to 3.51 mha in Punjab and 0.72–2.5 mha in Haryana). An unprecedented increase in both production and productivity levels of wheat and rice occurred in these states, which helped India meet the food shortages of the 1960s. Being pioneer of India’s green revolution, these states sustained both positive and negative effects of green revolution technologies. Initially farmers achieved very high productivity levels but very soon, chemical-based inputs and mechanized farming led to overexploitation of the natural resources, especially groundwater and soil, to the extent that most of the farming enterprises have turned out to be environmentally unsustainable ( PSFC, 2013 ). Water table declined at an alarming rate in the region, especially under intensively cultivated rice–wheat systems ( Hira, 2009 ). During the period of 1993–2003, the water-table fall in central districts of Punjab ranged between 0.3 and 1.0 m annually. By 2006, the water table had sunk to depths as low as 28 m. With the increased production of rice and wheat came the problem of residue management. Most of the rice residue is burnt in situ, which, in addition to causing environmental pollution and health hazards, leads to loss of carbon and other nutrients. Recently, there were reports of declining or stagnating crop yields in these states.

How did capitalism help the Green Revolution?

Capitalism, as championed by the United States, saw progress as being achieved through the transfer of science and technology. In this case, traditional agriculture would be transformed by the adoption of a new, imported technology, forming the basis of the Green Revolution.

What were the consequences of the Green Revolution?

The political consequences of the Green Revolution were seen, particularly by the United States, to be very important as a solution to food shortages and famine in Asia in particular, and therefore a bulwark to the spread of socialism in that continent at the height of the Cold War.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

As such, due to the Green Revolution, global agricultural production dramatically increased as farms all over the world were adapting to the new advancements while also adopting the new techniques that allowed them to produce food more efficiently and effectively.

Why did the Green Revolution start?

One of the reasons why the Green Revolution began was that different companies were beginning to divert their investments towards agricultural research right after the Second Great War as populations began booming and as more and more people were starting to work in the agricultural sector.

How did science improve agriculture?

Because of how agricultural research improved, science led to the development of different methods of farming that vastly improved the way we approach food and crop production. Some of the improved areas of food and crop production included advancements in synthetic fertilizers and insecticides that not only improved the growth of the crops but also kept insects and pests away from them. Meanwhile, as technology improved, different methods of improving the way we grew and planted crops were also developed such as tractors that improved manual work on the farm and methods that made it easier to irrigate crops.

What countries did the Green Revolution affect?

The Green Revolution saw its early success in Mexico, which prompted the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation to try to adopt the same techniques in the Philippines, one of the Asian countries that had close ties with the United States. This eventually led to the increase of the production of rice in the Philippines to more than double in just a span of 20 years.

Why did the United States support the Green Revolution?

The United States also saw the Green Revolution as a way for them to increase their influence in Asia and in other developing countries during the Cold War period. During this time, many different Asian nations were beginning to adopt socialism as their primary political belief.

What was the result of the Green Revolution?

This resulted in higher overall productivity. It was the dawn of the Green Revolution during the 60s to 70s period that ultimately led to how quick food production is in today’s modern world as we are basically looking at more advanced means of farming in many different countries all over the world.

Why was irrigation important during the Green Revolution?

When it came down to one of the most important techniques developed and utilized during the Green Revolution, the improvements in irrigation became vital especially in places where there were often droughts and where water was used inefficiently. Moreover, older methods of irrigation were actually found to have been contributory factors to droughts.

What is the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution. It is constantly repeated that at present the problem of hunger in the world is not a problem of food production, but of distribution of the calories produced. And this validates a agricultural production system that predominates since the 50s, that premium at any cost …

Who was the scientist who developed the Green Revolution?

This model of intensive agricultural production was a revolution in the 50s and was the result, among others, of the work of a distinguished agronomist, geneticist and North American phytopathologist named Norman Ernest Borlaug. The different techniques that promoted the increase in agricultural productivity was called The Green Revolution, …

How does monoculture affect agriculture?

The genetically homogeneous monocultures increase the danger of massive attack on crops of pests and diseases, thus making habitual and repetitive the application of pesticides.

What were the techniques that promoted the increase in agricultural productivity called?

The different techniques that promoted the increase in agricultural productivity was called The Green Revolution, also Third Agricultural Revolution, and was based mainly on the use of varieties of high-yielding seeds, cultivated in large areas (monoculture), and the use of large amounts of fertilizers, phytoregulators and pesticides.

How much did the Green Revolution increase cereal production?

The Green Revolution was a great success in the increase of cereal production, thanks to new production techniques it was possible to increase global grain production by 250%.

When did Borlaug start using rice?

In 1961 the Ministry of Agriculture of India invited Borlaug and promoted the use of a semidwarf rice variety (IR8), capable of producing more rice grains per plant under certain fertilization and irrigation conditions.

How did the GR increase agricultural output?

The rapid increase in agricultural output resulting from the GR came from an impressive increase in yields per hectare. Between 1960 and 2000, yields for all developing countries rose 208% for wheat, 109% for rice, 157% for maize, 78% for potatoes, and 36% for cassava (18). Developing countries in southeast Asia and India were the first countries to show the impact of the GR varieties on rice yields, with China and other Asian regions experiencing stronger yield growth in the subsequent decades (19). Similar yield trends were observed for wheat and maize in Asia (20). Analysis of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) finds similar trends to the partial productivity trends captured by yield per hectare [TFP is defined as the ratio of total output to total inputs in a production process (20)] (21). For the period 1970–1989, change in global TFP for agriculture was 0.87%, which nearly doubled to 1.56% from 1990 to 2006 (21).

What was the impact of the post-GR period on agriculture?

Despite that success, in the post-GR period, investment in agriculture dropped off dramatically into the mid-2000s (4). However, the need for continued investments in agricultural innovation and productivity growth is as important today as it was in the early years of the GR. Low income countries and lagging regions of emerging economies continue to rely on agricultural productivity as an engine of growth and hunger reduction (5–7). However, sustaining productivity gains, enhancing smallholder competitiveness, and adapting to climate change are becoming increasingly urgent concerns across all production systems.

How did crop germplasm impact poverty?

Positive impacts on poverty reduction and lower food prices were driven in large part by crop germplasm improvements in CGIAR centers that were then transferred to national agricultural programs for adaptation and dissemination. The productivity gains from crop germplasm improvement alone are estimated to have averaged 1.0% per annum for wheat (across all regions), 0.8% for rice, 0.7% for maize, and 0.5% and 0.6% for sorghum and millets, respectively (9). Adoption rates of modern varieties in developing countries increased rapidly, reaching a majority of cropland (63%) by 1998 (9–15).

How did GR technology affect food supply?

Widespread adoption of GR technologies led to a significant shift in the food supply function, contributing to a fall in real food prices (23, 24). Between 1960 and 1990, food supply in developing countries increased 12–13% (25). Estimates suggest that, without the CGIAR and national program crop germplasm improvement efforts, food production in developing countries would have been almost 20% lower (requiring another 20–25 million hectares of land under cultivation worldwide) (26, 27). World food and feed prices would have been 35–65% higher, and average caloric availability would have declined by 11–13% (28). Overall, these efforts benefited virtually all consumers in the world and the poor relatively more so, because they spend a greater share of their income on food (29).

What was the purpose of the GR?

The original purpose of the GR was to intensify where returns would be high, with a focus on irrigated or high rainfall areas. The international breeding programs aimed to provide broadly adaptable germplasm that could then be grown across a wide set of geographies, but adoption was greatest in favorable areas. Technologies in the GR period did not focus on the constraints to production in more marginal environments, especially tolerance to stresses such as drought or flooding. Whereas HYVs of wheat provided yield gains of 40% in irrigated areas with modest use of fertilizer, in dry areas, gains were often no more than 10% (61). Almost full adoption of wheat and rice HYVs had been achieved in irrigated environments by the mid-1980s, but very low adoption in environments with scarce rainfall or poor water control (in the case of rice) had been achieved (62). In India, specifically, adoption was strongly correlated with water supply (3). Worldwide, improved seed–fertilizer technologies for wheat were less widely adopted in marginal environments and had less of an impact there than in favored environments (63).

How does agricultural productivity affect poverty?

These studies generally find high poverty reduction elasticities for agricultural productivity growth (2). In Asia, it has been estimated that each 1% increase in crop productivity reduces the number of poor people by 0.48% (38). In India, it is estimated that a 1% increase in agricultural value added per hectare leads to a 0.4% reduction in poverty in the short run and 1.9% reduction in the long run, the latter arising through the indirect effects of lower food prices and higher wages (39). For low income countries in general, the impact on the poverty headcount has been found to be larger from agricultural growth relative to equivalent growth in the nonagriculture sector at a factor of 2.3 times. In sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture’s contribution to poverty reduction was estimated to be 4.25 times the contribution of equivalent investment in the service sector (40).

How did the GR help the poor?

Some areas were left behind, and even where it successfully increased agricultural productivity, the GR was not always the panacea for solving the myriad of poverty, food security, and nutrition problems facing poor societies.

What is the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution is referred to as the process of increasing agricultural production by incorporating modern tools and techniques. Green Revolution is associated with agricultural production.

How did the Green Revolution affect agriculture?

Green Revolution has remarkably increased Agricultural Production . Foodgrains in India saw a great rise in output. The biggest beneficiary of the revolution was the Wheat Grain. The production increased to 55 million tonnes in the early stage of the plan itself.

What is MIDH in agriculture?

MIDH – Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture – It aims to promote the comprehensive growth of the horticulture sector, enhance the production of the sector, improve nutritional security, and increase income support to household farms.

What is the umbrella scheme of the Green Revolution?

Prime Minister Narendra Modi approved the Umbrella Scheme Green Revolution – ‘Krishonnati Yojana’ in the agriculture sector for the period of three years from 2017 to 2020 with the Central Share of Rs. 33,269.976 crore.The Umbrella scheme Green revolution- Krishonnati Yojana comprises 11 Schemes under it and all these schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a scientific and holistic manner so as to increase the income of farmers by increasing productivity, production, and better returns on produce, strengthening production infrastructure, reducing the cost of production and marketing of agriculture and allied produce. The 11 schemes that are part of the Umbrella Schemes under the Green revolution are:

What were the interpersonal inequalities between large and small farmers?

Farmers having large farmlands continued to make greater absolute gains in income by reinvesting the earnings in farm and non-farm assets, purchasing land from the smaller cultivators, etc.

How much did the Green Revolution increase the yield of wheat?

Green Revolution increased the per hectare yield in the case of wheat from 850 kg per hectare to an incredible 2281 kg/hectare in its early stage.

What were the three elements of the Green Revolution?

The method of green revolution focused on three basic elements, that are: Using seeds with improved genetics ( High Yielding Variety seed s).

Why was the Third Agricultural Revolution called the Green Revolution?

This time period received its name because of the emphasis on creating crops that yielded the most produce. Improvement in fertilizers and irrigation allowed crops to grow in climates previously too dry. Agricultural scientists like American researcher Norman Borlaug bred plants resistant to disease, produced more grain, and responded well to fertilizers. Industrial farms raised a single strain of highly productive plant. While these homogeneous crops increased yield, they were less disease-resistant and elevated the need for pesticides.

What were the main developments in agriculture during the agricultural revolution?

In China, humans used flood and fire control to create rice paddies beginning around 6,000 B .C. They domesticated water buffalos and yaks to eat their meat and milk and their hair and hide to make clothing. In Mexico, humans selectively bred a wild plant called teosinte to create maize or corn. The earliest known corn cob dates from 3,500 B.C. These same humans grew squash, which would become a staple food throughout the Americas. At the same time in the Andes Mountains of South America, humans grew potatoes.

Why did the first agricultural revolution occur?

Because this revolution began about 14,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age, experts theorize the warmer climate drove early humans to plant crops and build homes. At the same time, humans developed aspects of culture like religion and art. Archeologists have discovered cave art and figurines from this period. These discoveries demonstrate how humans had developed greater intellectual capabilities than their ancestors. Additionally, these new beliefs may have encouraged humans to settle in a permanent community with like-minded people.

What was the second agricultural revolution?

The Second Agricultural Revolution, or the British Agricultural Revolution, began during the 18th century. Major changes to farming techniques, which included livestock breeding, crop rotation, and mechanical farm equipment, decreased the number of workers needed on farms.

How did agriculture change the world?

The innovations in agriculture radically changed how humans produced food. Crop rotation and livestock breeding resulted in higher yields, while new mechanical equipment required fewer workers. Because their work was no longer needed, people traveled to cities to find work. Some people were desperate for employment in factories or other city jobs. Their small family farms could not compete with larger, industrial farms, or modern farming equipment had rendered their labor obsolete. In contrast, the children of successful farmers could now leave their families to look for other employment without worrying about who would work on the farm. The surplus produce from industrial farms could be sold to city dwellers, which in turn allowed more people to have occupations other than farming.

How did the agricultural revolution affect people?

The agricultural revolutions affected how people worked and got their food. The first caused people to grow crops and raise animals for food. The second caused people to move into cities and work in factories . The third led to an increase in human population.

Why did the seed drill revolution start?

This revolution started because of developments in technology, a shift towards industrialization, and the growth of cities. In the early 18th century, British inventor Jethro Tull perfected the seed drill, which allowed farmers to efficiently sew seeds in rows rather than scattering seeds by hand.


The Green Revolution, or the Third Agricultural Revolution (after the Neolithic Revolution and the British Agricultural Revolution), is the set of research technology transferinitiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production in parts of the world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, i…


The term “Green Revolution” was first used by William S. Gaud, the administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in a speech on 8 March 1968. He noted the spread of the new technologies as:
“These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor i…

Agricultural production and food security

According to a 2012 review in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the existing academic literature, the Green Revolution “contributed to widespread poverty reduction, averted hunger for millions of people, and avoided the conversion of thousands of hectares of land into agricultural cultivation.”

Norman Borlaug’s response to criticism

Borlaug dismissed certain claims of critics, but also cautioned, “There are no miracles in agricultural production. Nor is there such a thing as a miracle variety of wheat, rice, or maize which can serve as an elixir to cure all ills of a stagnant, traditional agriculture.”
Of environmental lobbyists, he said:
some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many o…

Second Green Revolution

Although the Green Revolution has been able to improve agricultural output in some regions in the world, there was and is still room for improvement. As a result, many organizations continue to invent new ways to improve the techniques already used in the Green Revolution. Frequently quoted inventions are the System of Rice Intensification, marker-assisted selection, agroecology, and applying existing technologies to agricultural problems of the developing world. Current cha…

See also

• Arab Agricultural Revolution
• British Agricultural Revolution
• Columbian exchange
• Environmental impact of agriculture

Further reading

• Cotter, Joseph (2003). Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880–2002. Westport, CT: Prager
• Deb, Debal, “Restoring Rice Biodiversity”, Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 54–61.
• Harwood, Andrew (14 June 2013). “Development policy and history: lessons from the Green Revolution”.

External links

• Norman Borlaug talk transcript, 1996
• The Green Revolution in the Punjab, by Vandana Shiva
• Aftermath of the Green Revolution in Punjab, by Harsha Vadlamani
• Africa’s Turn: A New Green Revolution for the 21st Century, Rockefeller Foundation

History and Development of The Green Revolution

The beginnings of the Green Revolution are often attributed to Norman Borlaug, an American scientist interested in agriculture. In the 1940s, he began conducting research in Mexico and developed new disease resistance high-yield varieties of wheat. By combining Borlaug’s wheat varieties with new mechanized agricultural t…

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Plant Technologies of The Green Revolution

  • The crops developed during the Green Revolution were high yield varieties – meaning they were domesticated plantsbred specifically to respond to fertilizers and produce an increased amount of grain per acre planted. The terms often used with these plants that make them successful are harvest index, photosynthate allocation, and insensitivity to day length. The harvest index refers …

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Impacts of The Green Revolution

  • Since fertilizers are largely what made the Green Revolution possible, they forever changed agricultural practices because the high yield varieties developed during this time cannot grow successfully without the help of fertilizers. Irrigation also played a large role in the Green Revolution and this forever changed the areas where various crops can be grown. For instance, …

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Criticism of The Green Revolution

  • Along with the benefits gained from the Green Revolution, there have been several criticisms. The first is that the increased amount of food production has led to overpopulation worldwide. The second major criticism is that places like Africa have not significantly benefited from the Green Revolution. The major problems surrounding the use of these technologies here though are a lac…

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