what is high input agriculture



industrialized (high input) agriculture. uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops, or monocultures.

What are the high inputs cost for agriculture?

 · What is high input agriculture? industrialized (high input) agriculture. uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops, or monocultures. Click to see full answer. Similarly, you may ask, what is high external input agriculture?

What increased agriculture output?

industrialized (high input) agriculture. uses heavy equipment and large amounts of financial capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops, or monocultures. What is low input agriculture?

What are some examples of intensive agriculture?

 · High Input Organic Agriculture. At the beginning of this publication, organic farming was described as a system that uses a minimum of off-farm inputs. While that …

What is an example of extensive farming?

After reading this article you will learn about the most essential inputs required for agriculture:- 1. Seed 2. Fertilizer 3. Farm Power 4. Implements Machinery 5. Irrigation. Seed: Seed is …


What is low input agriculture?

Low-input agriculture, as developed and practiced at the Rodale Institute Research Center, consists of diverse crop rotations involving legume and other overwintering cover crops to supply and retain soil N, compete with weeds, and retard soil erosion.

Which type of agriculture is high input?

Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming), conventional, or industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture, both of crop plants and of animals, with higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area.

What is high external input agriculture?

High external input Agriculture (HEIA) are technologies that utilize high external inputs such as inorganic or chemical fertilizers to increase nutrient depletion from the soil, pesticides to control pests and diseases, herbicides to control weeds and irrigation facilities for water management in the farms.

What are the benefits of high input agriculture?

The main advantage of intensive farming is its increased performance when higher yields are harvested from smaller territories. This brings economic benefits to landowners and provides food for the growing population. Intensive agriculture fully satisfies the market demand even in densely inhabited areas.

Why does high input farming destroy soil?

Soil compaction is caused by heavy farm machinery use and tilling when soils are too wet; compaction has become an increasing problem as farm equipment has gotten increasingly heavier. Compaction leads to poor water absorption and poor aeration which further lead to stunted root growth in plants and smaller yields.

What is high input monoculture?

monoculture- one crop. high-input agriculture. Uses much energy, water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Practiced on 25% of cropland, mostly in developed countries.

What is heia and Leia?

LEIA maintains a healthy soil, recycling nutrients on the farm, and utilizing approaches such as integrated pest management (IPM). Under HEIA system, soil quality deteriorates, and there is resurgence of pests, lack of resilience in the soil-plant system 7.

What do you mean by a farm with low external input?

Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) refers to an agricultural system that gradually converts the farming system from conventional to organic for at least two cropping Page 2 Journal of Gender Studies Volume 1 Issue 1 / December 2018 12 ISSN 2651-8430 (Print) psurj.org/jogs ISSN 2651-8422 (Online) seasons …

What is the difference between heia and Leia?

Because of its access to external resources, HEIA may tend more towards the use of accelerating technologies and management, whereas small-scale LEIA tends to adjust continuously to local conditions.

What is extensive agriculture?

extensive agriculture, in agricultural economics, system of crop cultivation using small amounts of labour and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. The crop yield in extensive agriculture depends primarily on the natural fertility of the soil, the terrain, the climate, and the availability of water.

What are examples of intensive farming?

Types Of Intensive FarmingLivestock. The term livestock refers to those individual animals who have no choice but to endure life on farms. … Crops. … Aquaculture. … Sustainability. … Environmental Disadvantages. … Poor Living Conditions And Hygiene For Livestock. … Excessive Use Of Agro-Chemicals. … Deforestation.More items…•

What are examples of extensive farming?

Traditional cultivation methods that are based on seasonal products are a good example of extensive farming practices. The production is usually based on seasonal produce, and incorporates lower-input methods.


When did input-dependent farming begin?

2018 marks the 100th anniversary of the beginning of input-dependent farming—the birth of what would become modern high-input agriculture. It was in 1918 that farmers in Canada and the US began to purchase large numbers of farm tractors. These tractors required petroleum fuels. Those fuels became the first major farm inputs. In the early decades of the 20th century, farmers became increasingly dependent on fossil fuels, in the middle decades most also became dependent on fertilizers, and in the latter decades they also became dependent on agricultural chemicals and high-tech, patented seeds.

How long has agriculture been around?

It’s important to understand the long-term significance of what has unfolded since 1918. Humans have practiced agriculture for about 10,000 years—about 100 centuries. For 99 centuries, there were almost no farm inputs—no industrial products that farmers had to buy each spring in order to grow their crops. Sure, before 1918, farmers bought farm implements—hoes, rakes, and sickles in the distant past, and plows and binders more recently. And there were some fertilizer products available, such as those derived from seabird guano (manure) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. And farmers occasionally bought and sold seeds. But for most farmers in most years before about 1918, the production of a crop did not require purchasing an array of farm inputs. Farm chemicals did not exist, very little fertilizer was available anywhere in the world until after WWII, and farmers had little use for gasoline or diesel fuel. Before 1918, farms were largely self-sufficient, deriving seeds from the previous years’ crop, fertility from manure and nitrogen-fixing crops, and pulling-power from horses energized by the hay and grain that grew on the farm itself. For 99 of the 100 centuries that agriculture has existed, farms produced the animal- and crop-production inputs they needed. Nearly everything that went into farming came out of farming.

Is modern agriculture high output?

Modern agriculture is also, admittedly, high- output . But this last fact must be understood in context: the incredible food-output tonnage of modern agriculture is largely a reflection of the megatonnes of fertilizers, fuels, and chemicals we push into the system. Nitrogen fertilizer illustrates this process. To produce, transport, and apply one tonne of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer requires an amount of energy equal to almost two tonnes of gasoline . Modern agriculture is increasingly a system for turning fossil fuel Calories into food Calories. Food is increasingly a petroleum product.

What are the most important inputs for agriculture?

After reading this article you will learn about the most essential inputs required for agriculture:- 1. Seed 2. Fertilizer 3. Farm Power 4. Implements Machinery 5. Irrigation.

What are the inputs of agro-industries?

The agro-industries supply inputs to agriculture to sustain modern techniques in agricultural production like fertilizers, plant protection chemicals, now a trend is towards the indigenous products like neem products and bio-parasites and also the processing of the agricultural produce, like oil extraction, hulling, preparation of fruit products into processed goods like jelly, jams, pickles etc.

What is the job of seed production and distribution?

The job of seed production and distribution has to be diversified and got done in various ways, e.g., through seed corporations, seed cooperatives, seed grower’s organizations, agro-industries corporations and private agencies including individuals. Agro-industries will also take marketing and production.

When were seed production farms established?

Seed production farms were established in the country. The progressive farmers were involved and registered as seed growers and the cooperative societies for storage and marketing. These farms were 2000 in 1971. Department staff was to maintain check on quality of seed at every stage.

What is irrigation in agriculture?

In the rainy season if the spread of rainfall is evenly distributed and rains in the right intensity the crops are raised as rainfed crops, if the rainfall is erratic and insufficient then supplemental irrigation is needed. In the Rabi season, during the period of receding monsoon irrigation is needed which depends on the nature of the crop and its requirement.

What are the implements used in Indian agriculture?

There are a variety of implements used in the modern scientific agriculture but the most basic implements used in Indian agriculture are: Khurpi, sickle, spade, pickage, desi plough, patella and other local models are—local, models of hoes, harrows, cultivators, seed drill (malabasa) etc.

When was the Agriculture Department established?

Agriculture department was recognized in 1905 and stress was paid on soil study and soil conditions which were reported to be deficient in plant nutrients. The basic fact is that the increased agricultural production is related to the increased consumption of fertilizer. In India the consumption of fertilizer per hectare is low as compared to developed countries. Table 6.6 gives the comparison.

What are the two types of agricultural inputs?

Image: Marlies Wessels. The types of agricultural inputs are endless but there are two categories that we separate all agricultural inputs into; consumable inputs and capital inputs. Consumable inputs are your everyday commonly used agricultural inputs for smallholder farmers – seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, etc.

What are agri inputs?

Agricultural inputs are any external source put into soil that can help a farmer’s upcoming yield. They can be anything from high-quality seeds to high-tech tractors.

What are capital inputs for smallholder farmers?

Capital inputs such as tractors and plows are not commonly used by smallholder farmers since they are such a large investment. We recommend smallholder farmers utilize capital inputs like nylon netting and reflective mulches to aid their yield.

What are some agri-inputs that can aid both larger farms and smallholder farmers alike?

There are plenty of agri-inputs that can aid both larger farms and smallholder farmers alike such as reflective mulches and trellising materials. Capital inputs such as tractors and plows are not commonly used by smallholder farmers since they are such a large investment.

What is capital input?

Capital inputs are agri-inputs that are often mechanical and more technologically advanced. These agricultural inputs cannot be consumed by the crops themselves. Capital inputs are necessarily thought of as tools for larger farms, but that’s not completely true. There are plenty of agri-inputs that can aid both larger farms …

What are consumable inputs?

The most commonly used consumable inputs are: High-quality seeds. Soil. Fertilizers. Insecticides. Pesticides. Insect Traps. Straw.

How can smallholder farmers be eco-friendly?

We understand that sustainable farming is often a challenge for smallholder farmers since they have limited resources, but it’s not impossible.#N#Smallholder farmers can be eco-friendly by incorporating an Integrated Pest Management approach into their daily routine. An Integrated Pest Management approach utilizes both organic and non-organic materials to deter pests. By finding the precise balance between the two, smallholder farmers can use sustainable farming methods while ensuring a high yield.

What is considered natural input?

The NOP considers allowable natural inputs, or nonsynthetic inputs, to be any kind of substances that occur naturally in plant, animal or mineral form. This can include crop and animal residues. Natural inputs also include substances that are created through a biological process that naturally occurs – for example, vinegar.

What are some natural inputs that are specifically prohibited?

Some natural inputs that are specifically prohibited are products derived through genetic engineering, as well as contaminated organic materials , such as conventional cottonseed meal, which contains pesticides, and leather meal, which contains the heavy metal chromium.

What do organic growers need to keep?

Organic growers must keep a record documenting all inputs, including the location where inputs were used, dates and amounts . If you need a clear and concise way to track field inputs. You also need to retain documents such as purchase receipts, product labels, lab analyses, and soil tests.

What are prohibited synthetic inputs?

Prohibited synthetic inputs are classified as products produced by a chemical process or natural products that were chemically changed, such as certain mineral products created by adding acids to natural minerals.

Can farmers use animal by-products?

Some farmers may use animal by-products such as fish emulsion, fishmeal, blood meal, bone meal or meat meal. Inputs can be certified organic approved or not. As an organic producer, you must use only approved inputs. In general, synthetic substances are prohibited, but there are some exceptions. The National Organic Program (NOP), which establishes …

Manage Costs, Maximize Profits

The following articles include practical recommendations and projected on-farm savings for reducing input costs. Many of the costs used in these articles were based on crop budgets revised in early fall 2008.


Covers budgets for 16 crops and 50 cropping systems and includes tables of power, machinery, labor, and input costs used to develop the budgets. Also see budgets grouped by crop below.

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