What is mechanization in agriculture

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Agricultural mechanization has been defined in a number of ways by different people. Perhaps the most appropriate definition is that it is the process of improving farm labour

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productivity through the use of agricultural machinery, implements and tools. Mechanization is a key input in any farming system.

Technological advances in the early part of the 20th century centered around mechanical innovation and improvements. Farmers were constantly looking for more efficient and reliable sources of power to run their farm operations. As a result, machines gradually replaced horses and mules on the farm.May 4, 2018

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What impact did mechanization have on farming?

Some negative side effects of mechanized farming include a smaller workforce and more pollution. What effect did mechanization have on farming? Mechanization meant fewer workers were needed on the farm, freeing up labor for the cities. What effect did mechanization (e.g. the reaper) have on the farms?

What are the disadvantages of agricultural mechanization?

Disadvantages Of Farm Mechanization. 1. High cost 2. Displacement of workers 3. Compaction of soil 4. It causes environmental pollution 5. Degradation of landscape 6. Land tenure system 7. Destruction of soil structure 8. Redundancy of farm labour 9. Few crops can be mechanized 10. Inadequate technical know-how 11. Damage to crops 12 …

What are the objectives of agricultural mechanization?

  • Abstract. Mechanization is a multi-dimensional concept and widely used in agriculture. …
  • Background. Agricultural mechanization today has a very broad meaning. …
  • Methods. …
  • Results. …
  • Discussion. …
  • Conclusions. …
  • Authors’ contributions. …
  • Author information. …
  • Rights and permissions. …
  • About this article. …

How does mechanization helped in farming?

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What is the meaning of agricultural mechanization?

Agricultural mechanization today has a very broad meaning. This broad meaning includes production, distribution and utilization of a variety of tools, machinery and equipment for the development of agricultural land, planting, harvesting and primary processing [3, 15, 19, 25].


What is the definition mechanization?

Definition of mechanize transitive verb. 1 : to make mechanical especially : to make automatic or routine. 2a : to equip with machinery especially to replace human or animal labor. b : to equip with armed and armored motor vehicles. c : to provide with mechanical power.


What are examples of mechanization?

An example is the glass bottle making machine developed 1905. It replaced highly paid glass blowers and child labor helpers and led to the mass production of glass bottles. After 1900 factories were electrified, and electric motors and controls were used to perform more complicated mechanical operations.


What are the benefits of mechanization?

Agricultural mechanization has also helped farms both small and large to earn more money on what they produce. First, time is saved by the mechanization process, which reduces the need to pay laborers over extended periods of time. Second, crop yields are higher, which results in more income.


Why is mechanization important in agriculture?

Sustainable agricultural mechanization can also contribute significantly to the development of value chains and food systems as it has the potential to render postharvest, processing and marketing activities and functions more efficient, effective and environmentally friendly.


What is mechanized equipment?

Mechanized equipment means equipment operated by means of mechanical power, including, but not limited to, trenchers, bulldozers, power shovels, augers, backhoes, scrapers, drills, cable and pipe plows, and other equipment used for plowing‑in or pulling‑in cable or pipe.


How does mechanization affect farming?

The level of mechanization has a significant positive impact on the cost, output value, income and return rate of all types of crops. For every 1% increase in the level of mechanization, the yields of all crops, grain crops and cash crops increase by 1.2151, 1.5941 and 0.4351%, respectively.


When was agriculture mechanized?

Technological advances in the early part of the 20th century centered around mechanical innovation and improvements. Farmers were constantly looking for more efficient and reliable sources of power to run their farm operations. As a result, machines gradually replaced horses and mules on the farm.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization in agriculture?

Mechanization has its advantages and disadvantages. Wikipedia continues: “Besides improving production efficiency, mechanization encourages large scale production and improves the quality of farm produce. On the other hand, it displaces unskilled farm labor, causes environmental pollution, deforestation and erosion.”


What are the advantages of mechanical power in agriculture?

By utilizing mechanical power in agriculture leads to reduce animal power so that raring of animals is not required and utilization of fodder area can be used to grow crops for producing food for human consumption.


What are the benefits to using agricultural machinery?

Mechanization can significantly bring down the cost of labor, particularly for labor-intensive crops such as rice, corn, and sugar. These equipment and mechanized procedures will definitely increase production.


What is the meaning of cryptically?

1 : secret, occult. 2a : having or seeming to have a hidden or ambiguous meaning : mysterious cryptic messages cryptic prophecies. b : marked by an often perplexing brevity cryptic marginal notes. 3 : serving to conceal cryptic coloration in animals also : exhibiting cryptic coloration cryptic animals.


What are the 3 three levels of mechanization?

It includes three main power sources: human, animal and mechanical. Based on these three power sources,the technolo- gical levels of mechanization have been broadly classified as hand-tool technology, animal draught technology and mechanical power technology.


What is difference between mechanization and automation?

Mechanization is normally defined as the replacement of a human task with a machine. Automatic transplanters are an example of mechanization. But, true automation encompasses more than mechanization. Automation involves the entire process, including bringing material to and from the mechanized equipment.


What is mechanization apes?

also had negative environmental impacts. mechanization. work done by machines, such as plowing, planting, irrigating, weeding, protecting from pests, harvesting, preparing for next season.


What was the first agricultural mechanization?

Agricultural mechanization started with the steam powered reapers and traction engine, then advanced with the invention of mobile hydraulics and electronic control systems that are used in modern machinery today.


How does technology affect farmers?

The literature on farmer’s innovations follows studies on technological change and diffusion of technologies in agriculture that explored the effect of relative prices as determinants of incentives to promote new technologies. For instance, in the 1970s, Binswanger (1974) showed that technology change responds to scarcity, bending research efforts toward scarce production factors signaled by prices. Agricultural mechanization arises as a response to limited agricultural labor and fertilizers, just as the green revolution package responds to rises in land prices. Distortions of all sorts affect the process of technological change. The growth of the farm inputs corporations, and the concentration in that industry distorts signals provided by the price mechanism. Farmers have few technical package choices.


What are the phases of agriculture?

Agriculture can be described as having three eras. The first is best characterized as the blood, sweat, and tears era , when famine and fatigue were common and inadequate food supplies occurred frequently. Agriculture’s second developmental stage, the mechanical era, began with invention of labor-saving machines. The effect of agricultural mechanization can be described by the changes in farm population that began in the nineteenth century. With the advantages of improving, available, and inexpensive machines, farming became more efficient and the need for labor was reduced. The chemical era of agriculture boosted production and costs again. The era really began when nitrogen fertilizer, a result of the Haber-Bosch process, became readily available and enabled realization of the genetic potential of the newly available hybrid corn. When nitrogen fertilizer was combined with hybrid corn varieties, first experimented with by Henry A. Wallace in 1913, yields went up rapidly. The agricultural revolution of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s transformed the practice of agriculture, reduced the number of people on farms, and significantly increased the productivity of those who remained. Developed country agriculture is now in the era of extensive and intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and is moving rapidly toward the next era of agriculture—the era of biotechnology—but weed management is still a major concern in all of agriculture. Weed science cannot claim the historical lineage of entomology or plant pathology, as weeds have not been studied as long.


What are the challenges of autonomous vehicles?

There are, however, several challenges facing the use of autonomous vehicles. Safety is the largest challenge as present systems cannot compare with human operators in their perception and understanding of the environment around the vehicle. As an autonomous vehicle cannot match the perception of a human operator, the machinery manufacturer and the agricultural producer would face a large amount of liability for any failures in the vehicle. For these reasons, operators will be used in agricultural vehicles until the perception systems improve, except in situations such as removal of land mines, which pose a danger to the operator.


Why are arable lands decreasing?

The area of agricultural soils is decreasing due to poor management strategies related to urbanization, industrialization, transportation and tourism. This can be easily observed around the plains of Cukurova and Amik in the Eastern Mediterranean region, Istanbul, Kocaeli and Bursa in Marmara region, and Izmir in the Aegean region. The area of cultivable soils has reduced as a result of contamination resulting from soil degradation (natural and non-natural) originating from different biotic activities ( Guney, 2004 ). Moreover, an increase in demand for agricultural lands is met through deforestation by intentional fires and logging, which have been commonly practiced in Turkey.


Can autonomous vehicles match human operators?

As an autonomous vehicle cannot match the perception of a human operator, the machinery manufacturer and the agricultural producer would face a large amount of liability for any failures in the vehicle.


How does mechanization affect agriculture?

The effective mechanization contributes to increase production in two major ways: firstly the timeliness of operation and secondly the good quality of work.


What is the definition of mechanization of production?

Mechanization of Production. replacement of manual implements of labor in sectors of material production or in labor processes with machines and mechanisms using various types of power and traction for their operation. Mechanization of production also covers the sphere of mental labor.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization?

Wikipedia continues: “Besides improving production efficiency, mechanization encourages large scale production and improves the quality of farm produce. On the other hand, it displaces unskilled farm labor, causes environmental pollution, deforestation and erosion.”.


What is farm machinery?

Farm machinery, mechanical devices, including tractors and implements, used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements used since prehistoric times to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized agriculture.


What is monocropping in agriculture?

Monocropping is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land, in the absence of rotation through other crops or growing multiple crops on the same land polyculture. Corn, soybeans, and wheat are three common crops often grown using monocropping techniques.


Why is crop rotation important?

It is done so that the soil of farms is not used for only one set of nutrients. It helps in reducing soil erosion and increases soil fertility and yield crop.


What is the meaning of “mechanization” in agriculture?

Bhattacharjee, “Mechanization of agriculture and farming process connotes application of machine power to work on land, usually performed by bullocks, horses and other draught animals or by human labour.”. According to Dr. C. B. Memoria, “It (mechanization) chiefly consists in either replacing, …


What is farm mechanization?

In G. D. Aggarwal’s words, “Farm mechanization is a term used in a very broad’ sense. It not only includes the use of machines, whether mobile or immobile, small or large, run by power and used for tillage operations, harvesting and thrashing but also includes power lifts for irrigation, trucks for haulage of farm produce, processing machines, dairy appliances for cream separating, butter making, oil pressing, cotton ginning, rice hulling, and even various electrical home appliances like radios, irons, washing machines, vacuum cleaners and hot plates.”


How does mechanization affect farming?

Mechanization increases the rapidity and speed of work with which farming operations can be performed. According to D. R. Bomford, “The ploughman with his three-horse am controlled three- horse; power, when given a medium-sized crawler tractor controlled between 20 to 30 horse power.


How many tractor machines were there in 1961?

Tractor is the basic mechanical input which largely determines the extent of use of allied machinery and equipment. There was rapid progress in the number of tractor in the country. In 1961 the country had 31000 tractors which increased to 2, 52,000 in 1966. This increase is indeed too phenomenal to be overlooked.


Why is mechanisation not used in India?

Mechanisation has no scope in India because of the extremely small size of holdings which arc between 3 and 12 acres. Even these small holdings are not found together but scattered over the village in tiny bits. A tractor cannot be used to plough a quarter of an acre plot. This is not a valid criticism because such farm machinery like a pump set can be installed even in a small farm of half an acre.


What are the arguments against mechanization?

Important arguments against mechanisation are: (1) Small Sized Farms: The existence of a large farm is an essential condition for mechanisation. For proper and best utilisation of agricultural machines, holdings will have to be large and should be (bund together and not scattered in tiny plots as is the case in India.


What is the use of machine energy?

The use of machine energy, therefore, leads to good agricultural production, to trade many crops or saleable animal products in short, to an exchange economy and a system of land utilization in which cultivator rests on a different and infinitely more complex basis than is found in the local self-sufficient economy.”.


What is agricultural mechanization?

This broad meaning includes production, distribution and utilization of a variety of tools, machinery and equipment for the development of agricultural land, planting, harvesting and primary processing [3, 15, 19, 25].


What is the process of mechanization in agriculture?

According to Dr. Bhattacharjee, “ Mechanization of agriculture and farming process connotes application of machine power to work on land, usually performed by bullocks, horses and other draught animals or by human labour.”. ADVERTISEMENTS: It is partial when only a part of the farm work is done by machine.


What does mechanization mean in farming?

By increasing harvest outputs, mechanization means that famers can move on from subsistence farming to market-oriented farming. By easing and reducing the hard labour involved with farming, mechanization can also ensure higher outputs regardless of the age, gender or physical well-being of the farmer.


How does mechanization affect agriculture?

Wikipedia continues: “Besides improving production efficiency, mechanization encourages large scale production and improves the quality of farm produce. On the other hand, it displaces unskilled farm labor, causes environmental pollution, deforestation and erosion.”.


What is automation process?

Automation involves the entire process, including bringing material to and from the mechanized equipment. Mechanization is normally defined as the replacement of a human task with a machine. Automatic transplanters are an example of mechanization. But, true automation encompasses more than mechanization.


What is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery?

Mechanization is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery. Machines, in fact, are interposed between the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other. In some fields, mechanization includes the use of hand tools.


What will agriculture become in the future?

In the future, agricultural machines will become data-rich sensing and monitoring systems. In the future, mechanization will also have to contribute to better management of inputs, which will be critical to increasing TFP in global production systems that vary widely among crop types and regional economic status.


How does mechanization affect agriculture?

Mechanization is a crucial input for agricultural crop production and one that historically has been neglected in the context of developing countries. Factors that reduce the availability of farm power compromise the ability to cultivate sufficient land and have long been recognized as a source of poverty, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing the power supply to agriculture means that more tasks can be completed at the right time and greater areas can be farmed to produce greater quantities of crops while conserving natural resources. Applying new technologies that are environmentally friendly enables farmers to produce crops more efficiently by using less power.


How does agricultural mechanization contribute to the development of value chains and food systems?

Sustainable agricultural mechanization can also contribute significantly to the development of value chains and food systems as it has the potential to render postharvest, processing and marketing activities and functions more efficient, effective and environmentally friendly.


What is mechanization in agriculture?

Mechanization is a multi-dimensional concept and widely used in agriculture. There is, however, a major difference between the application of mechanization in developed and developing countries The developing countries tend to design their own strategies in food security given the challenges they face in all aspects of their economy including feeding a growing population, reducing poverty, protecting the environment, managing the effects of climate change and fighting malnutrition all which may further contribute to a reduction in economic growth and political instability. The goal of the strategies, with the help of appropriate technologies, is to lead to a sustainable agricultural development and, ultimately, food security. The policy making in each country should be based on its own conditions. This article uses Iran as an example of a developing country and considers the country’s specific climate as well as political and economic conditions to present development-oriented policies for achieving sustainable food security based on agricultural mechanization that may be adaptable to other developing countries. The main objective of this paper is to identify and provide guidelines to the current and future challenges of Iran’s food security, and it argues that for any strategy to succeed in producing a sustainable agricultural production, it will need a proper analysis and a formulation of an appropriate mechanization plan.


How to achieve self-sustaining agricultural mechanization?

To achieve the objective of a self-sustaining agricultural mechanization strategy, a SWOT analysis technique was used to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and help us provide a framework by which policies can be defined. The framework includes internal and external factors that affect the development of agricultural mechanization and seek to provide ideas for agricultural development with the help of mechanization. These factors were then prioritized using the Hierarchical Analysis Method, and based on the obtained results, the final strategies were extracted and prioritized by the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), a multi-criteria decision analysis method.


What are the factors that affect the development of agriculture?

According to the results, weaknesses and threats were the most important factors. Environmental threats, especially water shortages, economic problems as well as availability of the mechanization fleet and compatibility of the equipment within the country’s agricultural system were identified as the most important factors affecting the agricultural development. In order to achieve sustainable food security, with regards to the identified factors the necessary recommendations and Governmental-support policies in the agricultural sector were presented: 1. reforming the country’s planting pattern according to the climatic conditions considering the relative advantage of agricultural production, 2. modernizing the mechanization fleet; 3. investing in research and development of agriculture and modern knowledge; the production and import of agricultural machinery and modern technologies according to their suitability with the country’s conditions and future needs of the country; strengthening of the supply chain and maintenance services.


Why is it important to pay more attention to internal factors in the agricultural sector and mechanization of Iran?

Due to the higher coefficient of importance of weaknesses in comparison to threats, it is necessary to pay more attention to internal factors in the agricultural sector and mechanization of Iran rather than external factors.


How can Iran improve its agriculture?

The next strategy is investing in agricultural research and development and the use of biotechnology and its new knowledge. This strategy ranked with an importance coefficient of 0.117. Due to the limitation of arable land in Iran, the country must move toward increasing productivity per unit area. New technologies and biotechnology are among the things that make this possible for each country and for this reason, Iran should invest in agricultural research and development. Seed modification, genetic modification, etc., are among the many ways to develop agriculture and achieve sustainable food security. Researchers believe that the development of food security is possible through the development and promotion of technology. These achievements are mainly attributed to increased use of crop improvement methods. These results highlight the role of improved methods for promoting agricultural productivity among small farmers [ 21 ]. Researchers are also strategizing with emphasis on technology transfer and planning for the development of agricultural mechanization. It is suggested that the first step is to remove the obstacles that mechanization faces including the fact that small farmers do not have the financial ability to move to mechanized cultivation require government support. The government support at the executive and legislative levels, supporting academic education, providing appropriate technology and services, and moving toward the assembly and production of agricultural machinery are among these proposals [ 20 ]. The emphasizing on research and development, the selection and transferring appropriate technologies for the region, optimal use of energy resources, increasing the number of machinery, training, providing loans to farmers, as well as providing tax rebates are among the proposed policies in this area [ 2 ]. Iran also can take steps to maximize the productive use of resources using precision farming technology, given the country’s water crisis. Modifying consumption pattern by replacing high-yield products in the household basket is the sixth ranked strategy that is related to the dimension of food utilization. Modifying this pattern requires long-term cultural and social planning. Dietary habits in Iran are not only rooted in different cultures in this country, but also closely related to religious beliefs. To achieve this, various government and community-based organizations, such as the media, social networks and NGOs, can play a significant role. Employing graduates directly in the agricultural sector, with a 0.081 significance factor, is the next strategy. Iran has a large number of agricultural graduates and has a major need for agriculture production based on science and technology, which has been addressed in previous strategies. The government can, with proper planning, use this potential to develop its agricultural sector and move toward reducing unemployment. Energy management, moving toward clean energies and improving energy indicators, is the last strategy with an importance coefficient of 0.076. Considering the abundant oil and gas resources of Iran, there seems to be less interest in moving toward such energies in the country. Most of the country’s environmental crises are caused by pollution from fossil fuels.


How can food security be achieved?

But on the contrary, some policymakers believe that food security will be achieved by considering comparative advantage in agricultural production, reducing trade restrictions and strengthening and development of international food trade [ 7 ]. This article, based on evidence from Iran, provides policies for achieving sustainable food security in developing countries. These development policies are based on agricultural mechanization.


Which method prioritizes internal and external factors?

At this stage of the research, the identified internal and external factors were prioritized by hierarchical analysis method (Table 3 ).


How does mechanization affect agriculture?

Mechanization provides opportunities for intensifying production in a sustainable manner, value addition and food systems development, and improved local economies and livelihoods. It also plays a key role in enabling the growth of commercial agrifood systems and improving the efficiency of post-harvest handling, processing and marketing operations. It can have a major influence on the availability and accessibility of more nutritious food, contributing to increased household food security. The application of farm power to appropriate tools, implements and machines – “farm mechanization” – is an essential agricultural input in sub-Saharan Africa with the potential to transform the lives and economies of millions of rural families. ISSN 1020-4555


Why is agriculture mechanized?

Moreover agricultural mechanization in its broadest sense can contribute significantly to the development of food systems, as it has the potential to render post-harvest, processing and marketing activities and functions more efficient, effective and environmentally friendly. FAO (2014b) summarizes the main reasons for changing the power source for crop production from muscles (human or animal) to tractors: i. Potential to expand the area under cultivation. ii. Ability to perform operations at the right time to maximize production potential. iii. Multifunctionality – tractors can be used, not only for crop production, but also for transportation, stationary power applications and infrastructure improvement (drainage and irrigation canals and road works). iv. Compensation for seasonal labour shortages (or, indeed, release of labour for more productive work. v. Reduction of the drudgery associated with the use of human muscle power for tasks, such as hand hoeing for primary tillage – especially important in tropical areas where high temperatures and humidity (sometimes associated with inadequate nutrition) make manual work extremely arduous. In spite of these perceived benefits and the fact that animals had been largely replaced by tractors in both the United States and Western Europe by the 1950s, arguments were still put forward urging caution in the developing world (as highlighted by FAO, 2008). The main preoccupation was the effect of mechanization on rural employment opportunities. At the time, it was not understood that mechanization affected mainly on-farm family employment, not hired labour. Mechanization, in fact, enables farm family members not only to increase farm productivity via production intensification and/or expansion, but also to seek off-farm employment opportunities as a result of the increased time made available to look for and be engaged in such employment. Moreover, it was not appreciated that mechanization applied only to specific farm production tasks (in particular land preparation), and consequently had little effect on hired labour unemployment as previously presumed. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI, 2016a) enriches the debate on the social factors associated with mechanization by pointing out that in the past, forced mechanization was associated with the displacement of tenant farmers and rural labour. However, in Africa, mechanization is more likely to increase labour demand when it enables more land to be cultivated (and when it is profitably applied along the value chain). IFPRI points out that mechanization is just one component in the agricultural intensification process; mechanization should not actually initiate intensification where it is not already driven by population pressure and


Why are smallholder farmers so poor?

Smallholders are often isolated by distance and poor infrastructure (especially feeder roads). There is limited access to sources of financial credit due to the: • lack of availability of financial products specifically focused on farm equipment investment ; • misconception of many financial institutions regarding the need for targeted financial products for investment in equipment ; • basic nature of agricultural production – i.e. a high-risk business; • reluctance of commercial financial institutions (mainly banks) to extend credit to poor farmers with little collateral; and • The lack of financial products to serve the purposes of small-scale farm mechanization. Experience from other parts of the world shows that extending credit products to farmers to invest in agricultural machinery not only allows them


Is agricultural machinery imported?

Tractors and agricultural machinery can be either imported or locally made, with potential associated problems in both cases. Locally produced machinery is usually low in quality and high in price. This is due to the underdeveloped nature of the machinery manufacturing industry, which in turn is largely the result of poor demand. Moreover, supply chains providing support to owners of tractors and agricultural machinery with spare parts, advice and other services (especially clean fuel) are often underdeveloped and do not easily reach remote rural areas ( FAO, 2009d). Analysis of the limited adoption of mechanization and of the relationships between the different determinants clearly indicates that SSA conditions have led to the creation of a restrictive environment, which has held back the development of mechanization (Figure 3).

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