What is modernization of agriculture

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INTRODUCTION. Modernisation of agriculture is a process of transforming agriculture from traditional labour-based agriculture to technology-based agriculture [25]. It is one of the fundamental issues in agricultural policies, particularly in countries, where agriculture is less developed.

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What is pro-poor agricultural modernization?

In this study, the concept of pro-poor agricultural modernization refers to the advancement of agriculture technologies and institutions that improve the poor and small-scale farmers’ welfare relative to rich large-scale farmers.

What is mechanization strategy in agricultural modernization?

This means that agricultural modernization includes mechanization strategy as part of technological change and the modernization of agriculture behavior, structure and institutions. The choice of the technology, which depends on the factor price and public policies, must be centered on the technological need of small-scale farmers.

How does agricultural modernization affect investment and savings?

To keep investment fixed as a proportion of total absorption, the marginal savings propensities of households and enterprises move freely and maintain balance between investment and savings. Under this closure, agricultural modernization affects investment, consumption and savings evenly to absorb the full effect of the shock.

How does modernization of Agriculture help an economy to escape the Malthusian trap?

The modernization of agriculture helps an economy to escape the Malthusian trap. The use of modern inputs in agriculture: The ratio of the land devoted to new technology over the total land area measures the extent of modern technology adoption.

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What do you mean by Modernisation of agriculture?

Modernisation of agriculture is a process of. transforming agriculture from traditional. labour-based agriculture to technology-based. agriculture [25].


What is the importance of modernization in agriculture?

Agricultural modernization prepares conditions for industrialization by boosting labor productivity, increasing agricultural surplus to accumulate capital, and increasing foreign exchange via exports.


What is Modernisation of Indian agriculture?

For the modernization of agriculture, scientific methods should be applied. Qualitative seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be made available to the Indian farmers. Central and state government has given top dominance to agriculture. Multipurpose projects are being built in all the states of India.


How can we modernize agriculture?

The primary objectives of modernizing agriculture system are as follows:Provision of loan.Use of agriculture tools and technology.Training and focus on agriculture education.Facility of irrigation.Joint farming system.Research and Innovation.Commercialization of agriculture.Crops diversification.


What are the features of modern agriculture system?

The main characteristics of the modern farm are: new machinery and equipment, technologies, modern production buildings, farms apply a range of innovations, farmers are seeking knowledge are interested in innovation, take part in exhibitions, events, they are energetic, creative and implementing good management …


What is digitalization of agriculture?

Today the term “agricultural digitalization” refers to the process of integrating advanced digital technologies like Artificial Intelligence, big data, robotics, unmanned aviation systems, sensors, and communication networks, all connected through the Internet of Things into the farm production system [17].


What are the factors of modernization?

Factors of Modernization: A number of factors are involved in modernization i.e., education, mass communication, ideology, values and attitude, growth of knowledge and science.


What are the options adopted by the government for modernization of agriculture?

To modernize Indian Agriculture the Indian government has taken concerted efforts like: Setting up of Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres.


What is agricultural mechanization?

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), agricultural mechanization generally refers to the application of tools, implements, and powered machinery as inputs to achieve agricultural production.


What is the meaning of agricultural development?

Agricultural development is defined as the process that creates the conditions for the fulfilment of agricultural potential. Those conditions include the accumulation of knowledge and availability of technology as well as the allocation of inputs and output.


What is the green revolution in agriculture?

green revolution, great increase in production of food grains (especially wheat and rice) that resulted in large part from the introduction into developing countries of new, high-yielding varieties, beginning in the mid-20th century.


How to evaluate pro-poorness of agricultural modernization-led growth?

To evaluate the pro-poorness of agricultural modernization-led growth, I adopt a sequential approach that combines a CGE model to a microsimulation model augmented to incorporate a pro-poor growth framework. The empirical strategy proceeds in four steps, as Fig. 7 depicts. I first use the CGE model to generate the effects of agricultural modernization strategies on employment, wages and rents, and the price of goods and services. Then I transmit these changes into a microsimulation model, which takes into account household heterogeneity in terms of factor endowments and consumption patterns, to generate welfare gains or losses at the household level. Using these changes in welfare, I apply the pro-poor growth framework to assess which of the agricultural modernization strategies is pro-poor, and the extent to which growth and redistribution contribute to welfare changes. Finally, I select a strategy that produced pro-poor welfare gains in the previous stage, and use a least square regression to explain its characteristics.


How does capital-using technology affect agriculture?

This is because capital-using technological change increased output in all the sectors , but lowered rural unskilled and semi-skilled income so that there was an overall increase in inequality. Rising inequality between rural workers with lower skill and the rest of workers emerged, a key factor explaining the anti-poor effects of capital-using technological change.


What is the Congolese CGE model?

The general specification of the Congolese CGE model follows the basic structure of the single-country model as described by Dervis et al. ( [ 1982 ]). However, I closely follow Arndt et al. ( [ 2000 ]) and Lofgren et al. ( [ 2013 ]) for the specification of many structural and empirical features of the Congolese economy, namely an explicit modeling of trade and transportation costs for marketed commodities and relatively detailed description of home production. A full description of the CGE model can be found in Otchia ( [ 2014 ]).


How many people worked in agriculture in 2005?

According to Herderschee et al. ( [ 2012 ]), agriculture provided employment for 10 million people in 2005 and 15 million in 2010. Despite the low productivity, labor accrues in agriculture because it can produce the amount of food necessary for their subsistence.


What type of technology do countries with scarce land but abundant labor adopt?

Countries with scarce land but abundant labor tend to adopt land-saving types of technologies such as chemical and biological high-yield technologies . Hayami and Ruttan ( [ 1985 ]) provide a theoretical framework of this type of biased technological change based on the induced innovation hypothesis.


What was the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution was an intensifying of input-based production characterized by the use of high-yielding and fertilizer-efficient new varieties of seed (rice and wheat). Policymakers initiated this type of agricultural transformation to increase food production and reduce hunger and malnutrition in the 1960s.


Why is agriculture important in the Congo?

Agricultural transformation is essential for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) because it has huge potential to spur growth and raise income. Agriculture employs most of the labor in DRC and produces the largest percentage of total value added. Figure 1 shows that agriculture employs 60.2 percent of the Congolese labor force and generates about 21 percent of total value added. Sectors such as textiles, chemicals, construction, and forestry only produce a small share of value added and contribute marginally to employment creation. Figure 1 further indicates that agriculture and trade sectors lie below the 45-degree line, meaning that the share of employment in these sectors is higher than the share of value added from these sectors. However, the largest gap between the contribution to value added and employment appears to be in agriculture. This indicates that agriculture has the lowest productivity in DRC’s economy.


Food Security

Modernizing irrigation infrastructure can decrease inputs needed to grow crops, improve agricultural yields and quality, decrease contaminants running off agricultural fields, reduce the energy required to pump water across the landscape, allow for more and cleaner water in streams and rivers, and help fish access high-quality habitat.


Disaster Preparedness

Natural disasters, such as increasingly catastrophic wildfires, pose new threats to rural communities, including extended power grid shutdowns to reduce fire risks during the hot summer months. Locally-connected projects will help to provide power to critical services in the face of these threats.


Rural Broadband and Connectivity

A significant barrier to improving telecommunication and energy infrastructure in rural areas is the great expense associated with siting, right-of-way, engineering, permitting and installation.


Energy Efficiencies

Since the cost of these projects would be developed concurrently with the investment in agricultural infrastructure, both the expense and timeline of these renewable energy systems can be dramatically reduced.


The benefits of investment

With our partner’s investments, we’re transforming the operational paradigm for irrigation districts in Oregon and across the West, moving new projects into construction and securing energy, agricultural, economic, and environmental benefits at a pace never before seen in this sector.


Why is it so hard to meet the demand for accelerated agricultural productivity?

The reasons for this have to do with ecological factors. Global climate change is destabilizing many of the natural processes that make modern agriculture possible.


How much land is used for growing corn?

According to World Bank figures, in 2016, more than 700 million hectares (1.7 billion acres) were devoted to growing corn, wheat, rice, and other staple cereal grains—nearly half of all cultivated land on the planet.


What is irrigation related to?

Irrigation has also been connected to the erosion of coastlines and other kinds of long-term ecological and habitat destruction. A huge amount of agricultural territory is used primarily as pasture for cattle and other livestock.


What are the consequences of irrigation?

One of the most obvious consequences is the depletion of aquifers, river systems, and downstream ground water. However, there are a number of other negative effects related to irrigation.


What is the noun for fertilizer?

Noun. build-up of sediment and organic matter in bodies of water, which may cause a change in the productivity of the ecosystem. fecal. Adjective. having to do with excrement. fertilizer. Noun. nutrient-rich chemical substance (natural or manmade) applied to soil to encourage plant growth. forage.


Which country is the leading producer of nitrogen fertilizers?

They are particularly effective in the growing of corn, wheat, and rice, and are largely responsible for the explosive growth of cereal cultivation in recent decades. China, with its rapidly growing population, has become the world’s leading producer of nitrogen fertilizers.


Is overgrazing a problem?

In addition, overgrazing is a major problem regarding environmental sustainability. In some places, stretches of forage land are consumed so extensively that grasses are unable to regenerate. The root systems of native vegetation can be damaged so much that the species die off.

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