What is monocropping in agriculture

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The major cropping pattern types include the following:

  1. Monocropping: Growing one agricultural species at a time in agricultural land is the meaning of monocropping. …
  2. Mixed Cropping: When two or more crops are grown on an equivalent land simultaneously, it’s referred to as mixed cropping. …
  3. Intercropping:

Mono-crop farming is the practice of growing large amounts of one crop on the land.Feb 6, 2014

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Answer

What are the pros and cons of monoculture?

The Advantages Of Monoculture

  • Allows For Specialization. When a farmer or commercial agricultural business practices monoculture, it allows the organization to specialize in a specific crop or livestock.
  • Maximizes Efficiency. Additionally, monoculture maximizes efficient use of soil and local climate conditions. …
  • Simplifies Cultivation. …

Why are monocultures bad?

With the increasing evidence of pollution caused by modern agriculture, decreasing soil fertility and spread of pests, monoculture farming gets a lot of bad rap. Single crop farming is blamed for destroying natural defenses of lands, thus negatively affecting resilience of ecosystems.

How does monocropping increase pest issues?

What are the advantages of monoculture farming?

  • Specialized production.
  • Technological advances.
  • High efficiency.
  • Greater yields of some produce.
  • Simpler to manage.
  • Higher earnings.
  • Pest problems.
  • Pesticide resistance.

What is monoculture in agriculture?

Monoculture Definition: In agriculture, monoculture is a process in which one crop, one animal species, or one plant is genetically reared at one time. It also applies to agricultural or agricultural production systems that operate at the same time.

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What is monocropping example?

In agriculture, monocropping is the practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land. Maize, soybeans, and wheat are three common crops often monocropped.


What is monocropping and why is it bad?

Monocropping is the practice of growing the same crop on the same plot of land, year after year. This practice depletes the soil of nutrients (making the soil less productive over time), reduces organic matter in soil and can cause significant erosion.


What does monocropping mean?

Monocropping, commonly practiced in commercial farms and in smallholder farms with relatively large areas for cultivation, is a practice where a field is used for production of pure stands of one crop only.


What is monocultures in agriculture?

Monoculture farming — which involves growing only one type of crop at a time on a specific field — is a common agricultural practice, especially in the U.S., which has about 440 million acres being cultivated for monoculture.


What are the effects of monocropping?

The effects of mono cropping system of farming Mono cropping in effect reduces the soil nutrient of an environment or piece of Farmland. 6. Mono cropping is very important and is good for those who engage in Commercial agriculture like plantation farming.


What is the difference between monocropping and monoculture?

If, for example, a monoculture crop is grown on the same farmland year after year without change, it is considered as the worst form of this agricultural practice that has the biggest impact on the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. This agricultural method is also called “monocropping” or continuous monoculture.


How does monocropping done in planting crops?

The method of monocropping allows for farmers to have consistent crops throughout their entire farm. Then the farmers plant their most profitable crop only, using the same seed, pest control, machinery, and growing method on their entire farm, which may increase overall farm profitability.


What is the difference between monocropping and sole cropping?

Monocropping /Sole Cropping: One crop or variety is grown alone in pure stands at normal density season after season or year after year in the same field. Multiple Cropping: Cultivation of two or more crops on the same piece of land in a year.


What is the difference between monocropping and mixed cropping?

Mixed cropping implies cropping technique in which different types of crops are cultivated together. On the contrary, when two or more crops are cultivated simultaneously on the same piece of land in a definite pattern, it is called as monocropping.


What is monoculture aquaculture?

Monoculture. This is the culture of single species of fish in a pond or tank. The culture of Clarias only or Oreochromis niloticus or Heterotis or Gymnarchus are typical examples of monoculture.


What is monoculture and polyculture?

Monoculture: a single crop planted over a wide area. • Used excessively on American farms, especially on corn and soy farms. Polyculture: a multitude of different crops grown on a given expanse of land, either through crop rotation or planting rows of different crops side-by-side.


Why are crops grown in monoculture?

In crop monocultures, each plant in a field has the same standardized planting, maintenance, and harvesting requirements resulting in greater yields and lower costs. When a crop is matched to its well-managed environment, a monoculture can produce higher yields than a polyculture.


What is monocropping in agriculture?

Monocropping is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop year after year on the same land, in the absence of rotation through other crops or growing multiple crops on the same land (polyculture). Monocropping allows for farmers to have consistent crops throughout their entire farm.


What does it mean to monocrop?

Monocropping means growing only same crops on same lands every years or when lands are used for only one crop through the years, for example horticulture.


How does monocropping affect the environment?

The effects of monocropping on the environment are severe when pesticides and fertilizers make their way into ground water or become airborne, creating pollution .


What is precision agriculture?

Precision Agriculture (PA) is an approach to farm management that uses information technology (IT) to ensure that the crops and soil receive exactly what they need for optimum health and productivity. The goal of PA is to ensure profitability, sustainability and protection of the environment. PA is also known as satellite agriculture, as-needed farming and site-specific crop management (SSCM).


What is an agricultural control center?

Agricultural control centers integrate sensor data and imaging input with other data, providing farmers with the ability to identify fields that require treatment and determine the optimum amount of water, fertilizers and pesticides to apply . This helps the farmer avoid wasting resources and prevent run-off, ensuring that the soil has just the right amount of additives for optimum health, while also reducing costs and controlling the farm’s environmental impact.


What is agricultural engineering?

Agricultural Engineering is the application of Electrical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering to the Agricultural sciences. It involves irrigation, environmental sciences, soil and water engineering, soil mechanics and farm machinery etc.


What is agriculture science?

Agriculture refers to applied sciences of botany including agronomy, horticulture and soil science/chemistry etc. Its also consists of misc branches like epiculture, entomology etc. In short, these are all biological sciences.


Why do farmers prefer multicropping?

However, farmers’ preference for multicrops are often unrelated to the possibility that they may provide greater combined yields per se than their constituent sole crops. Often, multicropping is chosen to reduce the risk of complete crop failure or to ensure a more stable range of yields in variable environments. The unreliability of annual crop yields increases with the inherent variability of the environment. Much of this annual variability is reduced when crops are grown together because environmental, pest, or disease pressures do not equally affect different species. Pest and disease effects on one species may be reduced because specialized pathogens may settle on nonhost component species of the multicrop. This “fly-paper effect” encourages overall stability by the additional compensatory growth of the resistant species in the space left by diseased individuals. For example, virus diseases may spread more rapidly through adjacent plants of the same species than when these plants are separated by dissimilar, nonsusceptible, plants of another species. Insect vectors are also discouraged from attacking plants that are intermingled with other species than when a single species is grown in a block.


What is intercropping in agriculture?

They referred to this as a canopy partitioning model based on how the different plants grew and intercepted light. Intercropping represents a planned arrangement of crops on the same land area during the same time period. Several studies have shown the advantage of intercropping systems ( Keating and Carberry, 1993; Ghaffarzadeh et al., 1994; Tournebize and Sinoquet, 1995; Lesoing and Francis, 1999; Baumann et al., 2002; Jurik and Van, 2004; Seran and Brintha, 2010; Verdelli et al., 2012; Mao et al., 2014; Munz et al., 2014; El-Shamy et al., 2015; Husse et al., 2016; Gou et al., 2017) because of the altered light regime of the canopy. The major factor affected by mixtures of plants is the pattern of PAR interception into the canopies. The advantage to productivity in intercropping is due to the mixture of canopy heights to allow light to penetrate into the canopy at the border rows. In addition, intercropping takes advantage of the vertical distribution of crops to use the incident radiation resource effectively. Ghaffarzadeh et al. (1994) found a yield advantage in strip intercropping of maize and soybean in Iowa over a monoculture as long as the width of strip was minimal to prevent excessive shading of the soybean. In many cases, it is the shaded understory crop, which produces lower yields than in a monocropping setting. For example, while maize production was equal or higher in intercropping systems with smaller crops such as soybean (Verdelli et al., 2012 ), maize yields decreased in silver maple–maize intercropping systems due to tree shading ( Miller and Pallardy, 2001 ). Yet, the combined yield of all crops is often higher than in monocropping, quantified as the land equivalent ratio (LER) ( Gao et al., 2010 ). The LER can be calculated as ( Mead and Willey, 1980)


Why is intercropping important?

The advantage to productivity in intercropping is due to the mixture of canopy heights to allow light to penetrate into the canopy at the border rows. In addition, intercropping takes advantage of the vertical distribution of crops to use the incident radiation resource effectively.


How does row width affect grain production?

Changing row width has positive impacts on grain production. In mung bean [ Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], Rachaputi et al. (2015) found that narrow rows (30 or 50 cm) compared to wide rows (90 or 100 cm) produced more biomass and greater yield. They extended this analysis to show that for 123 years in Australia, mung bean planted in narrow rows could produce up to 30% more grain in 95% of the growing seasons. The advantage of row width across all crops is in the more rapid accumulation of leaf area with the interception of more PAR being converted into photosynthate. We can hypothetically describe the relationship between LAI and photosynthetic rate as rapidly increasing with increasing LAI and reaching a plateau with LAI values above 4. There are differences between C 4 and C 3 plants in this response in the magnitude of the photosynthetic rates but not the shape of the relationship.


Is multicropping more stable than monocropping?

In ecological terms, multicropping is often more stable than sole or monocropping, particularly where inputs such as fertilizers, pest and disease control, and irrigation are limited or unavailable. In many temperate, intensive systems, sole crops are grown so that external inputs can be timed to meet the needs of a particular species. In this way, maximum productivity can be achieved within the limits set by the cost-effectiveness of inputs, the genetic potential of the crop, and the physical potential of its environment. In such circumstances, multicrops are rare. In less intensive systems, there is more likelihood of encountering mixed cropping. Here, the lack of inputs, such as nutrients and water, means that resources must be sequestered from within the system itself and/or the spatial and temporal demand for the maximum yield of a particular species must be balanced against the optimal performance of the whole system. The prevalence of multicrops becomes greater as we move from relatively benign to more hostile environments and in many dry, tropical regions multicropping is often the dominant system of cultivation over large tracts of land.


Can solar corridors be used as intercropping?

The solar corridor system can be used as an intercropping system, tested by Nelson (2014) using corn-wheat intercrops. Both wheat and corn were lower than in monocropping settings. Using Eq. (1.8), LER<1 was calculated with crop proportions of 0.27 for corn and 0.57 for wheat. These studies did not consider that the exchange of CO 2 caused by wind flow within canopies of varying shape and size could be beneficial in maintaining the [CO 2] at nonlimiting levels within the canopy volume ( Figs. 1.2 and 1.3 ).


How does monocropping affect biodiversity?

While the most biodiversity on the planet exists in the places with the highest levels of human diversity, monocropping reduces cultural diversity. 3 With its economy of scale, monocropping means fewer family farms and increasing financial burdens on those that remain, resulting in a loss of numerous local cultures worldwide. 4 That decline in diversity is accompanied by a loss of food diversity.


What is monoculture in agriculture?

Monocropping (or monoculture) is the planting of a single crop in the same patch of land year after year. For example, in 2020, two crops—corn (maize) and soybean—accounted for 70% of the planted farmland in the United States, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1


When did monocropping start?

Monocropping has its origins in the Green Revolution of the 1950s and 1960s, which (despite its name) introduced chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the development of new, high-yield cereal grains, and the growing use of large farm machinery such as tractors and irrigation systems.


How do sustainable practices help soils?

By contrast, sustainable practices like regenerative agriculture and agroforestry allow soils to retain moisture, allow croplands to attract beneficial insects and birds that prey on harmful ones, reduce soil erosion, increase food sovereignty, improve diets and nutrition, 12 reduce reliance on expensive inputs, and allow farmers to stay on their land.


What was the Green Revolution?

The Green Revolution resulted in a reduction of labor costs, the doubling of grain yields, the more than doubling of the world’s population, and a Nobel Peace Prize for its main proponent, Norman Borlaug, for lifting millions of people out of poverty and creating food self-sufficiency for nations such as Mexico and India.


Why is crop diversity important?

Crop diversity is also a key strategy in adapting to climate change, as a wider variety of crops returns carbon to the soil 13 and increases the sustainability of the ecosystems we all depend on. 14


Is monocropping sustainable?

As a form of industrial agriculture, monocropping has some short-term benefits, but the downsides of monocropping make it far from sustainable.


What is monoculture in agriculture?

It should be noted that the concept of monoculture does not only apply to crops, but to farm animals as well: it consists in breeding only one species of animals on a given farm, be it dairy cows, sheep, pigs, chicken, etc.


What is monoculture farming?

Monoculture farming is a form of agriculture that is based on growing only one type of a crop at one time on a specific field. In contrast, a polyculture system assumes that a field is sown with two or more crops at a time. It should be noted that the concept of monoculture does not only apply to crops, but to farm animals as well: it consists in …


How do monoculture crops affect biodiversity?

Monoculture crops are more likely to be affected by blight or pests , as these threats can move faster through the area due to its reduced biodiversity. In response, farmers apply greater amounts of pesticides and herbicides to protect the crop. These chemicals seep into the ground, contaminating both the soil and the groundwater. Moreover, monoculture farms tend to intensify even more the use of pesticides, as some kinds of pests survive the use of chemicals by developing resistance to them. Later, these parasites pass this newly acquired immunity to their offspring which, in their turn, will proliferate on the given field plot even more, as their main source of food keeps staying in one place.


What are the new technologies used in agriculture?

One of the most innovative and comprehensive technologies in this matter are satellite tools that are used for a complex monitoring of specific fields and management of all the stages of sowing and growing crops on them. A bright example of such new technologies is the EOS Crop Monitoring software , which is a high-performance tool that assists farmers with their day-to-day activities both on large and small farmlands in any corner of the globe.


How does monoculture work?

Monoculture planting maximizes the efficient use of soil and local climate conditions. In most cases, farmers select the crop that will thrive best in the local environment. The positive effects of monoculture farming are often seen with such crops as rice (grown in conditions similar to those of wetlands) and wheat (which is grown in flat areas with plenty of sunlight). Plants that can resist or thrive in specific weather conditions (e.g. drought, winds or colder average temperatures) become the focal point of the agricultural monoculture system. In contrast, a traditional farmer is concerned with crop variety and implements a complex schedule of planting, maintenance, and harvesting to maximize the production of different crops. Despite this increased effort, the productivity and efficiency of monoculture farming is usually higher.


What crops have better yields?

Some types of crops, such as cereals for example, are deemed to have better yields when sown and grown as monocultures, i.e. without other crops adjacent to them on a field. However, such maximization of yields with monoculture planting can only be achieved on the condition of yearly rotation of at least two different crops on the given farmland. In this regard, it is also worth noting that with the EOS Crop Monitoring software farmers can generate productivity maps to identify the field plots with better performance. Such productivity maps allow farmers to plant their seeds with greater precision that potentially will result in higher yields.


Why is monoculture important for farmers?

Industrial monoculture planting allows farmers to specialize in a particular crop, as they usually deal with the same issues and problems that may arise in the process of growing. The advantage of such specialization is that it increases profits and reduces costs, given that no additional machinery or other resources are required except for those needed to work with this specific kind of crop. Moreover, when a single crop is cultivated in a field, it is easier to conduct a satellite monitoring of its health and development. This approach in Crop Monitoring is based on 5 main indices (NDVI, MSAVI, NDRE, ReCl); each of them is more applicable to the particular stage of crop development. Also, these vegetation indices correlate with the Growth Stages feature in Crop Monitoring, which is specific for each crop.


How does monocropping affect the environment?

Deforestation is another major issue created by monocropping as the demand for Land increases.


Why is monoculture used?

Monoculture can be used to grow crops best suited to the local climate and soil conditions of the farmland. This will ensure the best yield for that specific crop, because its growing conditions are met ideally.


What is the technique where the farmer grows the same crop on the same land every year?

Monocropping is the technique where the farmer grows the same crop on the same land every year; this is usually practiced in wheat fields, grape vineyards and corn fields.


What is monoculture forestry?

Monoculture forestry refers to planting as well as harvesting of one species of trees only. Usually trees grow in a way that multiple stands of trees of same species are found together in a localized area. However, when growing naturally, these trees are found in different stages of growth.


What happens when you grow only one crop?

When growing only one crop on the field, it leads to intensive farming throughout the farm. When growing these crops every year in such a manner, it leads to depletion of soil nutrients.


Why is it important to specialize in one crop?

Specializing in one crop throughout the farm, the farmer can optimize the processes as the seeds, chemical fertilizers, water requirement, pest control and harvesting methods would be the same throughout the field or farming system. This will lead to lower costs of production and higher yields.


How can we improve farming practices?

There have been many efforts in improving farming practices by innovative farming methods and using better machinery; either to improve yield or minimize costs.


How does monocropping affect the environment?

The effects of monocropping on the environment are severe when pesticides and fertilizers make their way into ground water or become airborne, creating pollution .


How can monoculture be avoided?

Monoculture problems can be avoided altogether if organic farming methods are employed . When diverse plant species are planted, crops are better able to withstand attacks from both insects and pests, thus eliminating the need for pesticides.


What are the benefits of organic farming?

Organic farmers focus on developing healthy, rich soil that provides all the nutrients that plants need to thrive and produce an abundant harvest. Organic farms also take advantage of animals such as cattle, pigs, and chickens to help keep the soil rich.


Why do farmers use chemical fertilizers?

Because soil structure and quality is so poor, farmers are forced to use chemical fertilizers to encourage plant growth and fruit production. These fertilizers, in turn, disrupt the natural makeup of the soil and contribute further to nutrient depletion.


Is monoculture bad for gardening?

Planting monoculture crops may seem an easy method of gardening but , in fact, the adverse effects of monocropping can lead to a number of issues down the road. Let’s learn more about these effects and the monoculture problems that may result.


Is monocropping more profitable than organic farming?

However, those against monocropping claim that it is very hard on the environment and actually less profitable than organic means of farming.


Why do we need cover crops?

Cover crops are used to help to prevent soil erosion, regulate water, reduce weeds and increase biodiversity. Fundamentally, cover crops can improve soil quality because all the different plants provide several materials that are good for the soil and the more crops you rotate the higher quality soil you will get. (The Ohio State University, 2009). It also increases the harvest because a different variety of crops are planted each season and the available nutrients in the soil provide nourishment to all plants. A large study that was done by the American Chemical Society states that Crop yields on farms in developing countries that use sustainable farming rose by 79 percent in the past four years (ScienceDaily, 2018). There are many benefits of using cover crops, these include:


Why are antibiotics used on farms?

In New Zealand for example, chickens are given antibiotics to prevent against necrotic enteritis which spreads rapidly in overcrowded conditions. 50% of the world’s antibiotics are used on farm animals which allows resistance to filter down the food chain to humans ultimately threatening human life. “Industrial farms are super-incubators for viruses”. ( Effects of factory farming on human health, 2018) In 2017 a strand of swine influenza (H1N1) that is found in pig population managed to spread intentionally and kill hundreds of people. The mad cow disease was also a direct consequence of industrial agriculture. ( Effects of factory farming on human health, 2018) There are many microbes that have developed antimicrobial resistance in parts due to the effects of factory farming including campylobacter, salmonella, E.coli O157: H7 and enterococcus.


What is genetic modification?

Genetic modification of plants involves adding a specific stretch of DNA into the plant’s genome, giving it new or different characteristics. This could include changing the way the plant grows or making it resistant to a disease. The new DNA becomes part of the GM plant’s genome which the seeds produced by these plants will contain. (Royalsociety.org, 2018)


How does factory farming affect the economy?

Economically factory farming encourages economic growth but is unsustainable due overuse of resources. Production costs are low (Max Braun, n.d.). Use of vitamins, minerals, antibiotics and other substances make animals grow and generate food at a faster rate. Modern processing technologies also reduce overheads increasing profit margins. Factory farming encourages promotion of technology. Since factory farming depends on use of modern technology, there is always quest for improved knowledge and skills. This creates opportunities for economic development within economies. Employment opportunities are increased. Several components of factory farming, processing and packaging requires involvement of skilled and unskilled labour. Improves economic growth. Increased production may have a multiplier effect on other economic activities. It keeps prices down for consumers.


What is sustainable farming?

Sustainable farming focuses on the production of food using “farming techniques that protect the environment, public health, human communities, and animal welfare ” (Sustainable Agriculture-The Basics, 2018). Modern Agricultural methods are used to match the supply and demand of the rising population, however, this solution may not be sustainable as it requires a high level of fertilisers, freshwater, and herbicides which lead to soil erosion and runoff water pollution. (Chen & Zhang, Y.-H, 2015)


Is factory farming sustainable?

In terms of social sustainability, factory farming is indeed partially socially sustainable . The technology used causes increased efficiencies and higher production rates which mean that food production is increased. Factory farming allows for livestock products to reach the market faster and provide more of a food resource. (Futureofworking.com, n.d.). Assuming that no antibiotics were used with the livestock, the health benefits are similar and this allows for more people to be fed, subsequently improving quality of life for current and future populations. In addition, there would be more employment opportunities as several components of factory farming, processing and packaging requires the involvement of skilled and unskilled labour. Factory farming automation to help provide food resources. In the past, farming meant an intense amount of daily manual labour to produce a crop. Mechanization has helped to reduce that workload. Factory farming brings automation into the equation, which further reduces individual workloads. Factory farmed foods contain stress hormones, residual antibiotics and unhealthy fats and proteins. They may have anti-nutritional elements. Factory farming increases the fat content of foods being eaten. The weight of the average chicken might be more than double what it was 60 years ago, but so is the fat content of the animal proteins that are being sent to the market. In some instances, the fat content of chicken is over 220% higher today than it was in the 1950s (Farming, n.d.). This fat can be rendered out in some forms of cooking, but it doesn’t all disappear. There may be more foods because of factory farming, but not all of it may be as healthy as the foods that were eaten in the past.


What is monoculture in agriculture?

Monoculture in ag involves the growing of a single crop using the majority or whole of the land. This method of farming is particularly popular in industrialized regions. This strategy benefits farmers as it allows reduced costs, but when a single variety …


Why is monoculture important in agriculture?

This strategy benefits farmers as it allows reduced costs, but when a single variety of species is grown it can also endanger the farm to widespread crop failure. The cultivating of monocultures is very much a modern method of agricultural production.


Why is corn more susceptible to organisms?

This happened due to 70% of the crop being grown at the same high yield variety, making the corn more susceptible to harmful organisms. With the lack of diversity in a monoculture system it can cause a limit to the healthy functions nature can bring to crops and soil.


Why is it important to maintain a diverse crop?

A variety of crops will allow crop failures without ruining the entire economy of a farm specializing in a monoculture such as coffee or tobacco.


What is the primary aim of commercial modern agriculture?

Commercial modern agriculture has the primary aim of increasing yields and profits by cultivating one distinct crop. The principle belief which monoculture farmers have is that by providing the individual needs for just a single species of crop it will be more efficient and profitable.


What are the negative effects of monoculture?

While monoculture has its place for profitability, it also has significant negative drawbacks with potential to cause irreversible damage to the ecological system. An example of the devastation monocultural farming can cause is the corn blight of 1970 which ruined more than 15 percent of corn crops in North America.


How does permaculture work?

Permaculture is effectively a reversal in that it promotes biodiversity and the implantation of a diverse range of crops. This method of farming intends to ensure the ecosystem remains strong with different plants working together to thrive the land.

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The Origins of Monocropping

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Monocropping has its origins in the Green Revolutionof the 1950s and 1960s, which (despite its name) introduced chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the development of new, high-yield cereal grains, and the growing use of large farm machinery such as tractors and irrigation systems. The Green Revolutio…

See more on treehugger.com


Monocropping and The Loss of Diversity in Food and Culture

  • While the most biodiversity on the planet exists in the places with the highest levels of human diversity, monocropping reduces cultural diversity.3 With its economy of scale, monocropping means fewer family farms and increasing financial burdens on those that remain, resulting in a loss of numerous local cultures worldwide.4That decline in diversity is accompanied by a loss of …

See more on treehugger.com


Monocropping and Climate Change

  • While requires annual inputs of chemical fertilizers to counteract soil depletion. Those chemical applications (accompanied by annual plowing using heavy machinery) break down the biological relationships within soils that are necessary for healthy plant growth.8 Chemical fertilizers and wasteful irrigation can lead to runoff that pollutes waterways and damages ecosystems. As a les…

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Alternatives to Monocropping

  • By contrast, sustainable practices like regenerative agriculture and agroforestry allow soils to retain moisture, allow croplands to attract beneficial insects and birds that prey on harmful ones, reduce soil erosion, increase food sovereignty, improve diets and nutrition,12reduce reliance on expensive inputs, and allow farmers to stay on their land. On a smaller scale, instead of a lawn, …

See more on treehugger.com

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