(a) (i) Meaning of natural pasture: This is a naturally occuring area of land containing grasses and legumes used for feeding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. (ii) Characteristics of natural pastures in West Africa: -Generally found on flat land. -The area is usually covered with grasses and legumes.
What is a pasture?
Loading Tree… Pasture is a land use type having vegetation cover comprised primarily of introduced or enhanced native forage species that is used for livestock grazing. Pasture receives periodic renovation and cultural treatments such as tillage, fertilization, mowing, weed control, and may be irrigated.
What are some examples of Pasture Resources?
Pasture Resources. The majority of these forages are introduced, having originally come from areas in other continents. Most are now naturalized and are vital components of pasture based grazing systems. Some common introduced forage species are tall fescue, orchard grass, red and white clover, and bermuda grass.
What is the role of pasture and grasses in soil health?
The role of pasture and grasses in general in improving soil properties such as soil structure, infiltration rate, organic matter, and the soil environment is significant. The sustainability of such properties depends on the management plan for pasture and livestock.
What type of vegetation is found in pasture?
Pasture vegetation can consist of grasses, legumes, other forbs, shrubs or a mixture. Pasture differs from range in that it primarily produces vegetation that has initially been planted to provide preferred forage for grazing livestock.
What is the meaning of natural pasture?
(a)(i) Meaning of natural pasture: This is a naturally occuring area of land containing grasses and legumes used for feeding livestock such as cattle, sheep and goats. (ii) Characteristics of natural pastures in West Africa: -Generally found on flat land. -The area is usually covered with grasses and legumes.
What is natural and artificial pasture?
Natural pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are not planted by man. While/on the other hand/but/whereas. Artificial pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are deliberately planted by man.
What do you mean by pasture?
Definition of pasture (Entry 1 of 2) 1 : plants (such as grass) grown for the feeding especially of grazing animals. 2 : land or a plot of land used for grazing. 3 : the feeding of livestock : grazing.
What is native pasture used for?
a. A tract of land that supports grass or other vegetation eaten by domestic grazing animals.
What are the characteristics of natural pastures?
Characteristics of Natural PastureGrasses growing cannot be easily eradicated.Grasses are usually resistant to trampling by animals.They have good regenerative ability.New growth are usually stimulated by burning.They have abundant grasses and legumes.Trees and shrubs are usually sparsely distributed.More items…
What are the two types of pasture?
Meadowland and arable land used as pasture for several years were also the main types of pasture used for the second-season grazing of replacement heifers.
What are examples of pastures?
major reference. Pasture grasses and legumes, both native and cultivated, are the most important single source of feed for ruminants such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.
What are pasture plants?
Pasture is often made up of a mixture of plants including grasses, legumes and herbs. Pasture species tend to be perennial, meaning they grow all year round. Specific cultivars are chosen to suit the local growing conditions.
Why is pasture important?
Pasture provides livestock with nutrition, vitamins, minerals and trace elements – promoting animal health and productivity. If pasture has limited nutrients, animals may lose weight or not reproduce, and expensive supplementary feeding may be necessary.
What is exotic pasture?
Exotic perennial grasses are those which are not native to New South Wales and have a life-span of more than one growing season. More than 100 species of exotic perennial grasses occur in NSW. A relatively small number of these perennial grasses threaten native plant communities.
How do you identify pasture grass?
To identify grasses in established pastures, first check to see whether the grass is sod forming (spreading) or bunching (forms clumps). If you’re examining a sod-forming grass, the next step is to look at the width of the leaf blades (1⁄2-inch wide, 1⁄4-inch wide, or less than 1⁄8-inch wide).
What are the disadvantages of native pastures?
Native pasture species are not capable of withstanding increased grazing pressure because of their: low dry matter production; • short growing period; • low nutritive quality, particularly during the dry season; • low to medium palatability; • inability to stand frequent or intense defoliation.
What are the characteristics of artificial pasture?
Animal Husbandry Theory a) Define the term artificial pasture as used in animal production. …Productivity is high/high yield.Animals get balanced diet.Reduces soil erosion.Improves soil structure.Mixture smother weeds/controls weeds.Reduces leaching of nutrients.Provides variety for animals.Reduces evapotranspiration.More items…
What are the disadvantages of natural pasture?
Since there are several disadvantages to establishing a pasture from scratch, including the possibility of erosion, high cost, and extensive labor, some forage producers investigate the potential of renovating an existing pasture.
Why is pasture important?
Whether a producer is part time or commercial, good pastures are profitable. They can provide an economical source of livestock feed, reduce labor requirements, build soil tilth and fertility, reduce erosion, and reduce invasions of noxious and poisonous weeds.
What is an improved pasture?
Improved pasture may consist of an introduced grass, an introduced legume or a mixture of both, sown on cleared land in a well-prepared seedbed. Its success hinges on the availability of adequate soil moisture, soil fertility, care at planting, a proper sowing rate and good quality seed.
How are rangelands different from pasturelands?
Rangelands are distinguished from pastureland by the presence on them of native vegetation, rather than of plants established by human societies , and by their management principally through the control of the number of animals grazing on them, as opposed to the more intensive agricultural practices of seeding, irrigation, and…
What is the best feed for dairy cattle?
dairy cattle. Pasture is the natural feed for dairy cattle, and an abundance of good pasture provides most of the requirements of a good dairy ration. An outstanding example of grassland dairying is found in New Zealand, where cows are on pasture all year and milk production….
What is the most important source of feed for ruminants?
Pasture grasses and legumes, both native and cultivated, are the most important single source of feed for ruminants such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. During the growing season they furnish most of the feed for these animals at a cost lower than for…
What do goats convert to?
…goats convert large quantities of pasture forage, harvested roughage, or by-product feeds, as well as nonprotein nitrogen such as urea, into meat, milk, and wool. Ruminants are therefore extremely important; more than 60 percent of the world’s farmland is in meadows and pasture. Poultry also convert feed efficiently …
What is pasture vegetation?
Pasture vegetation can consist of grasses, legumes, other forbs, shrubs or a mixture. Pasture differs from range in that it primarily produces vegetation that has initially been planted to provide preferred forage for grazing livestock. The majority of these forages are introduced, having originally come from areas in other continents.
Why is pasture important for livestock?
Well managed pasture captures rainwater that is slowly infiltrated into the soil which helps recharge groundwater. Many small pasture livestock operations are near urban areas providing vistas for everyone to enjoy. Pasture is the basis of any livestock operation that is truly sustainable. It is especially important as livestock grazers continues to experience extraordinarily high fuel and other input costs.
Why stockpile pasture forage?
Stockpiling pasture forage to extend the grazing season and strip grazing to improve forage utilization offer economic and environmental benefits. Play this video to learn more about winter grazing.
Why is forage composition in flux?
Due to climate variation and pasture management, forage species composition often is in flux. The duration and number of grazing livestock significantly influences the persistence of one species over another. The introduction of other species can be beneficial as diversity can bring other nutritious sources of food for livestock.
What is pasture resource?
Pasture is a land use type having vegetation cover comprised primarily of introduced or enhanced native forage species that is used for livestock grazing. Pasture receives periodic renovation and cultural treatments such as tillage, fertilization, mowing, weed control, and may be irrigated.
Why is pasture important?
It is especially important as livestock grazers continues to experience extraordinarily high fuel and other input costs.
What is pasture management?
A well-managed pasture is one whose productivity (plant and animal) is optimized while doing no harm to soil, water, and air quality. The Guide to Pasture Condition Scoring provides a systematic way to check how well a pasture is managed. If the pasture is located on the proper site and well managed, it will have a good to excellent overall pasture condition score. By rating key indicators and causative factors common to all pastures, pasture condition can be evaluated and the primary reasons for a low condition score identified. A low pasture condition can lead to one or more pasture resource concerns such as poor plant growth, weedy species invasion, poor animal performance, visible soil loss, increased runoff, and impaired water quality.
How does pasture management work?
Natural pasture management regenerates the soil by feeding the soil food web. Soil food web are all the microorganisms that live inside the soil. Just like your body functions optimally when your gut microbiome is healthy and diverse, the same is true with a healthy soil.
What does soil surface tell us?
Your soil surface tells you more about what is going on than you might have thought. Ecosystem processes show the different ways to detect imbalance in your management. What are ecosystem processes? They are fundamental processes through which ecosystem functions.
What is a range and pasture?
Range & Pasture. Range and pasture lands are diverse types of land where the primary vegetation produced is herbaceous plants and shrubs. These lands provide forage for beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, goats, horses and other types of domestic livestock.
How many states have range and pasture lands?
Range and pasture lands are located in all 50 states of the US. Privately owned range and pasture lands makes up over 27% (528 million acres) of the total acreage of the contiguous 48 states, and these lands constitute the largest private lands use category, exceeding both forest land (21%) and crop land (18%).
What is CEAP grazing?
Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP)- Grazing Lands – is an effort designed to quantify the environmental effects of conservation practices on non-federal grazing lands in the United States.
What is considered grazing land?
Most grazing lands are considered either range or pasture, but grazing lands also include grazed forest lands, grazed croplands, haylands, and native/naturalized pasture. These other land use types make up an additional 106 million acres of privately owned grazing lands, or about 17% of the total U. S. grazing lands.
What are the primary economic outputs of a range lands?
Primary economic outputs include livestock production, but wildlife values are also a major economic consideration for these lands, especially range lands. Environmental values of these lands are extensive and provide many essential ecosystem services, such as clean water, wildlife and fish habitat, and recreation opportunities.
What is the National Grazing Lands Coalition?
The National Grazing Lands Coalition (NatGLC) is a nationwide partnership of organizations and individuals that was founded in 1991. The NatGLC works in collaboration with other organizations, agencies and private industry to promote ecologically and economically sound management of private grazing lands for all their adapted uses and multiple benefits to the environment and society. Find out more about NatGLC…
How much do pastures contribute to agriculture?
Pastures. Pastures play a major role in agricultural enterprises and contribute over $3 billion annually in Western Australia through animal production, improvements to crop rotations and conserved fodder. In a typical year pastures occupy up to half the land in low to medium rainfall areas and over two thirds of the land in high rainfall areas.
What is carbon farming?
Carbon farming is the agricultural practices or land use to increase carbon stored in the soil and vegetation (sequestration) and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from livestock, soil or vegetati
Why is sown pasture important?
Sown pasture is important within commercial arable farming systems, and, since it competes with other crops for land and inputs , must be economically viable compared with other crops at the farm -system level. In well -watered areas it may replace natural grassland, often in association with crop production. Sown pastures are usually most productive in their early years and yields fall off thereafter; to remain productive they require careful management and inputs, with or without periodic resowing; they usually also need fencing and water reticulation. Since grazing requires fairly large, enclosed areas to be managed effectively, sown pasture is not really suited to smallholder farms.
What is crop residue?
Crop residues, especially straws and stovers are very important as livestock feed in both commercial and traditional systems; in commercial farming they are usually part of the roughage ration and supplemented with other fodders and concentrates; in traditional subsistence systems they may be the main feed when grazing is not available. In the irrigated lands of southern Asia, crop residues are often the main feed of large ruminants year-round. Residues are not discussed in detail in most of the studies, but their conservation and use is described in a recent FAO Grassland Group publication (Suttie, 2000). In some extensive grazing systems with adjacent cropping zones, crop residues may also figure as lean-season feed. Lean seasons vary: in some areas it is winter; in tropical areas it is the dry season; and in Mediterranean zones it is the hot, dry summer. It is, of course, much more important in agricultural and mixed farming areas. Crop residues and stubbles are important in West Africa n transhumance systems and there is a complementarity between cropping and stock rearing communities: herders move north into the desert fringe during the rains (and the season when the crops are on the ground) and move back to the agricultural areas after harvest, in the dry season; traditionally the farmers did not keep livestock.
What is transhumance in livestock?
Transhumance describes those pastoral systems where people with their animals moved between two distinct seasonal pasture areas, usually at considerable distance or altitude from each other.
What are the plants that graze in the arid and semi-arid lands?
Cyperaceae, especially Kobresia spp., dominate many of the better-watered, hard-grazed yak pastures, especially those of the alpine meadow type. Halophytes, notably Chenopodiaceae, both herbaceous and shrubby, are important on alkaline and saline soils in many arid and semi -arid grazing lands. In tundra, lichens, especially Cladonia rangifer, and mosses provide reindeer feed. Sub-shrubs are important: various species of Artemisia are important in steppic regions of the old world from North Africa to the northern limit of the steppe, and also occur in North America. Ericaceous sub-shrubs (species of Calluna, Erica and Vaccinium ) are very important grazing for sheep and deer on UK moorland. Browse is frequently mentioned as a significant feed source, often consumed in the lean season and in some cases fruits are also eaten. Tree fodder is especially important in tropical and sub-tropical situations with alternating wet and dry season s and is discussed in the chapters on Africa and Australia (where it may be referred to as “top feed”). Various mixed shrub formations (garrigue, maquis) are grazed in the Mediterranean zone. Trees and shrubs, notably Salix spp., are also winter weed in some cold areas.
Why are grasslands important?
Grasslands cover a very large portion of the earth’s surface and are important as a feed source for livestock, as a habitat for wildlife, for environmental protection and for the in-situ conservation of plant genetic resources. In both developed and developing countries, many millions of livestock farmers, ranchers and pastoralists depend on grasslands and conserved products such as hay and silage and on a range of fodder crops for their livelihoods. Rapid increases in human and livestock populations have contributed to increased pressures on the world’s grasslands, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. The Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences (Allaby, 1998) gives a succinct definition:
Is grassland a natural resource?
No grassland is entirely natural, and there are many degrees of interference: fire, whether spontaneous or lit by man, has influenced, and continues to influence, large areas; and grazing by livestock and, in some continents, by large herds of wild herbivores. More invasive interventions have been clearing of woody vegetation either to give better grazing or originally for cropping; subdivision with or without fencing ; provision of water points to extend the grazing area or season; and various “improvement ” techniques such as oversowing with pasture grass and legume seeds – with or without surface scarification and fertilizer . In the early days of FAO, Semple (1956) summarized much of the available techniques and problems, and most are relevant today, although some technologies have progressed in detail. In general, grassland is said to be natural if it is not the result of full ploughing and sowing – the composition of much old sown pasture has, of course, little to do with the seed mixture used at its establishment.
Why is pasture important for agriculture?
Carbon sequestration is a leading issue in agriculture right now–and pasture is a natural carbon storage facility that can maximize carbon storage due to the stability of the cropping system–mostly grasses. The value of these properties is that they cannot only increase soil organic matter but also will contribute significantly …
How does pasture affect soil quality?
The sustainability of such properties depends on the management plan for pasture and livestock. The proper nutrient management for pasture and livestock rotation is highly related to the sustainability of high soil quality. Heavy animal traffic and mismanaged grazing exerts constant pressure on so il quality and can negatively impact almost every good soil quality characteristic. A rotational grazing management system allows soil and vegetation time to recover from grazing and rebuilds the characteristics of good soil quality.
How do hooves affect soil?
Another on-the-ground practice is limiting livestock access to areas where their hooves can expose soil. The action of hooves on soil is worse than tillage–not only do hooves disturb the soil, but they are instruments of tremendous compaction. Cattle are especially hard on soil. Soil aggregates and associated structural units can’t withstand the pressure cattle exert for prolonged periods. Heavy hoof traffic in wet areas or in areas where sandy soils are located can result in unvegetated or exposed soils, increasing the potential for soil erosion leading to significant sediment and nutrient losses such as C, P, K, N, as well as loss of organic matter.
What are the problems associated with pasture management?
The association of livestock with pasture management and the need for access to water sources for drinking by livestock is a management challenge that may be convenient, but it can also contribute to many problems associated with soil stability and water quality. Aside from the issues of livestock health, …
How to determine soil quality?
Soil quality can be assessed by observing bulk density, soil pores, water-holding capacity and infiltration rates, overall soil tilth, and levels of organic matter and beneficial soil organisms.
What is pasture in Iowa?
Pasture is a longtime and significant part of Iowa agriculture and is a critical component of the state’s agricultural landscape. The main function of pasture is as a primary support system for livestock. It can affect conservation and the environmental planning in several ways, including soil carbon storage, soil quality, and water quality.
Is pasture a source of water pollution?
The deterioration of pasture cover due to intensive grazing can be a very significant source of water pollution from both sediment and animal waste. Also, many acres of land in pasture in Iowa are undesirable for crop production due to its location on steep slopes, that is, slopes greater than 14 percent gradient.
Why is it important to have pastures?
Of course, animal manure spread out over the landscape is also an important source of nutrients for the land itself, reincorporating fertility to the land while improving overall soil quality in a natural process.
How to maintain pasture?
Rotating your farm animals through a carefully designed system of paddocks is one of the best strategies to sustainably maintain pasture while also offering your animals some of the best grazing land available. Paddocks are simply fenced off portions of your pasture land. To set up a successful grazing rotation, …
What are Mayan goats and sheep raised in?
Mayan farmers, then, have developed a goat and sheep raising technique that takes advantage of the abundant communal pasture lands that they collectively manage. Every night, children gather up the herds and corral them into raised pens. The floors of these raised pens are made from thin wood boards that are slightly separated allowing the sheep and goat manure and urine to pass through the floor and into a tank that is built below the pen.
How to set up a pasture rotation?
Paddocks are simply fenced off portions of your pasture land. To set up a successful grazing rotation, it´s usually best to begin with cattle on one piece of land. Since cattle prefer the higher, greener parts of grass, they will leave the parts of the grass closer to the roots as long as there are other options. Once the cattle have eaten all of the green grasses, you move or rotate them on to another paddock while you bring sheep or chickens on to the paddock the cows left . Sheep prefer the parts of grasses closer to the roots while the shorter grass will make it easier for chickens to forage for bugs, seeds, and other edibles.
What is silvopasture in agriculture?
While many people believe that the forestry and grazing animals don´t go together, silvopasture is an agroforestry technique that combines livestock with forests. Cows originated in a savannah ecosystem which was often dotted with significant amounts of trees and small forests. Trees offer cattle or other livestock a protection from the wind, the sun, and other elements.
Why is silvopasture important?
Silvopasture is an important technique for anyone raising animals on pasture. It helps to offset the carbon footprint that livestock has on the planet through the emission of methane gas. It also offers you another product from the same piece of land while not affecting the quality of pasture.
What is the purpose of sheep and goats?
The Purpose of Sheep and Goats to the Small Mayan Farmer. From a western perspective, the main goal of raising animals is for meat production. However, for thousands of small farmers in the Mayan Highlands of Guatemala, sheep, and goats are raised on communal pastureland not so much for their meat, but for their manure.