What is nematology in agriculture

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Essentially, nematology is the scientific study of nematodes (roundworms), the phylum Nematoda. These are small worms that range between 1mm and 40 cm depending on type and habitat.

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Answer

What is Nematology?

Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms. Although nematological investigation dates back to the days of Aristotle or even earlier, nematology as an independent discipline has its recognizable beginnings in the mid to late 19th century.

Who is known as the father of nematology?

Nathan A. Cobb, often considered the father of nematology in North America, was a student of the renowned German zoologist Ernst Haeckel.

What is the importance of nematodes?

Certain parasitic nematodes are helpful, including those that attack insects and are used to manage some harmful insects. Research on nematodes directly benefits humanity, greatly enhances our understanding of the Earth’s biodiversity, and is an exciting challenge for our Department of Nematology.

How do nematodes feed on plants?

These nematodes are able to use their long stylets to feed on plants without the need to penetrate any part of the plant. Given that they are able to feed from outside the plant, ectoparasites can feed on different hosts in their environment. Xiphonema is a good example of an ectoparasite.

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What is the study of nematology?

Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms. Although nematological investigation dates back to the days of Aristotle or even earlier, nematology as an independent discipline has its recognizable beginnings in the mid to late 19th century.


What is nematology example?

Nematology is a branch of biology that deals primarily with the roundworms or nematodes. It became an independent discipline in the mid to late 19th century. Nematodes belong to the phylum Nematoda. They are characterized by an early pulmonary phase related to larval migration and a later, prolonged intestinal phase.


What is nematology in zoology?

: a branch of zoology that deals with nematodes.


What types of nematology Research are there?

All aspects of nematology are being studied to answer basic and applied research questions. Subjects include plant-parasitic, free-living, marine, and animal-parasitic nematodes.


What is the importance of plant nematology?

It has become important to find new strategies for controlling pests in a safe and more effective manner. While many species are plant parasites, the feeding habits of some species have been shown to be beneficial in agriculture. As such, they can be used as biological agents to control pest and weed.


Who is the father of nematology?

Nathan Augustus CobbNathan Augustus Cobb, referred to as the “Father of Nematology in the United States” (56), was a Renaissance man and a man of humble beginnings.


Who coined the term nematology?

The term nematology was coined by Nathan A. Cobb for the new discipline of study focused on this group of parasites.


Who is the father of Indian nematology?

N.A. Cobb, the father of nematology.


What do Nematologist do?

A nematologist specifically studies nematodes and their interaction with plants. Nematodes are microscopic roundworms that can transmit diseases and/or attack soil, water and insects.


How many stages of nematodes are there?

The life cycle of a plant-parasitic nematode has six stages: egg, four juvenile stages and adult. Male and female nematodes occur in most species, but reproduction without males is common, and some species are hermaphroditic (Afemales@ produce both sperm and eggs). Egg production by the individual completes the cycle.


What are the characteristics of nematodes?

Following are the important characteristics of Nematoda:Their body is bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic.They are cylindrical in shape.They exhibit tissue level organization.Their body has a cavity or pseudocoelom.The alimentary canal is distinct, with the mouth and the anus.They are sexually dimorphic.More items…


What is the economic importance of nematode?

Importance of Nematodes in Agricultural Systems. Nematodes contribute to a variety of functions within the soil system. In agricultural systems, nematodes can enhance nutrient mineralization and act as biological control agents.


What do Nematologist do?

A nematologist specifically studies nematodes and their interaction with plants. Nematodes are microscopic roundworms that can transmit diseases and/or attack soil, water and insects.


Who is the father of Indian nematology?

N.A. Cobb, the father of nematology.


Are nematodes Endoparasites?

2015). Mermithid nematodes are mainly known as endoparasites of insects (Kaiser 1991; Nikdel et al. 2011), and occasionally of other invertebrates (Vandergast and Roderick 2003). Their life cycles vary among species, but females of terrestrial species typically lay eggs in the soil during periods of high moisture.


Who coined the term nematology?

The term nematology was coined by Nathan A. Cobb for the new discipline of study focused on this group of parasites.


The burgeoning field of parasitology and its implications

The occurrence of pests and pathogens and the severity of their impacts on agriculture are projected to increase in the future due to changing environmental conditions, increased prevalence of monocultures, and the development of pesticide-resistant strains.


Nematology in agriculture: benefits and practices

According to current studies on nematology, nematodes offer several ecosystem services that affect the nitrogen cycle, decomposition capacity, and control of pests within soil systems.


Looking ahead: opportunities for nematology in agriculture

The environmental changes and rising concerns of food insecurity have provided an opportunity to include knowledge from various disciplines into agricultural practices. This is the case for nematology, which offers valuable insights into the dynamics of soil systems and the importance of considering trophic interactions to improve food production.


What is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms?

Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms. Although nematological investigation dates back to the days of Aristotle or even earlier, nematology as an independent discipline has its recognizable beginnings in the mid to late 19th century.


When did nematodes become taxonomic?

From 1750 to the early 1900s, nematology research continued to be descriptive and taxonomic, focusing primarily on free-living nematodes and plant and animal parasites. During this period a number of productive researchers contributed to the field of nematology in the United States and abroad. Beginning with Needham and continuing to Cobb, nematologists compiled and continuously revised a broad descriptive morphological taxonomy of nematodes.


What did nematodes do in the 1800s?

Nematologists in the 1800s also contributed to other scientific fields in important ways. Butschli (1875) first observed the formation of polar bodies by nuclear subdivision in a nematode, Beneden (1883) was studying Ascaris megalocephala when he discovered the separation of halves of each of the chromosomes from the two parents and the mechanism of Mendelian heredity, and Boveri (1893) showed evidence for continuity of the germ plasm and that the soma may be regarded as a by-product without influence upon heredity.


When did nematode research begin?

Although 18th and 19th century scientists yielded a considerable amount of important fundamental and applied knowledge about nematode biology, nematology research really began to advance in quality and quantity near the turn of the 20th century. In 1918, the first permanent nematology field station was constructed in the U.S. Post Office in Salt Lake City, Utah under the direction of Harry B. Shaw, after scientists observed the sugar beet nematode in a field south of the city. In this same year, Nathan Cobb (1918) published his Contributions to a Science of Nematology and his lab manual “Estimating the Nema Population of Soil.” These two publications provide definitive resources for many methods and apparatus used in nematology even to this day.


Where are nematodes found in the Bible?

The earliest written account of a nematode “sighting,” as it were, may be found in the Pentateuch of the Old Testament in the Bible, in the Fourth Book of Moses called Numbers: “And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died”. Although no empirical data exist to test the hypothesis, many nematologists assume and circumstantial evidence suggests the “fiery serpents” to be the Guinea worm, Dracunculus medinensis, as this nematode is known to inhabit the region near the Red Sea.


How many slides are in the Nematode Collection?

U.S. Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection is one of the largest collections and has over 49,200 permanent slides and vials.


What is the earliest allusion to a plant parasitic nematode?

The earliest allusion to a plant parasitic nematode is, however, preserved in famous writ. “Sowed cockle, reap’d no corn,” a line by William Shakespeare penned in 1594 in Love’s Labour’s Lost, Act IV, Scene 3, most certainly has reference to blighted wheat caused by the plant parasite, Anguina tritici.


Why is it important to identify nematodes?

An immediate objective of new techniques in nematology is to increase the ease, accuracy, and speed of species identification. Caswell-Chen et al. (1993) reviewed how biotechnology might influence nematode management avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, nematode–host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents.


How to identify nematode species?

A proper molecular toolbox for identifying nematode species should consider as many useful loci as possible, especially when the currently available nuclear loci (18S and 28S) have low resolution at the species level. The amplification across a wide taxonomic range, the ease of sequence alignment and the variability pattern render the I3-M11 partition of COI a good candidate to increase the identification of marine nematode species, provided there is a good reference database. There is a strong indication that nematode DNA barcodes should be thoroughly screened to infer their origin and homology state. Furthermore, digital vouchering of nematode specimens is required before molecular analyses, particularly in those studies that are intended to produce barcodes for new nematode species. Through this approach, a reliable reference database can be built ( Derycke et al., 2010 ).


What is RFLP in nematode DNA?

A full review of investigations of nematode DNA is beyond the scope of this treatment, so studies of plant-parasitic nematode DNA since those listed by Hyman (1990) and Curran (1992) have been summarized in Table II. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses use restriction enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sequences to demonstrate differences in DNA sequence among nematodes as different (polymorphic) length bands (fragments) in an electrophoretic separation. RFLP analyses of genomic, mitochondrial, and ribosomal DNA are extremely useful to detect differences among both species and isolated populations within nematode species for research purposes ( Table II ), and specific probes derived from polymorphisms may be used for practical diagnoses. The use of a specific DNA probe to detect purified mitochondrial DNA of Meloidogyne in various field soils ( Hyman et al., 1990) demonstrates the potential applicability of molecular probes to field samples ( Fig. 6 ). Non-radioactive DNA probes used to identify plant parasitic nematodes add an additional measure of practicality in routine diagnoses ( Burrows, 1990b; Chacón et al., 1993 ).


How are nematodes carried?

We must therefore conceive of nematodes and their eggs as almost omnipresent, as being carried by the wind and by flying birds and running animals; as floating from place to place in nearly all the waters of the earth; and as shipped from point to point throughout the civilized world in vehicles of traffic.


What would happen if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away?

In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembodied spirits, we could then investigate it, we should find its mountains, hills, vales, rivers, lakes, and oceans represented by a film of nematodes.


Who is the father of nematodes?

Nathan A. Cobb, often considered the father of nematology in North America, was a student of the renowned German zoologist Ernst Haeckel. After just a few years of research spanning the globe from Europe, Australia, and North America, Cobb amassed a huge amount of knowledge and came to have a deep appreciation for the immense number of species that existed. With scientific knowledge based on keen observational skills, he understood the nature of both the great numerical density and species diversity of nematodes in all habitats of the globe that he examined. Thus armed, he wrote the following:


Is rust fungus a parasite?

Puccinia punctiformis, a rust fungus, is an obligate parasite specific to Canada thistle ( Cummins, 1978) and infection can lead to death. Infection reduces flowering and vegetative reproduction ( Thomas et al., 1995 ). However, Canada thistle has been difficult to control everywhere it exists, and although the rust fungus is present, it has not always been effective.


What is the purpose of the nematode lab?

The Nematology Laboratory provides diagnostic support for the protection of California’s agricultural industry against economically important plant parasitic nematodes associated with plant disease. The state’s agricultural industry could lose over $600 million annually in crop losses if certain plant parasitic nematodes not known, or of limited occurrence in California would become widespread within the State. Based largely on the nematode diagnostic support provided by the Laboratory, government agencies are able to:


What are the nematode support activities?

Support activities include nematode identification, evaluation of nematode related agricultural issues, training county and state personnel, and providing scientific consultations to state, county, and federal agencies, as well as, university, industry and the general public. The nematologists specialize in specific groups of nematodes and provide binomial identifications to species of economic, regulatory importance detected in samples. Nematode identifications are based primarily on morphological analyses, and may be supplemented with molecular analyses, biological assays, computer-aided identification programs, literature reviews and peer consultations. More than one nematologist confirms identifications of nematode species of quarantine significance. Complete sample and nematode diagnostic information is maintained in the Laboratory computer database which is networked to county agricultural commissioners’ offices. Training in regulatory nematology, nematode biology, diseases, sampling, sample handling, processing and preliminary nematode identifications (genus level) is provided to county and state personnel, as needed. Six out of 30 county agricultural departments have nematode processing capabilities that have been certified by the State Nematologist. In addition, nematologists are also responsible for conducting research, and, organizing and participating in professional meetings.


How much money will California lose from nematodes?

The state’s agricultural industry could lose over $600 million annually in crop losses if certain plant parasitic nematodes not known, or of limited occurrence in California would become widespread within the State.


Who was the first person to describe nematodes?

In light of the high population numbers of nematodes. N.A. Cobb (1915) who is considered to be the father of American Nematology, provided a dramatic description of the abundance of nematodes. He stated, “If all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world still would be dimly recognizable we would find is mountaintops, valleys, rivers, lakes and oceans represented by a film of nematodes. The statement “ sowed cockle, reaped no corn” in Shakespeare’2 “Love’s Labour’s List”’ act4, scene 3, as suggested by throne (1961) possibly the first record of plant parasitic nematodes in 1549. The nematode that Throne suspected to be in that reference actually was described by Needham in 1743. Subsequently, discovery of microscope and developments in various disciplines of science led to the discovery of plant parasitic nematodes and the disease caused by them. Some of the important milestones on the history of plant nematology are listed below in chronological order.


Why do nematodes die without a host plant?

Leaving the field without cultivation, preferably after ploughing helps to expose the nematodes to sunlight and the nematodes die due to starvation without host plant. This method is not economical.


How many stages are there in the life cycle of nematodes?

The life cycle of nematode has six stages. The egg state, J1 or first stage larva, J2 or second stage larva, J3 or third stage larva, J4 or fourth stage larva and the adult stage. The first four stages are the immature stages and are known as juvenile stages. The female lays eggs in soil or in plant tissues, singly or in groups as egg mass that hatchout into larvae which are almost similar to adults in appearance. The first moult occurs within the egg shell and the second stage juvenile comes out by rupturing the egg shell as J2. In case of Xiphinema index, the larvae are reported to emerge from the egg before the first moult. The larval cuticle is shed after each moult.


What is the name of the group of worms that live in all environments?

Nematology is an important branch of biological science, which deals with a complex, diverse group of round worms known as Nematodes that occur worldwide in essentially all environments. Nematodes are also known as eelworms in Europe, nemas in the United States and round worms by zoologists. Many species are important parasites of plants and animals, whereas others are beneficial to agriculture and the environment. Nematodes that are parasites of man and animals are called helminthes and the study is known as Helminthology. The plant parasitic forms are called nematodes and the study is known as Plant Nematology. The name nemato de was derived from Greek words nema (thread) and oides (resembling).


Where is the excretory pore located in nematodes?

The excretory system is not well developed in nematodes. The excretory pore is located in the anterior midventral line close to the nerve ring. The position of excretory pore may vary in different genera and even in different stages of the same species. In T. semipentrans the excretory. It secrets gelatinous matrix. The excretory system in nematodes are of two types. 1. Glandular type 2. Tubular type.


Where do nematodes produce sperm?

The production of sperms takes place in testis. In nematodes, whenever the number of testis is one, it is known as monarchic conditions and when they are tow in number, the condition is known which moves forward and backward with help of specialized muscles attached with its head region. Spicule is narrower at its tip. A cuticularised structure lying beneath the pair of spicule is known as guberrnaculum which helps and gives support in movement of the spicule. At the tail end, two filamentous cuticular expansions are found and they are known as bursa helps to hold the female during copulation. Plant parasitic nematodes can reproduce sexually where male and female copulate and give rise to off – springs. Sexual reproduction is also called as amphimetic reproduction. Parthenogenetic reproduction is also common phenomenon in Meloidogyne and Tyelchulus semipenetrans.


Do nematodes have ovary?

Present in nematodes having single ovary as observed in the genera Pratylenchus and Ditylenchus. The uterus opens outside to a ventrally located vulval opening through a tube known as vagina, which is a cuticularised structure. In plant parasitic nematodes the number of ovary may be one or two. When there is one ovary that condition is known as monodelphic and when the number is tow, the condition is called as didelphic.


Why are nematodes important?

Certain parasitic nematodes are helpful, including those that attack insects and are used to manage some harmful insects. Research on nematodes directly benefits humanity, greatly enhances our understanding of the Earth’s biodiversity, and is an exciting challenge for our Department of Nematology.


What are nematodes parasites?

A small fraction of all nematode species are parasites of humans, livestock or agricultural crops. Consequently, these have attracted the most attention from Nematology researchers.


What worms feed on soil bacteria?

One species that feeds on soil bacteria, Caenorhabditis elegans, has gained fame as a research model: three specialists on the biology of this worm are the 2002 recipients of the Nobel prize in medicine. A small fraction of all nematode species are parasites of humans, livestock or agricultural crops.


Where do worms live?

Where are all these worms? Nematodes have been reported from every continent on earth and occur in deserts, swamps, the oceans, the tropics and Antarctica. Usually nematodes are invisible to all but a few specialists because most are microscopic and transparent.


How many worms are in a shovel?

Although estimated numbers of species are in the millions, only a few thousand have been named; almost any shovel full of soil, freshwater or marine sediment is likely to have thousands of worms including new species.

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The Burgeoning Field of Parasitology and Its Implications


Nematology in Agriculture: Benefits and Practices

  • According to current studies on nematology, nematodes offer several ecosystem services that affect the nitrogen cycle, decomposition capacity, and control of pests within soil systems. Firstly, the effects on the nitrogen cycle have generated a growing interest in the beneficial effects of nematodes to improve soil nitrogen content. Specifically, s…

See more on azolifesciences.com


Looking Ahead: Opportunities For Nematology in Agriculture

  • The environmental changes and rising concerns of food insecurity have provided an opportunity to include knowledge from various disciplines into agricultural practices. This is the case for nematology, which offers valuable insights into the dynamics of soil systems and the importance of considering trophic interactions to improve food production. The implications of considering …

See more on azolifesciences.com


Further Reading


Overview

Nematology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of nematodes, or roundworms. Although nematological investigation dates back to the days of Aristotle or even earlier, nematology as an independent discipline has its recognizable beginnings in the mid to late 19th century.


Specimen collections

• U.S. Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection is one of the largest collections and has over 49,200 permanent slides and vials.
• University of California Riverside Nematode type collection includes 3,184 slides. Additionally, the collection has 33,406 slides and 16,170 vials.
• Nematode Collection Europe is the largest collection of nematode slides in Europe.


History: pre-1850

Nematology research, like most fields of science, has its foundations in observations and the recording of these observations. The earliest written account of a nematode “sighting,” as it were, may be found in the Pentateuch of the Old Testament in the Bible, in the Fourth Book of Moses called Numbers: “And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died”. Although no empirical data exist to test the hypothesis, many nemat…


History: 1850 to the present

Kuhn (1874) is thought to be the first to use soil fumigation to control nematodes, applying carbon disulfide treatments in sugar beet fields in Germany. In Europe from 1870 to 1910, nematological research focused heavily on controlling the sugar beet nematode as sugar beet production became an important economy during this time in the Old World.
Although 18th and 19th century scientists yielded a considerable amount of important fundame…


Notable nematologists

• Nathan Cobb
• Michel Luc
• Maynard Jack Ramsay
• Gregor W. Yeates
• Diana Wall


Contributions to other sciences

Nematologists in the 1800s also contributed to other scientific fields in important ways. Butschli (1875) first observed the formation of polar bodies by nuclear subdivision in a nematode, Beneden (1883) was studying Ascaris megalocephala when he discovered the separation of halves of each of the chromosomes from the two parents and the mechanism of Mendelian heredity, and Boveri (1893) showed evidence for continuity of the germ plasm and that the soma may be regarded a…


Further reading

• Mai, W. F., and Motsinger, R. E. 1987. History of the Society of Nematologists. Pages 1–6 in: Vistas on Nematology. J. A. Veech and D. W. Dickson, eds. Society of Nematologists, Inc. Hyattsville, Maryland.
• Van Gundy, S.D. 1980. Nematology – status and prospects: Let’s take off our blinders and broaden our horizons. Journal of Nematology 18:129–135.

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