What is plant pathology in agriculture

image

Plant pathology

  • Overview. Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant problems in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs.
  • Plant pathogens. …
  • Common pathogenic infection methods. …
  • Physiological plant disorders. …
  • Epidemiology. …
  • Disease resistance. …
  • Management. …
  • Economic impact
  • History. …
  • See also

More items…

Plant pathology is the field of agriculture that deals with the study of plant diseases. Plant disease can result in the loss of millions of pounds of food crops each year. Disease can decimate forests. And disease can scar urban and suburban landscapes. Plant diseases are caused most often by pathogens.Sep 4, 2019

Full
Answer

What is plant pathology and its importance?

  • Cut out around an “e” approximately 0.5 cm.
  • Place a drop of water on the slide and put a mark on one of the long sides of the slide.
  • Place your “e” on a slide so the top of the “e” is toward the mark on the slide.
  • Obtain a cover slip and pick it up by the edges. …

More items…

What does plant pathology mean?

What does PLANT PATHOLOGY mean? Plant pathology is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants.

What is plant pathology or phytopathology?

What is Plant Pathology? Phytopathology (Phyton : plant) Greek – Pathos (suffering) + Logos (study) = The study of the suffering plant Plant pathology is that branch of agricultural, botanical or biological sciences which deals with the study of: cause of the disease Resulting losses and Control of plant diseases Objectives of Plant pathology 1.

What are the diseases of plants?

abiotic and biotic plant diseases. • Abiotic or non-infectious diseases. These diseases are caused by con-ditions external to the plant, not living agents. They cannot spread from plant to plant, but are very common and should be considered when assessing the health of any plant. Examples of abiotic diseases include nutritional deficiencies, soil compaction, salt injury, ice, and sun scorch (Figure 1

image


What means plant pathology?

Plant pathology is the science that studies the causes of plant diseases, the mechanisms by which diseases develop in individual plants and in plant populations, and the ways and means by which plant diseases can be managed or controlled.


What is the role of plant pathology in agriculture?

Abstract Plant pathology is a field of biology that focuses on understanding the nature of disease in plants as well as on more practical aspects of preventing and controlling plant diseases in crop plants that are important to agriculture.


What is plant pathology and its objective?

The objectives of the Plant Pathology are the study on: the living entities that cause diseases in plants; the non-living entities and the environmental conditions that cause disorders in plants; the mechanisms by which the disease causing agents produce diseases; the interactions between the disease causing agents and …


What is the study of plant pathology?

Plant pathology is the study of plants and their pathogens, the process of disease, and how plant health and disease are influenced by factors such as the weather, nonpathogenic microorganisms, and plant nutrition. It encompasses fundamental biology as well as applied agricultural sciences.


What is the importance of Plant Pathology in the field of agribusiness?

Plant pathology can and should contribute in each of these respects–by assessing the immediate and potential dangers to crops from diseases, by forecasting their incidence and severity, by deploying the best methods of control in the short and longer term, by evaluating the risks particularly by integrated use of the …


What are the importance of plant pathogens?

Plant pathogens are forming a huge problem on the economic and life stability. The plant pathogens are increasing in the wide world. The plant pathogens comprise viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematode, and parasitic plant. The plant pathogens cause the diseases for leaf, stem, root, vascular system and fruit.


What does a plant pathologist do?

Plant Pathologists Strive to Keep Plants Healthy Plant diseases are caused by a variety of living organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants, and by nonliving agents such as air pollutants nutrient imbalances, and various environmental factors.


What is called pathology?

Pathology is a branch of medical science that involves the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of surgically removed organs, tissues (biopsy samples), bodily fluids, and in some cases the whole body (autopsy).


What is plant pathology?

Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases.


When was plant pathology invented?

Plant pathology has developed from antiquity, starting with Theophrastus, but scientific study began in the Early Modern period with the invention of the microscope, and developed in the 19th century.


What causes soft rot in plants?

Pathogens such as Erwinia species use cell wall–degrading enzymes to cause soft rot. Agrobacterium species change the level of auxins to cause tumours with phytohormones. Exopolysaccharides are produced by bacteria and block xylem vessels, often leading to the death of the plant.


What are nematodes in the soil?

Nematodes are small, multicellular wormlike animals. Many live freely in the soil, but there are some species that parasitize plant roots. They are a problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where they may infect crops. Potato cyst nematodes ( Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis) are widely distributed in Europe and North and South America and cause $300 million worth of damage in Europe every year. Root knot nematodes have quite a large host range, they parasitize plant root systems and thus directly affect the uptake of water and nutrients needed for normal plant growth and reproduction, whereas cyst nematodes tend to be able to infect only a few species. Nematodes are able to cause radical changes in root cells in order to facilitate their lifestyle.


What are phytoplasma and spiroplasma?

Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma are genera of bacteria that lack cell walls and are related to the mycoplasmas, which are human pathogens. Together they are referred to as the mollicutes. They also tend to have smaller genomes than most other bacteria. They are normally transmitted by sap-sucking insects, being transferred into the plant’s phloem where it reproduces.


What are the pathogenic factors of plants?

Most plant pathogenic bacteria are rod-shaped ( bacilli ). In order to be able to colonize the plant they have specific pathogenicity factors. Five main types of bacterial pathogenicity factors are known: uses of cell wall–degrading enzymes, toxins, effector proteins, phytohormones and exopolysaccharides .


How much do plant diseases affect farmers?

Plant diseases cause major economic losses for farmers worldwide. Across large regions and many crop species, it is estimated that diseases typically reduce plant yields by 10% every year in more developed settings, but yield loss to diseases often exceeds 20% in less developed settings.

image


Summary


Overview

Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant problems in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are numerous examples of devastating plant disease impacts, such as the Great Famine of Ireland and chestnut blight, as well as recurrent severe plant diseases like rice blast, soybean cyst nematode, and citrus canker.


Plant pathogens

In most pathosystems, virulence is dependent on hydrolases – and the wider class of cell wall degrading proteins – that degrade the cell wall. The vast majority of CWDPs are pathogen-produced and pectin-targeted (for example, pectinesterase, pectate lyase, and pectinases). For microbes the cell wall polysaccharides are themselves a food source, but mostly just a barrier to be overcome.


Common pathogenic infection methods

• Cell wall-degrading enzymes: These are used to break down the plant cell wall in order to release the nutrients inside.
• Toxins: These can be non-host-specific, which damage all plants, or host-specific, which cause damage only on a host plant.
• Effector proteins: These can be secreted into the extracellular environment or directly into the host cell, often via the Type three secretion system. Some effectors are …

• Cell wall-degrading enzymes: These are used to break down the plant cell wall in order to release the nutrients inside.
• Toxins: These can be non-host-specific, which damage all plants, or host-specific, which cause damage only on a host plant.
• Effector proteins: These can be secreted into the extracellular environment or directly into the host cell, often via the Type three secretion system. Some effectors are known to suppress host defense processes. This can include: red…


Physiological plant disorders

Some abiotic disorders can be confused with pathogen-induced disorders. Abiotic causes include natural processes such as drought, frost, snow and hail; flooding and poor drainage; nutrient deficiency; deposition of mineral salts such as sodium chloride and gypsum; windburn and breakage by storms; and wildfires. Similar disorders (usually classed as abiotic) can be caused by human interve…


Epidemiology

Epidemiology: The study of factors affecting the outbreak and spread of infectious diseases.
A disease tetrahedron (disease pyramid) best captures the elements involved with plant diseases. This pyramid uses the disease triangle as a foundation, consisting of elements such as: host, pathogen and environment. In addition t…


Disease resistance

Plant disease resistance is the ability of a plant to prevent and terminate infections from plant pathogens.
Structures that help plants prevent disease are: cuticular layer, cell walls and stomata guard cells. These act as a barrier to prevent pathogens from entering the plant host.
Once diseases have overcome these barriers, plant receptors initiate signaling pathways to crea…


Management

Before control measures can be taken, the pathogen must be detected. Ancient methods of leaf examination and breaking open plant material by hand are now augmented by newer technologies. These include molecular pathology assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Although PCR can detect multiple molecular targets in a single solution there are limits. Bertolini et al 2001, Ito et al 2002 and Rag…

Leave a Comment