Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex ways to influence production sustainability. In a mixed-methods approach, we combine qualitative and quantitative data to develop and simulate a system dynamics model that explores the systemic interaction of these drivers on the economic, environmental and social sustainability of agricultural production.
What are the different agricultural production systems used for?
The different agricultural production systems used as tools on the farming systems and yet all these systems rely on plants which in turn depend on the soil. In effect a dynamic hierarchy can function which can be influenced by what farming system is chosen and the agricultural production system that is selected. [Albrecht, 1975; Podolinsky, 1985].
What is agricultural production and why is it important?
She runs a family-oriented blog on green living. Agricultural production is the use of cultivated plants or animals to produce products for sustaining or enhancing human life. People use a vast array of agricultural products every day—these range from the clothes we wear to the paper we write on.
What is an agricultural production area?
Agricultural production areas include buildings, driveways, parking areas, feed storage structures, manure storage structures, and other impervious surfaces. Agricultural production crops, livestock, forestry (See SIC Manual).
What are the byproducts of Agriculture?
Agricultural production byproducts can be used in industrial applications such as textiles or used to reinforce plastics. 2 Fiber crops include cotton (one of the top 10 crops produced in the U.S. every year), wool, and silk. Agricultural producers also use hemp to make rope and flax for linen.
What type of production system is commonly used by some farmers?
Types of system Some of food crop production practices include mixed, subsistence, plantation farming and others. Mixed farming is an agricultural system practiced on the same piece of land by farmers to cultivate crops and raise animals simultaneously.
What are the two types of production in agriculture?
Since the development of agriculture, many different types of production have been implemented. Currently, agriculture is divided into two different types, including industrialized agriculture and subsistence agriculture.
What is production system in agribusiness?
Farmers rely on a diversity of tools, practices, and strategies to successfully produce crops and livestock.
What are the factors of agricultural production?
The main factors of production are natural resources (land, water, soil, rainfall), labour and capital. These are different products produced by farmers, each of which uses inputs to produce outputs.
How many parts of agriculture production are made?
This transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities. These are primary, secondary and tertiary activities. Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources.
What do you mean by production system?
production system, any of the methods used in industry to create goods and services from various resources. automobile assembly line.
What are the different types of agricultural systems?
Arable farming. In this system of farming, the farmer grows only crops. … Mixed farming. … Subsistence farming. … Shifting Cultivation. … Plantation farming. … Pastoral/Livestock farming. … Nomadic farming.
What are the 3 types of production?
There are three main types of production to choose from:Job production, where items are made individually and each item is finished before the next one is started. … Batch production, where groups of items are made together. … Flow production, where identical, standardised items are produced on an assembly line.
Why is agriculture important?
It is also vital for consumers whose everyday lives are improved by agricultural innovations supporting the production of a safe, abundant, and affordable food supply and protecting and enhance our natural resources–now and for the future.
What are the opportunities for agriculture?
The diversity of agricultural production systems across the United States presents wide-ranging opportunities for exciting new research and innovation. New scientific findings and new technology, for example robotic automation, artificial intelligence, vertical farming and gene editing, could all play a role in not only improving existing systems but in developing new systems and new products altogether. New and emerging agricultural products can generate exciting new niches for farmers who want to meet consumer demands for crops and livestock with improved nutritional or environmental benefits.
What is a cropscape?
But spend a few minutes looking at CropScape. , a color-coded map that charts where almost a hundred different types of U.S. crops are grown currently, and you begin to appreciate the diversity and regionality of production systems. This map shows that although there are U.S. regions where crop production is dominated by a few commodity crops, …
How is livestock production determined?
The Livestock Production sector is modelled as a “cow-calf enterprise”, where herd size is determined over time by the influence of reproduction rates ( WeanRate) and limited by available feed ( AvailFeed ). Increases in herd size are calculated as the number of females in the herd ( NumFemales) multiplied by the weaning rate per female. Animal sales are calculated based on available feed with excess animals sold when feed demand exceeds a user-determined maximum percentage of available feed, and additional animals are retained when feed demand falls below the minimum percentage of available feed ( minFeedUse ). Available feed is calculated based on animal diet, which is modelled on a Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) basis. Supply of TDN is calculated as the sum of available TDN from dedicated grazing land (pasture or range), crop residues, and supplemental feed (the stock Supplement ). Demand for TDN is calculated based on herd size ( HerdSize ), which is also used to calculate manure production ( ManureStock ). ManureStock is directly linked to the environmental quality and economics sectors and indirectly (through nutrient balance and soil quality impacts) to the crop production sector. A social feedback factor ( SocPres) is included to force herd size reductions when manure production and utilization get out of balance (explained in more detail under Section 18.104.22.168 ).
Why is agriculture changing?
Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex ways to influence production sustainability.
How to develop a system dynamics model?
The process for developing system dynamics models typically follows an iterative progression that begins with the clear expression of the modelling objective, and proceeds with identification of factors and their dynamic interaction through polarity analysis and dynamic hypothesis casting and diagramming, followed by model simulation and interpretation. While the merging of qualitative and quantitative modelling can greatly enhance the utility and explanatory power of a system dynamics model, a formal framework that merges these approaches does not exist ( Luna-Reyes and Andersen, 2003; Wolstenholme, 1999; Pruyt, 2013 ). Thus, we present a five-step modelling process using a combination of recommended modelling processes from Pruyt (2013), based on Richardson and Pugh (1981) and others ( Forrester, 1993, Wolstenholme, 1990, Sterman, 2000 ), displayed in Fig. 1.
What are the challenges of agriculture?
At the core, the challenges in both single and mixed-enterprise agricultural production exist in the task of operationalizing the interactions between disparate measures of productivity and sustainability, and necessarily require adequate understanding of the complex interactions between environmental, social, and economic drivers. For example, ecological systems contain a multitude of diverse components, interacting non-linearly and dynamically in both space and time ( Wu and Marceau, 2002 ). As Wu and David (2002) mention, “An obvious challenge in modelling complex ecological systems is, then, to integrate the rigor of reductionism with the comprehensiveness of holism.” Similarly, social drivers are often tenuous, highly changeable, and difficult to quantify ( Ramalingham et al., 2008 ). In addition, environmental drivers that impact farming management choices are not always straightforward, a fact that is exemplified by the substantial loss of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands to greater economic return from corn production for biofuels ( Hartman et al., 2011, Fargione et al., 2009 ).
What are the three main crops in the Midwest?
The model was parameterized with information from the upper Midwest for the three predominant crops in the region (corn, soybeans and wheat) and one animal system (cow/calf). For the three crop types, we parameterized yields, tillage impacts on crop yield, crop production costs, and labour, based on data from field research conducted at the Swan Lake Research Farm near Morris, MN ( Archer et al., 2007, Archer and Reicosky, 2009 ). Livestock production costs and weaning rates were parameterized based on Minnesota Farm Business Management records for West Central Minnesota from 2006 to 2008 ( Center for Farm Financial Management, 2010 ). We based crop price distributions on de-trended 1989–2008 Minnesota cropping season annual averages ( NASS, 2009 ), using fertilizer prices from 2005 to 2008 average prices for the North Central U.S. ( NASS, 2009 ). To serve as a proxy for soil quality, we used soil conditioning index factors from the Soil Conditioning Index Worksheet ( NRCS, 2003 ). Grain and forage nutrient content, and cattle nutrient requirements were then parameterized based on NRC (2000) values for total digestible nutrients (TDN), where forage production was based on 1998–2007 Stevens county alfalfa yields (NASS, 2010), and grazing utilization was assumed to be 50 percent.
What is system dynamics?
System dynamics modelling presents a means to describe and simulate dynamically complex issues through the structural identification of feedback, and in many cases, delay processes that drive system behaviour ( Sterman, 2000, Pruyt, 2013 ). Since the formation of the modelling concept by Jay Forrester in 1959, the method itself has been used for a broad spectrum of applications including the modelling of complex ecological and economic systems ( Costanza and Gottlieb, 1998a, Costanza et al., 1998b, Costanza and Voinov, 2001 ), many of which address, to some extent, the social implications of system behaviour ( Wu and Marceau, 2002, Bossel, 2007, Ford, 1999a ). A system dynamics modelling approach was chosen for this research given its proven ability to go beyond the inherent limitations of linear and static models to include the dynamic interactions between factors at play in an interconnected system ( Richmond, 2001, Sterman, 2000, Wolstenholme, 1982, Meadows, 2008, Walters and Javernick-Will, 2015 ).
How does integrated agriculture help sustainability?
One way to accomplish these sustainability goals has been to employ integrated agricultural production techniques. Integrated agricultural production is a mixed enterprise approach to farming that uses natural resources through the combination of crop and livestock inputs and outputs to promote environmentally beneficial farming practices ( Hendrickson et al., 2008, Boller et al., 2004 ). A major benefit of integrated agricultural production is its inherent ability to distribute, and thereby minimize, farmer risks through the diversification of enterprises, allowing farmers to exploit a higher spectrum of marketing channels ( Hendrickson et al., 2008 ). Despite the fact that integrated production can greatly minimize overall risk, it presents a substantial challenge in administering the complex trade-offs of each individual farming component. Examples of these challenges include timing of operations, the type of equipment used and allocated, and the timing of agricultural markets, in concert with a range of other social, environmental, economic and technological considerations ( Hendrickson et al., 2008, Archer et al., 2007, Archer et al., 2008, Halloran and Archer, 2008 ).
How are agricultural systems defined?
Agricultural Systems are Defined by Unique Spatial and Temporal Boundaries. Agricultural system boundaries can be fixed, as is the case with a farm, for example, but systems can also be defined using subjective boundaries. In agricultural systems research, spatial and temporal boundaries are determined by research goals, …
What are agricultural systems?
2. Agricultural Systems are Composed of Interacting Subsystems. All systems are composed of many smaller, interacting subsystems that interact in either a hierarchical or nonhierarchical manner. The predominance of nested hierarchies of subsystems within agricultural and ecological systems is a striking feature.
What are the resources used in ecologically based farming?
Ecologically based farming systems emphasize the use of ecological pest management, nutrient cycling, and natural and renewable resources to enhance soil health and protect water quality.
How do system processes vary in time?
Just as system boundaries have unique physical and temporal boundaries, system processes also vary in space and time. For example, processes such as nutrient cycling occur at scales from a few microns to a whole plant, and from a single field to a farming community. Similarly, time-based processes can range from minutes to centuries; decomposition of labile organic matter, or population changes in pests due to predator–prey interactions, can occur within a single growing season (Letourneau, 1997; Puget et al., 2000). In contrast, detectable changes in stabilized soil organic matter or the emergence of weed resistance to herbicides can take years or decades to manifest (Aref and Wander, 1997; Vidal et al., 2007). During major shifts in management regimes, such as the transition from conventional to organic management or from conventional tillage to no-tillage, the rate of change for certain processes can be rapid, while other processes are not detectable for years or decades. For example, replacing fallow with cover crops can affect soil decomposers long before changes in total soil organic carbon can be detected. Because different processes will not reach dynamic steady-state conditions at the same time, the time frame of these various processes needs to be considered when planning research, particularly when focusing on the transition from one management system to another, because legacy effects from the previous system can interact with newly imposed practices.
What are some examples of integrated farming?
These systems also tighten nutrient and energy cycles and use internal resources such as biological pest controls, solar or wind energy, biologically fixed nitrogen, and other nutrients from green manures, organic matter or soil reserves. Many reduced- or low-input farming systems are examples of integrated farming systems.
What are some examples of animal organ systems?
For example, animal organ systems, such as the digestive, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, exist as such but are not viable in isolation; however, when combined in an animal structure, the emergent property of life becomes apparent.
What are the properties of agroecosystems?
In agroecosystems, structural properties (e.g., soil type, climate, biodiversity) drive functions such as plant productivity , nitrogen retention or greenhouse gas emissions, as well as emergent properties such as stability and resilience.
What are the different types of agricultural production systems?
The types of feed or row crop grown by farmers depends on the traditional, organic or conventional management systems available. Crop Production and management of corn, cotton,wheat, soybean and tobacco crops generates profit to the farmers. Crop production also includes feed sources and resource inputs used to produce crops required to maintain the dairy herd and contribute to the meat industry.Feeds grown include corn grain or silage; alfalfa hay and silage; soybean and soybean meal; oats; wheat; distiller’s grains solids. Animals maintained by farmers are provided with dietary supplements or minerals and grass or hay for forage. Resource inputs in crop production include equipments or machinery, fuel for tractors, pesticides, fertilizers and packaging materials.
What are the inputs for crop production?
Resource inputs in crop production include equipments or machinery, fuel for tractors, pesticides, fertilizers and packaging materials.
What are some of the best practices for food crop production?
Some of food crop production practices include mixed, subsistence, plantation farming and others. Mixed farming is an agricultural system practiced on the same piece of land by farmers to cultivate crops and raise animals simultaneously. Different crops with different maturity periods are grown continuously throughout the season at same time using best practices with good rainfall or irrigation facilities. Subsistence farming allows farmer to produce food with simple farm tools on small land holding. The farmers in this system are perceived poor that do not use electricity and irrigation system, fertilisers, pesticides or improved seeds;reducing the productivity.
What are the different types of feed production?
The most common types of feed production involve nomadic and pastoral farming. Pastoral or Livestock farming avoid crops and aim at producing only livestock for dairy farming, raising beef cattle or sheep for wool. Farmers use available feed resources on established pasture lands to feed the livestock without moving around like in nomadic farming. This system is expensive and not sustainable when excessive grazing destroys the natural fields forcing farmers to buy feed for the herd. Agricultural farming system of nomadic farming is similar to pastoral farming but herdsmen move animals like cattle, goats, sheep, horses, camel or donkeys in search of water and suitable grazing fields.
What is plantation farming?
Plantation farming or tree crop farming is an agricultural farming system for farmers of single crop like cocoa, tea, coffee, rubber, spices or fruits like apples, avocado, grapes, oranges, mangoes, etc grown on commercial basis on a large piece of land. The system requires good management and technical skills with a substantial amount …
What is an arable system?
Arable system of farming is practiced in a small scale or commercial scale to grow only annual crops like cassava, plantain, vegetables, grains and legumes without mixed or pastoral farming.
What is agricultural production?
Agricultural production definition. Agricultural production. definition. Agricultural production means the commercial production of food or fiber. Agricultural production means the production of any growing grass or crop attached to the surface of the land, whether or not the grass or crop is to be sold commercially, …
Why is agricultural insurance important?
In order to keep the family income stability, the USA government advocates Agricultural insurance strongly so that farmers, even if due to the loss caused by natural disasters, the payment of insurance can also help them keep the life stable and renew the Agricultural production, thus prevent the bankruptcy of farmers from spreading throughout the basis of economic development and social stability of USA.
Will agriculture be reformulated?
Agricultural production will be successfully reformulated in rural regions, development of new businesses and services, countryside tourism will be encouraged and depopulation trends of these regions will be significantly diminished.
What is agricultural system?
Spedding  defined an agricultural system, as a system with an agricultural purpose and output. Haines  considers agricultural systems as food production systems. It appears that there is a broad interpretation between the words and terms; agriculture and farming, agricultural production, a farming system and an agricultural production …
What is the only method farmers use to grow crops?
It is apparent that throughout history farmers have slowly learnt to develop ‘manuring’ or ‘tending’ practices to grow plants and manipulate their agricultural systems and at one time the ‘organic’ approach using crop rotation, manures and some mineral fertilisers, appeared to be the only dominant method. However, during the last two hundred years …
What is the dynamic hierarchy of agriculture?
In effect a dynamic hierarchy can function which can be influenced by what farming system is chosen and the agricultural production system that is selected.
Is farming dependent on plants?
farming systems are in turn dependent on the plants and ultimately the soil. [Albrecht, 1975; Podolinsky, 1985]. Each agricultural production system is unique and can be related to numerous inherent assumptions and basic limitations.