what is puddling in agriculture



Puddling is the tillage of rice paddies while flooded, an ancient practice that is used to prepare for rice cultivation. Historically, this has been accomplished by dragging a weighted harrow


In agriculture, a harrow (often called a set of harrows in a plurale tantum sense) is an implement for breaking up and smoothing out the surface of the soil. In this way it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for deeper tillage. Harrowing is often carried out on fields t…

across a flooded paddy


Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world’s human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane a…

field behind a buffalo or ox, and is now accomplished using mechanized approaches, often using a walking tractor.


What are the advantages of puddling in farming?

Puddling is achieved by repeated intensive tillage under ponded-water conditions, which serves to break down soil aggregates, reduce macro-porosity, reduce soil strength in the puddled layer, …

What is puddling?

 · Puddling in agriculture means wet cultivation of land that mixes water and soil to produce an improvised layer. You can get it by ploughing and harrowing it at progressively less water content. In other words, you can call it rice cultivation .

What causes puddling in soil?

Meaning of Puddling: Puddling of some heavy-textured soils leads to an increase in total soil volume and a decrease in bulk density. This is due to the destruction of aggregates and the …

What is the significance of puddling in Lepidoptera reproduction?



What is meant by puddling in agriculture?

Puddling is achieved by repeated intensive tillage under ponded-water conditions, which serves to break down soil aggregates, reduce macro-porosity, reduce soil strength in the puddled layer, disperse fine clay particles, and form a dense zone of compaction (i.e., plow pan) in subsoil.

What is puddling of soil?

Definition. Soil puddling for paddy rice production is the process of working saturated or near-saturated soil into soft structureless mud. Tillage in lowland rice production systems (paddy rice) is synonymous with puddling.

What is puddling and its important?

Puddling can be defined as the process of breaking down soil aggregates into uniform mud, accomplished by applying mechanical force to the soil at high moisture content. It may also be defined as the mechanical reduction of the apparent specific volume of soil.

How is soil puddling achieved?

Puddling is wet cultivation of land that mixes soil and water to produce an impervious layer. It is achieved by plowing the flooded soil and harrowing it at progressively lower water contents. A clay content exceeding 20%, dominance of smectitic clays, and sodium saturation facilitate puddling.

What is puddling in agriculture class 8?

Answer: Puddling is wet cultivation of land that mixes soil and water to produce an impervious layer. It is achieved by plowing the flooded soil and harrowing it at progressively lower water contents. … Puddling benefits rice by controlling weeds and conserving water.

What is puddling in rice crop?

Puddling is an important process in the field of paddy. It is compulsory to do this process, when transplanting is done with the help of machine. In this process, plough the field properly with the help of MB plow, then left the field for 24 hours after filing water to maintain the moisture in the field.

What is the purpose of puddling the soil during land preparation in lowland areas?

Lowland rice fields, for example, are usually puddled to develop a hard pan and reduce water loss. Upland ricefields, on the other hand, do not necessarily have to be puddled. In resource-limiting environments, dry preparation can be adapted.

What is puddling and write its benefits and constraints?

Meaning of Puddling: Those soils in which the clay fraction disperses when the soil is worked wet, form a random gel-like structure of the soil particles. The micro-aggregates are ‘destabilized’ by the puddling. As water dries up, the soft puddle soil will tend to ‘harden’.

Is tillage implement puddling?

Tillage implements commonly used for puddling include backward inclined narrow tines, discs, powered rotary cultivators, puddlers, conical rotor, etc. In Pakistan, the tractor-operated cultivator is mainly used to puddle the fields in standing-water condition.

How does puddling increase bulk density?

During puddling, the soil aggregates break into finer particles and remain suspended in water. Thereafter, settlement of soil particles in the pore spaces of soil mass causes increase in bulk density.


What are the advantages of gelled puddling?

The advantages of a gelled puddling-like dessert are convenience and an economy of time. The consumer buys a container of fruit syrup that is easily mixed with an equal volume of cold milk, to obtain in a few minutes without refrigeration a dessert with the consistency of a pudding. An LMA pectin standardized for this purpose is used (Table XII ). Calcium sensitivity is a critical property of the LMA pectin for this application. For best results, pH should be 4.0–4.2. Above this range, the product either will not set or will set very slowly.

How does puddling affect lepidoptera?

Puddling is linked to lepidopteran reproduction and possibly other physiological activities. Through puddling, the male G. septentrionis sequesters nearly 20 μg of sodium, approximately half of which is conveyed nuptially to the female via the spermatophore. About 5 μg of the transferred sodium is incorporated into the eggs. A nuptial transfer of sodium is also known from the European skipper ( Thymelicus lineola ), another puddling species. In this butterfly, there is apparently no endowment of eggs with male-derived sodium, but access to the mineral does enhance male mating success. No studies have directly examined whether male Lepidoptera contribute puddle-derived amino acids to their mates. However, such a bestowal is quite plausible, given that males of certain non-puddling lepidopterans transfer amino acids via the spermatophore. The observed relationship between paternal consumption of an amino acid solution and increased egg viability in the tiger swallowtail may reflect such a nuptial transfer.

What causes cracks in paddy fields?

Shrinkage of cracks in clayey paddy fields are major pathways for the drainage of excess water through tile drainage. Yoshida and Adachi (2001) reported that among the various features that affect the formation of cracks in paddy fields, puddling, cropping practices, and water management are the most significant factors that govern cracking in Vertisols. Being useful in optimum management, these practices also have direct practical solutions/implications. Early studies on the effect of crops on the cracking characteristics by Johnson and Hill (1944), Johnson (1962), and Fox (1964) indicated that large cracks develop in between rows in upland fields. Johnson and Hill (1944) ascribed the development of such cracks to the occurrence of the cleavage plane at the point of least resistance with the highest moisture content. Similarly, Johnson (1962) analyzed the impact of the interval between upland crops on cracking patterns and found that the cracks become wider as the interval between the crops is widened. Fox (1964) opined that the development of interrow cracks could be ascribed to the anchoring of soil by the crop roots. Sharma and Verma (1977) and Mitchell and Van Genuchten (1992) also reinforced the clarifications for the development of cracks between rows. In a laboratory experiment, Yoshida et al. (2001) observed that bidirectional water movement occurring between rows of crops could lead to the development of interrow cracks. Furthermore, they also reinforced their experimental results with a numerical simulation of tensile effective stress. Results further revealed that the absorption of water by plants in rows can create cracks at the center of the interrow spaces. If crop transpiration exerts a prominent effect, the cracking pattern varies depending on when the field is dried because the transpiration rate varies with the stage of the crop. Therefore, factorial analysis is needed to understand between the two functions of roots, i.e., water absorption and anchoring of the soil ( Yoshida and Adachi, 2001 ). A study carried out by Nemoto et al. (1975) indicated formation of wider cracks at footprints or wheel tracks where the soil was mechanically kneaded. Therefore, Nemeto and colleagues indicated that mechanical degradation of the soil structure results in development of wider cracks. Puddling, the technique for physical management of paddy soil, exerts the most prominent effect on the properties of soil and in turn it changes the pore–size distribution, water retention, and shrinkage characteristics ( Sharma and De Datta, 1986 ). However, the relationship between the puddling intensity and cracking patterns has not yet been studied quantitatively. Puddling should also be examined as a key factor affecting cracking patterns. Yoshida and Adachi (2001) examined three factors: existence of transpiration, row spacing, and puddling intensity, to understand the behaviors of cracking patters in a paddy field using the crack direction index (CDI).·The CDI denotes the direction of cracks relative to the rows of rice, as well as the equivalent width (EW) and compactness (CP) which indicates the average crack width and the intricacy of the cracking patterns, respectively. Yoshida and Adachi arrived at the following conclusions: (1) transpiration from row-planted rice induces straight cracks along the rows in the middle of the interrow spaces, (2) the width of the major cracks increases as the row spacing of rice is doubled from the conventional 30 cm, implying that the cracked domains are more concentrated into particular areas with the increase in row spacing, and (3) repetition of puddling favorably contributes to the development of straight cracks along the rows as well as to a concentrated distribution and simple shape of the cracks. Mohanty and Painuli (2003, 2006) reported that cracking pattern was more under puddled soils and increased with puddling intensity compared to unpuddling. Similar results were reported under rice–wheat system by Tomar et al. (2009). Painuli et al. (2017) also reported that excessive wetness and higher compaction produced wider and deeper cracks, which can be managed by the incorporation of organic matter and gypsum at the rate of 10 Mg ha − 1 in the soil, and these amendments can reduce the width and depth of cracks.

How to grow rice in NW India?

The traditional practice of growing rice in NW India, which involves puddling, transplanting, and continuous flooding until shortly before harvest, has many disadvantages including high tillage costs, high labor costs, impairment of soil structure for upland crops grown in rotation with rice, and high water requirement for puddling (100–250 mm). Therefore, replacement of the puddled transplanted rice (PTR) production system with a non-puddled system has many potential benefits. There are two main rice establishment methods which eliminate puddling and manual transplanting: dry seeding and mechanical transplanting. In both cases, crop establishment can take place following dry tillage, or in the absence of any tillage (zero till). Dry seeding may take place on raised beds or on the flat. Dry seeded rice (DSR) on the flat is a technology which does not require any specialized farm implements, and it can be sown using the same seed drill in more or less the same manner as other crops such as wheat. The duration of DSR in the main field is longer than for a transplanted crop, and DSR is sown at a time when evaporative demand is high and therefore needs several irrigations for establishment ( Sudhir-Yadav et al., 2011b ). However, both PTR and mechanically transplanted rice need continuous flooding for the first couple of weeks after transplanting, resulting in higher irrigation requirement for establishment than DSR.

What is the practice of mixing surface soil with water to make it soft for transplanting?

Puddling refers to the practice of mixing surface soil with water to make it soft for transplanting, the traditional crop establishment method for rice.

Is puddle derived sodium a function?

Beyond reproduction, other potential functions (e.g., neuromuscular activity) of puddle-derived sodium are receiving attention. A comparative study of the nymphalid genus Charaxes showed that certain species are attracted to sodium and puddle intently, yet produce spermatophores with relatively little sodium. A morphometric analysis of riodinid butterflies revealed a positive correlation between species’ metabolic costs associated with flight and the tendency of their males to puddle.

1. John Deere 5050 D

If you are searching for the best Puddling Tractor in India? In that case, John Deere 5050 D is perfect for you. It comes with all the specifications that help smooth puddling on the farms. The company manufactures this tractor especially for pulling purposes.

2. New Holland 4710 Paddy Special

The company manufactures New Holland 4710 for paddy farming. It is the best tractor for high performance on the paddy farms. It has an optional Mechanical/Power Steering for the controlled work. With this, the tractor comes with 47 HP and 43 PTO Hp, which is great for puddling tasks.

3. Sonalika RX 42 Mahabali

Sonalika RX 42 Mahabali is a tractor popular among the Indian farmers for puddling operations. It comes with 42 HP and 2000 powerful engine rated RPM with a dry type air filter. Controlled puddling in agriculture comes with 10 Forward + 5 Reverse Constant mesh gearboxes with an optional Single / Dual clutch.

4. Sonalika RX 47 Mahabali

Sonalika RX 47 Mahabali is the mahabali in all the puddling operations. It is perfectly designed for puddling operations. The tractor comes from the house of Sonalika tractor, who is an expert in making world class tractors for specific areas. It is a 2wd puddling tractor with 50 HP power and 3 cylinders for high performance on the field.

5. Massey Ferguson 244 DI DynaTrack 4WD

The next tractor in the list of Puddling Special tractors is Massey Ferguson 244 DI DynaTrack 4WD. It is an exceptional tractor and has a high demand among the farmers. The main reason is, it is the perfect 4wd tractor puddling in the market. Massey Ferguson 244 DI DynaTrack 4WD comes with a 44 HP, 3 cylinders and Wet, 3-stage type air filter.

6. Massey Ferguson 246 DI DynaTrack 4WD

The second dynatrac in this list is Massey Ferguson 246 DI DynaTrack 4WD, the best tractor puddling model. It comes with 46 HP power, 3 no.of cylinders, 2700 CC engine capacity and an Inline fuel pump for the sleek puddling operations. With this, the tractor has 12 Forward + 12 Reverse Fully constant mesh gearbox and a Dual diaphragm clutch.

7. Mahindra Yuvo 575 DI 4WD

The next tractor in this list is from the house of Mahindra & Mahindra, Mahindra Yuvo 575 DI 4WD. Mahindra Tractors is a well known company that manufactures a wide range of tractors for productive farming tasks. Mahindra Yuvo 575 DI 4WD tractor is one of them which is best for puddling operations. It has 45 HP, 4 no.

What is required for puddling the soil?

1. A large quantity of water is required for puddling the soil.

Why does puddling soil increase volume?

This is due to the destruction of aggregates and the corresponding loss of inter-aggregate. Those soils in which the clay fraction disperses when the soil is worked wet, form a random gel-like structure of the soil particles.

How are weeds controlled?

Weeds are controlled by puddling. Buried weeds in the mud do not come out easily. 4. Loss of water by percolation is reduced because of structure less soil and the formation of tillage pan. 5. Increase in availability of nutrients, especially phosphorus, iron and manganese.

Why do you plough after each ploughing?

The lands are ploughed and re-ploughed, with planking after each ploughing, to bring the soil to a fine ‘puddle’ condition. The whole of the upper layer of the soil should be in this smooth soft muddy condition, permitting the roots to ramify freely in the medium without being obstructed by hard layers.

What are the toxic substances in the paddy field?

4. Because of absence of air in the paddy field, toxic substances like hydrogen sulphide, ferrous oxide etc., are formed.

What is puddling in water?

Puddling is both the material and the process of lining a water body such as a channel or pond with puddle clay (puddle, puddling) – a watertight (low hydraulic conductivity) material based on clay and water mixed to be workable.

What is a puddle lining?

The material and process of lining a water body with a watertight clay layer. New puddle lining to the sides of a restored section of the Montgomery Canal at Redwith Bridge. A huge plug of puddle clay temporarily blocks the end of the canal. Puddling is both the material and the process of lining a water body such as a channel or pond …

When was puddle clay used?

Starting about 1840 puddle clay was used more widely as the water-retaining element (or core) within earthfill dams, particularly in the Pennines. Its usage in UK dams was superseded about 1960 by the use of rolled clay in the core, and better control of moisture content.

How thick is a puddle?

The puddle is laid about 10 inches (25 cm) thick at the sides and nearly 3 ft (0.91 m) thick at the bottom of a canal, built up in layers. Puddle has to be kept wet in order to remain waterproof so it is important for canals to be kept filled with water. The clay is laid down with a tool called a ‘punner’, or ‘pun’, …

How long is a punner?

The clay is laid down with a tool called a ‘punner’, or ‘pun’, a large rectangular block on a handle about 5 feet (1.5 m) long, or trodden down, or compacted by some other means (e.g. by an excavator using the convex outside of its scoop, or, historically, by driving cattle across the area).

Who invented puddling?

Puddling is used in maintaining canals or reservoirs on permeable ground. The technique of puddling and its use was developed by early canal engineer James Brindley; it is considered his greatest contribution to engineering.

What type of material is used to build dams?

A considerable number of early notable dams were built in that era and they are now sometimes referred to as the ‘Pennines embankment’ type. These dams are characterized by a slender vertical puddle clay core supported on both sides by earthfill shoulders of more heterogeneous material. To control under-seepage through the natural foundation below the dam, the Pennines embankments generally constructed a puddle clay-filled cutoff trench in rock directly below the central core. Later construction often used concrete to fill the cutoff trench.

What does “puddling” mean?

puddling. the act of a person or thing that puddles. Metallurgy. the act or process of melting pig iron in a reverberatory furnace (puddling furnace ) and converting it into wrought iron. the act or method of making puddle. puddle (def. 3).

How to use “puddling” in a sentence?

But the working door of a puddling furnace is the door through which the puddler does his work. We ate this reformed food and found we were growing weaker every day at the puddling furna ce. The old puddling process was more capable of removing phosphorus and sulphur.

Do buffaloes puddle up the soil?

The buffaloes are puddling up the soil before the seed is planted.

What is a cotton plant puller?

Cotton plant puller: It is prepared from two iron plates, one is long and straight with lower side at right angle and the second is short and curved having two ends at right angle fitted at lower side of the straight iron plate with bolt and nut. This puller is heavy in weight.

What is a Kudali made of?

(2) For lifting water from well. (3) For preparing solution of fertilizer, pesticide, fungicides, weedicides etc. 5. Kudali: f It is made up of iron. Its one end is 3-4 cm wide and sharp, while other end is blunt and made round to insert handle.

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