What is rainfed agriculture


Which are rainfed crops?

Rainfed agriculture includes both permanent crops (such as rubber, tea, and coffee) as well as annual crops (such as wheat, maize, and rice).

What do you mean about rainfed and dryland agriculture?

Dry Farming: Cultivation of crops in areas where rainfall is less than 750 mm per annum. Dryland Farming: Cultivation of crops in areas receiving rainfall above 750 mm. Rainfed Farming: Cultivation of crops in regions receiving more than 1,150 mm.

What is rainfed agriculture What are the problems of rainfed agriculture in India?

Rainfed Crops are prone to breaks in the monsoon during the crop growth due to water stress. This water stress may be due to variability of rainfall, delay in sowing, diversity in crop management practice and variability of the soil type. The prolonged breaks can result in partial o r complete failure of the crops.

What is rainfed agri?

C) Rainfed farming: is crop production in regions with annual rainfall more than 1150 mm. Crops are not subjected to soil moisture stress during the crop period. Emphasis is often on disposal of excess water.

Is dryland and rainfed agriculture same?

Rainfed agriculture refers to the area under various types of crops where the cultivation is dependent upon the monsoon rainfall. Rain-dependent areas can be broadly split into two: ‘dry lands’, which receive less than 750 mm of rain a year; and rainfed areas, which receive more than 750 mm.

What are the rainfed crops in India explain?

Rainfed Farming and Agro-Ecology Rain-fed areas produce nearly 90% of millets, 80% of oilseeds and pulses, 60% of cotton and support nearly 40% of our population and 60% of our livestock. These facts present an existing vulnerability to ensuing climate change.

What are the rainfed areas in India?

Rainfed areas also suffer from droughts once every three years. Western Rajasthan, eastern Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kashmir and Andhra Pradesh are most vulnerable to droughts. Rainfed crops account for 48 per cent of the total area under food crops and 68 per cent under non-food crops.

How much agriculture in India is rainfed?

Rainfed agriculture occupies about 51 percent of country’s net sown area and accounts for nearly 40 percent of the total food production.

What is the meaning of rainfed?

Rainfed agriculture is a type of farming that relies on rainfall for water. It provides much of the food consumed by poor communities in developing countries.

What is rain fed river?

The Rain-fed rivers are rivers that dry up in the summer, but it flows throughout the rainy season whereas a perennial river also flows throughout the year in all the seasons.

Why is our agriculture still rain fed?

Rainfed agriculture depends on infiltrated rainfall, which is stored in the upper layers of the soil and is available to plant roots, called “green water”. Rainfed agriculture builds climate resilience and helps moves farmers beyond subsistence farming towards sustainable livelihoods, development and economic growth.

What is rainfed agriculture?

Rainfed agriculture is a type of farming that relies on rainfall for water. It provides much of the food consumed by poor communities in developing countries. E.g., rainfed agriculture accounts for more than 95% of farmed land in sub-Saharan Africa, 90% in Latin America, 75% in the Near East and North Africa, 65% in East Asia, and 60% in South Asia.

Why is rainfed agriculture important?

Most countries in the world depend primarily on rainfed agriculture for their grain food. Despite large strides made in improving productivity and environmental conditions in many developing countries, a great number of poor families in Africa and Asia still face poverty, hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition where rainfed agriculture is the main agricultural activity. These problems are exacerbated by adverse biophysical growing conditions and the poor socioeconomic infrastructure in many areas in the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT is the home to 38% of the developing countries’ poor, 75% of whom live in rural areas. Over 45% of the world’s hungry and more than 70% of its malnourished children live in the SAT.

How much of the grain production has increased since the 1960s?

Since the late 1960s, agricultural land use has expanded by 20–25%, which has contributed to approximately 30% of the overall grain production growth during the period. The remaining yield outputs originated from intensification through yield increases per unit land area. However, the regional variation is large, as is the difference between irrigated and rainfed agriculture. In developing countries, rainfed grain yields are on average 1.5 hectare, compared with 3.1 hectare for irrigated yields, and increase in production from rainfed agriculture has mainly originated from land expansion.

Why is water use low in Africa?

Levels of productivity, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, are low due to degraded soils, high levels of evaporation, droughts, floods and a general lack of effective water management . A major study into water use by agriculture, known as the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, coordinated by the International Water Management Institute, noted a close correlation between hunger, poverty, and water. However, it concluded that there was much opportunity to raise the productivity of rainfed farming. Managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation is believed to hold the key to helping the greatest number of poor people. It called for a new era of water investments and policies for upgrading rainfed agriculture that would go beyond controlling field-level soil and water to bring new freshwater sources through better local management of rainfall and runoff.

Is rainfed agriculture irrigated?

Rainfed agriculture is distinguished in most of the literature from irrigated agriculture, which applies water from other sources, such as freshwater from streams, rivers and lakes or groundwater. As farmers become more aware of and develop better water resource management strategies, especially in light of climate change adaptation strategies, most agriculture exists on a spectrum between rainfed and irrigated agriculture .

What is it?

Rainfed agriculture is the art of growing horticultural plants that are adapted to live without too many problems in the area where they are grown. To achieve this, the farmer must do two things:

What are their characteristics?

It is practiced in regions of the world where rainfall is very scarce or concentrated in a few months a year.

Do you have any drawbacks?

The truth is that yes: if the rains are delayed the yield of cultivated plants drops, so that the collection will be less.

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What are the differences between rainfed and mixed farming?

Whereas rainfed farming systems practised in steep and highland areas are mixed crop livestock systems. In these areas declining soil fertility and water scarcity are emerging as major constraints. On the one hand, coastal artisanal fishing is often mixed farming systems. In contrast, coastal artisanal farming systems often have good access to services but the underlying resource base varies. The few areas with fertile soil often face serious risks of storms and floods as that occurs around the Bay of Bengal. Many systems include some tree crop production (e.g. coconut and cashew) and small livestock, especially goats and poultry.

What is dryland farming?

Not only how to farm but how much to farm and whether to farm must be taken into consideration. Above all else, dryland farming must emphasize the capture and efficient use of precipitation.

What is conservation agriculture?

Adoption of conservation agriculture (CA) in rainfed farming is an emerging dimension for recycling biomass into soil system and improving SOC stock in the surface layer. In arid (< 500-mm rainfall) region, low tillage is comparable to CT and weed problem is manageable. In semiarid region (500–1000 mm), CT can be superior to reduced tillage, and successful crop production depends on water infiltration and conserving soil moisture in the profile. Weed infestation is an ephemeral problem depending upon the seasonal rainfall distribution in subhumid (~ 1000 mm of rainfall per annum) regions, but there is a possibility of reducing the intensity of CT by using herbicides. A long-term study comprising tillage (conventional (CT) and reduced (RT)) and conjunctive nutrient use (fertilizers and low cost farm-based organics) treatments conducted in Alfisol (Typic Haplustalf) at Hyderabad, India, involving sorghum and mung bean cropping system, indicated significant improvements in grain yields and SYI of several crops ( Sharma et al., 2004 ). The results of this and other experiments have raised the expectations of improving rainfed farming on Alfisols by using some kind of CA system. These soils are shallow, with compacted subsoil horizon (murrum layer), and are also susceptible to hard setting. To harness advantages of CA systems in semiarid tropics, it is essential to retain CR on the surface as mulch ( Lal, 1997 ), which is a major challenge in India due to competing demands as fodder for livestock and other uses. But the potential for CA exists in rainfed crops like maize, pigeon pea, castor, cotton, sunflower, etc., where CRs are not used as feed and for other competing purposes. Soils cultivated for rainfed farming are prone to numerous constraints (e.g., surface sealing, cracking, and hard setting). Ensuring good seed germination and crop stand establishment are major challenges to be addressed with CA and CR management. Being the only source of water, interactions between rainwater conservation and CA must be studied in an integrated manner. With canopy cover of maize grown during the rainy season, there is a possibility of growing a postrainy legume (i.e., horse gram or Macrotyloma uniflorum) crop in degraded Alfisols of Southern India, which is otherwise a monocropped area ( Fig. 5.24 ).

Why are millets important?

The major strategic importance of millets with regard to climate change is their short life cycle, a trait which is very important for risk avoidance under rainfed farming. Moreover, they have efficient root system for extracting water deeper from soil under drought situation.

What are millets used for?

Millets provide food, feed, and fodder under harsh growing conditions of low rainfall and steep mountain slopes. The deployment of plant genetic resources in risk copying strategies has been practiced by farmers for centuries in their traditional production systems.

Is irrigated farming a productive enterprise?

With a practically assured perennial water supply, an abundance of sunshine, a year-round growing season, deep and fertile soils, and relative security from the hazards of drought and erosion that beset rainfed farming, irrigated farming became a highly productive enterprise.

Can legumes increase grain yield?

In a mixed farming system, legumes can increase grain yield, N uptake and grain protein content in the following cereal such as sorghum ( Armstrong et al., 1999 ). India is the world’s largest producer and consumer of pulses, and the demand is increasing with increase in population ( Dixit et al., 2015 ).

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What percentage of the world’s food production is rainfed?

Rainfed agriculture occupies about 51 percent of country’s net sown area and accounts for nearly 40 percent of the total food production. Rainfed agriculture is complex, highly diverse and risk prone. It is characterized by low levels of productivity and input usage coupled with vagaries of monsoon emanating from climate change;

What is RAD in agriculture?

RAD focuses on Integrated Farming System (IFS) for enhancing productivity and minimizing risks associated with climatic variability’s. Under this system, crops/cropping system is integrated with activities like horticulture, livestock, fishery, agro-forestry, apiculture etc. to enable farmers not only in maximizing farm returns for sustaining livelihood, but also to mitigate the impacts of drought, flood or other extreme weather events with the income opportunity from allied activities during crop damage.

What is the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture?

National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture(NMSA) 1.National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) NMSA is envisaged as one of the eight Missions outlined under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), NMSA aim at promoting Sustainable Agriculture through climate change adaptation measures.

What is micro irrigation?

Micro Irrigation technologies viz. drip and sprinkler irrigation is a proven technology which has gained immense popularity amongst the farmers in India. Micro irrigation not only helps in water saving, but also in reducing fertilizer usage, labour expenses, and other input costs and enhancing farmers’ income.

What is integrated farming system?

Integrated Farming System (IFS) is an effective initiative of DAC&FW for climate resilient and sustainable livelihoods of the farmers adopting cluster approach.

When was the impact evaluation study for micro irrigation carried out?

An impact evaluation study for Micro Irrigation was carried out in the year 2014 and major findings of the study are:

How much fertilizer is saved?

Saving of fertilizers vary from 7% to 42%.

What is rainfed agriculture?

Rainfed agriculture is a type of farming that relies on rainfall for water. It provides much of the food consumed by poor communities in developing countries. Rainfed areas in India are highly diverse, ranging from resource rich areas to resource-constrained areas.

How much do farmers in rainfed areas make?

However, farmers in rainfed areas earn only 20-30 per cent from farm-related activities. They account for 89 per cent of millets production, 88 per cent of pulses, 73 per cent of cotton, 69 per cent of oilseeds and 40 per cent rice production in the country. Besides, rain-fed areas support 64 per cent of cattle, …

What are the problems farmers face in rainfed areas?

Over the years, farmers in rain-fed areas have been facing several adversities such as climate variability, crop failure, non-remunerative prices, etc. The rainfed lands suffer from a number of biophysical and socio-economic constraints which affect productivity of crops and livestock. These include:

What is the NRAA?

The National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA) is working on developing a comprehensive drought-proofing action plan for 24 districts in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Why do rainfed crops break in the monsoon?

Rainfed Crops are prone to breaks in the monsoon during the crop growth due to water stress. This water stress may be due to variability of rainfall, delay in sowing, diversity in crop management practice and variability of the soil type. The prolonged breaks can result in partial or complete failure of the crops.

What percentage of India’s land is rainfed?

Rainfed Agriculture in India. Rainfed areas account for nearly 57 per cent of the agricultural land in India. These areas assume special significance in terms of ecology, agricultural productivity and livelihoods for millions. With proper management, rainfed areas have the potential of contributing a larger share to food grain production.

How much do farmers in India make from agriculture?

About 61 per cent of India’s farmers rely on rain-fed agriculture and 55 per cent of the gross cropped area is under rain-fed farming. Farmers in irrigated areas earn 60 per cent of their income from agriculture. However, farmers in rainfed areas earn only 20-30 per cent from farm-related activities. They account for 89 per cent of millets …


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