What is soil science in agriculture pdf

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Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.

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Answer

Which is the best soil for agriculture?

The “classic” best soils for farming are drained wetlands. These high organic matter soils are rich in nutrients. Also, former wetlands will likely have better supply of soil moisture than the comparable uplands. There are high environmental costs from draining and farming wetlands, but that’s a different topic.

What do you call the study of soils in agriculture?

They include:

  • Olericulture: the production of vegetables.
  • Pomology, also called fruticulture: the production of fruits and nuts.
  • Viticulture: the production of grapes (largely intended for winemaking).
  • Floriculture: the production of flowering and ornamental plants.
  • Turf management: the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure and amenity use.

More items…

Which US state has the best soil for agriculture?

Which state has the best fruit?

  • 1. California. …
  • Washington. …
  • Idaho. …
  • Florida. …
  • Colorado. …
  • Texas. …
  • North Carolina. …
  • New York.

What are the uses of soil in agriculture?

Union Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar on Tuesday released standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the use of drones in the farm sector, including for spraying pesticides as well as other soil and crop nutrients. The adoption of drone technology …

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What is the meaning of soil science in agriculture?

Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.


What is soil in soil science PDF?

Soil is a three-phase system containing solids, liquids, and gasses that strongly interact with each other. Soil contains four components, mineral fragments, organic matter, soil air, and water.


What is the contribution of soil science in agriculture?

Soil science provides support to crop production, raw materials to million industries, water quality for biota, animal and human survival, recycling of abundant dead materials, landscaping for engineering and research purposes, foreign exchange for national income and accommodation for animal and human interactions.


What are branches of soil science?

Branches of Soil ScienceSoil Chemistry. It deals with the chemical constitution, chemical properties and processes taking place in the soil.Soil Biology. … Soil Mineralogy. … Soil Genesis and Classification (Pedology) … Soil Physics. … Soil Fertility. … Soil Salinity. … Soil Survey.More items…•


What is importance of soil science?

Soil science provides an understanding of how soil properties relate to and can be managed for optimal agricultural production, forest, range, and wetland management, urban land use, waste disposal and management, and reclamation of drastically disturbed sites, such as mines.


Who is the father of soil science?

Vasily DokuchaevCelebrating the 175th anniversary of Vasily Dokuchaev, the father of soil science. Born in Russia on 1st March 1846, Vasily Vasilyevich Dokuchaev is a very well-known figure to all soil scientists worldwide. As a Professor of Mineralogy and Geology at the St.


What is soil science called?

PedologyPedology is the study of soils in their natural setting (Figure 1) and has been equated with the study of soil genesis and soil classification. The people who study soils in these ways are pedologists.


What are the 4 soil types?

OSHA classifies soils into four categories: Solid Rock, Type A, Type B, and Type C. Solid Rock is the most stable, and Type C soil is the least stable. Soils are typed not only by how cohesive they are, but also by the conditions in which they are found.


What is soil used for?

Soil helps in the breakdown and immobilization of materials (fertilizers, chemicals, waste products, etc.) added to its surface. The soil is a complex environmental system, which employs (interactions) biological, chemical, and physical processes, to degrade harmful materials into less dangerous materials [4].


How does soil affect human activities?

The soil is utilized by exploiting its functions such as for agricultural productivity, environmental quality, source of raw materials and base for buildings. The inappropriate soil exploitations can also cause damages especially soil erosion. Soil erosion can threaten agricultural productivity, food security, environmental sustainability and lead to the damage or even destruction of infrastructures. Soil erosion caused by water is the biggest soil erosion that occurs in the world, especially in the tropics and areas with high rainfall. The factors controlling soil erosion by water are the erosivity of rainfall, the erodibility of the soil, the slope of the land and plant cover. Plant cover is the most important factor that can affect other factors. The improvement of plant cover on the lands with high erosion risks become important to reduce those risks. The use of cover crops can be taken as a measure for soil plant cover improvement. Cover crops have dense with different depth root systems can help the soil to absorb more water and hold the soil surface. The density of the root system and soil cover of cover crops also can reduce the energy of runoff and the mass movement of soil surface. Previous studies show that some crops used as cover crops reduced the rate of soil erosion caused by water and high potential to be used for soil erosion control.


What are the sources of radiation in soil?

Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main terrestrial sources of radiation that are located at different levels in the soil depending on the geographical and geological conditions and contribute to increase of the natural radiation levels of the regions. In addition to the natural radiation sources, Cesium-137 which can spread from nuclear tests and accidents such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident is also an important artificial radiation source of that contributes to the increase of radioactivity in the soil. Determination of both natural and artificial radioactivity levels of soil is important in terms of assessing people’s possible exposure to the internal radiation and ensuring that people can be protected from the harmful effects of the external radiation. In this study, on the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident, soil samples were collected from Rize province which was affected by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 1986 and the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were measured and radiological hazard parameters were calculated. Radioactivity measurements were caried out with gamma spectrometry system with a high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations were measured in range of 4.45 ± 0.39 to 32.19 ± 0.78 Bq kg⁻¹ with an average of 17.68 ± 0.68 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, 5.58 ± 0.65 to 43.61 ± 1.67 Bq kg⁻¹ with an average of 22.53 ± 1.26 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²³²Th, 28.82 ± 1.37 to 773.19 ± 12.14 Bq kg⁻¹ with an average of 277.14 ± 6.24 Bq kg⁻¹ for ⁴⁰K and 1.99 ± 0.17 to 376.85 ± 2.52 Bq kg⁻¹ with an average of 110.11 ± 0.98 Bq kg⁻¹. The average activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K were found below the world median activity concentrations of 35, 30 and 400 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. Despite the high ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations were determined in present study compared to similar works being done in Turkey and other countries, the average activity concentration of ¹³⁷Cs in investigated samples was significantly found lower than the ¹³⁷Cs values in soil samples from Rize in 1990 carried out by TAEA. In present study, the average radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) values were below the recommended limits by UNSCEAR. The average absorbed dose rate in air (D) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) values were found lower than the world median values. The calculated excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) values for soil samples were obtained less than the precautionary limit of 0.29 × 10⁻³.


What is the biggest cause of soil erosion?

Soil erosion caused by water is the biggest soil erosion that occurs in the world, especially in the tropics and areas with high rainfall. The factors controlling soil erosion by water are the erosivity of rainfall, the erodibility of the soil, the slope of the land and plant cover.


What are the risks of soil erosion?

Soil erosion threatens agricultural productivity, food security and environmental sustainability. Soil erosion can also lead to the damage or even destruction of infrastructures (IAEA, 2015).


What is the goal of the Water Smart Agriculture program?

The goal of the Water Smart Agriculture (WSA) program is to improve food security in Central America through changes in policies, programs, and practices in water use efficiency. The Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) project is a component of WSA that aims to create human capital with knowledge and skills in sustainable soil and water management through the production of informative soil maps, under the guiding principle of “managing soils to manage water”. DSM provides a platform for producing detailed maps of soil types, properties and functions. However, the transition of DSM from research to operational levels brings a new set of challenges related to input, data processing and outputs. The major challenges identified during the pilot stage of the DSM project were: (i) soil data availability, quality and compatibility; (ii) lack of DSM skills; and (iii) lack of product delivery platforms. Training based on pilot projects was conducted to build local DSM capacity and infrastructure and incorporate tacit knowledge. Expanding from pilot stage to national level required the establishment of DSM teams that are multi-institutional and interdisciplinary. In order to achieve buy-in from the local and national governments, the DSM teams were comprised of members from public institutions and professional organizations and they adopted a participatory DSM approach and produced functional soil maps capable of supporting decisions at multiple levels.


Why are cover crops important?

Cover crops have dense with different depth root systems can help the soil to absorb more water and hold the soil surface. The density of the root system and soil cover of cover crops also can reduce the energy of runoff and the mass movement of soil surface.


What is soil science?

Soil science is concerned with processes taking place from the nanometer to the kilometer scale and beyond, and from the near-instantaneous to geologic timescales. It is common to speak of scales in a colloquial manner – ‘pore-scale,’ ‘lab-scale,’ ‘overnight’ – and the mental images that these terms invoke can be useful, although they are not quantitative. Less useful are terms such as ‘microscale,’ which naturally carry widely different meanings between, and even within, different disciplines. Because soil science is inherently interdisciplinary, such words will have different meanings even to different soil scientists and should be avoided. If quantitative terms are needed, then using the size itself is best: ‘meter-scale,’ for example.


When was soil science established?

Soil science as a scientific discipline was established in the 1800s. The discipline has developed a strong jargon which was needed to define and name the soil material and its many features. Semantics, or the science of meanings, has influenced the development of some subdisciplines in soil science (Wilde, 1953 ).


What is pedology in science?

Pedology is a subdiscipline of Soil Science; it is an interpretive venture into the existence of surficial earthy materials that we call as soils. It is a probabilistic world; all measurements contain uncertainty. Measurements do not include value judgments. Numbers to not care and soils do not care, people do.


Why are soils important to ecosystems?

Soils provide and support many interpretive functions in ecosystems. All soil functions are environmental because soils are integral parts of terrestrial ecosystems. Important ones include biomass transformations, partitioning of water, regulation of fluxes, providing habitats, and other uses.


What is the National Cooperative Soil Survey?

Since 1899 the partnership in soil surveys has been called the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS). When the Soil Conservation Service was formed in 1935 their soil surveys were primarily for privately owned farms rather than the county soil surveys of the National Soil Survey group.


What is the need for a historic understanding of soil science?

Given the expansion of the soil science discipline, there is a need for a historic understanding how we define soil, and how the definition has evolved over time. There is also a need to revisit what the definition of soil means and what such a definition should include.


What type of soil is found in northern Siberia?

Early investigators of polar soils showed all land in northern Siberia as being mantled with Tundra soil. The tundra is described as developed on a treeless plain of the north where conditions are swampy and the land is underlain by permanently frozen ground (permafrost).


What is the importance of soil science in agriculture?

What is the importance of soil science in Agribusiness? Agricultural soil science studies the physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical composition of soil by conducting research in soil classification, tillage,irrigation and drainage, plant nutrition,soil fertility and other areas related to agriculture that benefit agribusiness.


Why is soil important for agriculture?

Soil plays an important role in farm ecosystem by providing nutrients essential for the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Fertile soil is rich in nutrients and water highly suitable for agriculture and serves as the primary nutrient base for healthy crops.


How does soil help the environment?

Soilis a medium for plant growth, habitat for different species, filtration system for surface water and maintenance of atmospheric gases. Soil sustains life by providing food in form of essential minerals and nutrients; water and air to help survival and growth of plants, worms, fungi and bacteria. Soil not only soaks useful water and prevents the evaporation from the surface but also initiates crop growth, bio-materials production, anchor roots, allows transport of water and nutrients to the soil interface and roots of plants.Soil filters water to help in regulating the earth’s temperature and important greenhouse gases. It also provides the foundation for basic ecosystem function promoted by advances in natural resource and environmental sciences. Study of soil resources is critical to the environment, food and fibre production. Understanding techniques to improve soil conservation like cover crops, crop rotation, planted wind breaks and conservation tillage that affect both soil fertility and erosion are also important.


What is the branch of soil science that includes chemistry, formation, morphology, and classification of soil?

The branch of soil science involving chemistry, formation, morphology and classification of soil is pedology while edaphology includes influence of soil on microorganisms and plants. The classification and nomenclature is based on physical and chemical properties in layers or horizons of soil.


Why is soil important for plants?

Soil not only soaks useful water and prevents the evaporation from the surface but also initiates crop growth, bio-materials production, anchor roots, allows transport of water and nutrients to the soil interface and roots of plants.Soil filters water to help in regulating the earth’s temperature and important greenhouse gases.


What are the nutrients in soil?

Rich soil contains pH and primary plant nutrients like, nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium because of its previous or decaying content of organic matter along with minor nutrients that help in plant growth.


What are the benefits of soil?

Important benefits of soil include natural protector of seeds and plants; dispersal and germination of seeds within soil ecosystem; physical support system for plants; retaining and delivery of nutrients to crops.


When was the second edition of the soil taxonomy published?

Since the second edition (1951) was printed, a new soil taxonomy has been prepared and adopted. New and more intensive uses of soils have dictated changes, and advances in soil science as well as in related disciplines have provided new and more refined concepts and techniques.


What were the processes that led to the formation of soil in the 1930s?

During the 1930s, soil formation was explained in terms of loosely conceived processes, such as “podzolization,” “laterization,” and “calcification.”. These were presumed to be unique processes responsible for the observed common properties of the soils of a region (Jenny, 1946).


What soils have 7.5YR?

Gymer and Oska soils have 7.5YR or 5YR hue in the Bt horizon. In addition, Oska soils have a lithic contact within depths of 100 cm. Polo soils have 7.5YR and 5YR hue in the lower part of the B horizon. Grundy and Macksburg soils have lower chroma, mottles, or both in the upper part of the B horizon.


What camera is used for soil survey?

Cameras suitable for soil survey documentation include the 35mm – single-lens reflex, the 2 1/4 twinlens reflex, and the 4×5 “press” camera.


Why are helicopters used in soil surveys?

Aircraft, particularly helicopters, are used in some soil surveys to transport workers and equipment and to provide broad views of landscape and vegetation. Aircraft are useful for photographing landscapes, soil patterns, and land use. Availability, cost, and lack of conventional landing sites are the main limitations.


Where is the deposition of sediment carried by water likely to occur?

Deposition of sediment carried by water is likely anywhere that the velocity of running water is reduced—at the mouth of gullies, at the base of slopes, along stream banks, on alluvial plains, in reservoirs, and at the mouth of streams.

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