What is the history of agriculture

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Who are famous people in the history of Agriculture?

Agricultural Scientists 1 George Washington Carver. Agricultural scientist George Washington Carver is best remembered for promoting crops that… 2 M. S. Swaminathan. 3 Erich von Tschermak. Birthdate: November 15, 1871 Died: October 11, 1962 4 Justus von Liebig. 5 Kim Soon-kwon. 6 Norman …

What was the origin of Agriculture?

The origins of agriculture occurred from about 10 000 years ago in certain suitable regions, known as “core areas” or “nuclear zones.” The key factor in this process was the biological domestication of targeted plants and animals through selective breeding and other forms of selection (see Domestication and Development of Plant Cultivars).

What are 10 careers in agriculture?

Top Ten Careers in Agriculture

  • Vegetable Farmers. The most obvious agricultural career is being a farmer. …
  • Agriculture Education Teachers. …
  • Greenhouse Managers. …
  • Horticultural Scientists. …
  • Beekeepers. …
  • Christmas Tree Farmers. …
  • Food Scientists. …
  • Plant Pathologists. …
  • Poultry Scientists. …
  • Water Quality Specialists. …

What is the historical background of Agriculture?

The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa.At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin.

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What is agriculture history?

Agricultural communities developed approximately 10,000 years ago when humans began to domesticate plants and animals. By establishing domesticity, families and larger groups were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyle dependent on foraging and hunting for survival.


What is the history of agriculture in the world?

The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago.


Who was the first agriculture?

Sometime around 12,000 years ago, our hunter-gatherer ancestors began trying their hand at farming. First, they grew wild varieties of crops like peas, lentils and barley and herded wild animals like goats and wild oxen.


What is the importance of agriculture in history?

☺The importance of the discovery of agriculture in history is that it helped human beings develop settlements and civilizations and opened up more options for survival other than hunting and killing. ☺Agriculture gave humans choice to stay in one place and grow the food they needed.


Where did the agriculture start?

Agriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa’s Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas.


When was agriculture invented?

10,000 years agoHumans invented agriculture between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age.


Who invented the agriculture?

Egyptians were among the first peoples to practice agriculture on a large scale, starting in the pre-dynastic period from the end of the Paleolithic into the Neolithic, between around 10,000 BC and 4000 BC. This was made possible with the development of basin irrigation.


What are the 4 types of agriculture?

There exist four main branches of agriculture, namely;Livestock production.Crop production.agricultural economics.agricultural engineering.


Who is the father of agriculture?

Norman Ernest Borlaug (25 March 1914 – 12 September 2009) was an American agricultural scientist, and humanitarian. He is considered by some to be the “father of modern agriculture” and the father of the green revolution.


What is the main purpose of agriculture?

It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products. Agriculture also provides wood for construction and paper products.


How long has agriculture been around?

It is thought to have been practiced sporadically for the past 13,000 years, 1 and widely established for only 7,000 years. 2 In the long view of human history, this is just a flash in the pan compared to the nearly 200,000 years our ancestors spent gathering, hunting, and scavenging in the wild. During its brief history, agriculture has radically transformed human societies and fueled a global population that has grown from 4 million to 7 billion since 10,000 BCE, and is still growing. 3


How did farming help the population?

5 More abundant food supplies could support denser populations, and farming tied people to their land. Small settlements grew into towns, and towns grew into cities. 1.


What is the name of the wild food that nourished our hunter-gatherer ancestors?

Left to right: Gingerbread plum ( mobola ), baobab seed, carissa fruit. These wild foods, native to Africa, may resemble the fruits, nuts, and seeds that nourished our hunter-gatherer ancestors. There is growing interest in cultivating these “lost” crops on a larger scale—the carissa fruit tastes a little like cranberry …


What was the difference between hunter-gatherer and agriculture?

Whereas hunter-gatherer societies generally viewed resources as belonging to everyone, agriculture led to a system of ownership over land, food, and currency that was not (and is still not) equitably distributed among the people. 1,16.


How did small settlements grow into cities?

1. Agriculture produced enough food that people became free to pursue interests other than worrying about what they were going to eat that day. Those who didn’t need to be farmers took on roles as soldiers, priests, administrators, artists, and scholars.


What did people who didn’t need to be farmers do?

Those who didn’t need to be farmers took on roles as soldiers, priests, administrators, artists, and scholars. As early civilizations began to take shape, political and religious leaders rose up to rule them, creating classes of “haves” and “have-nots.”.


When was the plow used in Egypt?

Grave chamber of an Egyptian public official, circa 1250 BCE. The plow is believed to have been used as early as 4,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. Although it brought tremendous gains in short-term productivity, it has also been a major contributor to soil erosion.


Where did farming originate?

Archaeologists and palaeontologists have traced the origins of farming to around 10,000 years ago, to somewhere in the Indus Valley, and possibly as a separate development in China along the Yangtze River (6) .


When did agriculture start in North America?

It is likely that agriculture came to the North America relatively late, perhaps between 2500 and 2000 BC and we see it extensively with such civilizations as the Hohokam, the Anasazi and ancient Pueblos (17), possibly developing in Mesoamerica around 6000 BC with the domestication of maize.


What is the early civilization?

Early Civilization. Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC (7, p26-28), the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive.


Where did maize come from?

When we look at the south-western states, particularly Arizona and New Mexico, we see agriculture on an industrial scale – especially the cultivation of maize crops that were introduced from modern Mexico, the rest of Mesoamerica and beyond.


Did Native Americans have agriculture?

It’s certainly not true that the Native Americans had no agriculture; indeed, there is evidence for some limited agricultural practices (16) but it was not universal across the tribes. Some were completely nomadic and some were largely static – these were not geographical either, some tribes in the east had completely domesticated crops. When we look at the south-western states, particularly Arizona and New Mexico, we see agriculture on an industrial scale – especially the cultivation of maize crops that were introduced from modern Mexico, the rest of Mesoamerica and beyond. It is likely that agriculture came to the North America relatively late, perhaps between 2500 and 2000 BC and we see it extensively with such civilizations as the Hohokam, the Anasazi and ancient Pueblos (17), possibly developing in Mesoamerica around 6000 BC with the domestication of maize.


What is the history of agriculture?

The history of agriculture (the production of food by plant cultivation and animal husbandry and control of productivity) can be organized around several themes (such as time, productivity, environmental impact, and genetic diversity). The most obvious is time and the sequence of events from gathering wild plants for food to crop plant


Where did agriculture originate?

The origin of agriculture was around ten thousand years ago or approximately four hundred human generations back in time and prehistory, before written records were kept. What is known is based on evidence gathered from archaeological sites. Agriculture started independently in at least three places in the world, each with a distinctive cluster of plants drawn from the local flora: Mesoamerica (Mexico/Guatemala: corn, beans, squash, papaya, tomatoes, chili, peppers), the Fertile Crescent ( Middle East from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers: wheat, barley, grapes, apples, figs, melons, lentils, dates), and north China (mid-reaches of the three-thousand-mile-long Yellow River: rice, soybeans, peaches, Chinese cabbages such as bok choy). From these regions and possibly others, notably Africa (sorghum, cowpeas, yams, oil palm), South America (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, pineapples), and a broad band of tropical southeast Asia (oranges, mangoes, bananas, coconuts, sugarcane), the invention of agricultures spread to encompass the entire world by two thousand years ago.


What is seed farming?

Planting seed broadcast across plowed fields typifies most cereals (50 percent of human calories). Vegetables, legumes , and corn are planted from seed in rows separated by furrows. Seed agriculture usually consists of annuals that are typically planted as genetically uniform monocultures . Agriculture of the humid tropics has been more vegeculture …


How many people did the Green Revolution feed?

These late 1960s Green Revolution cereals and the genes they hold (dwarf stature and fertilizer responsive) now enter the food supply of three billion plus people and are directly responsible for feeding more than eight hundred million people by their increased yield alone.


How did farming begin?

Farming began when people intentionally saved and planted seeds of their favorite plants. By selecting characteristics that make a plant a good crop, early farmers altered the genetic makeups of plant populations.


What is the term for the raising of domesticated animals and the planting, cultivation, and preservation of crops?

Agriculture is the raising of domesticated animals and the planting, cultivation, and preservation of crops.


How did domesticated plants become genetically diverse?

Once domesticated plants began to travel through human migration and conquest beyond their local area of genetic adaptation, a large amount of genetic variation was released by chance hybridization of diverse forms or freedom from constraints (such as pests, pathogens , frost, and day length) of the old habitat.


What is the history of agriculture?

Agriculture, also known as farming, is the production of food, fiber, animal feed, and other goods by means of growing and harvesting plants and animals. Agriculture is practiced throughout the world. Many agricultural products are used every day, from the clothes we put on in the morning to the sheets we sleep


When was agriculture invented?

Humans invented agriculture between 7,000 and 10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic era, or the New Stone Age.


How did hybrid seeds contribute to agriculture?

Hybrid seeds contributed to the increased agricultural output of the second half of the 20th century.


What is the oldest method of irrigation?

Conversely, when the waters were low, the land dried up, killing crops. The oldest method of irrigation made use of man-made underground streams, called qanats, and is still being used in parts of the Middle East.


When did irrigation start?

Evidence suggests that irrigation first appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia in the fourth millennium B.C. Floods caused by the yearly inundation of the Nile would have had disastrous effects for ancient farmers, washing away dikes and swamping fields. Conversely, when the waters were low, the land dried up, killing crops.


When was the combine harvester invented?

Plows and other farming implements improved, and the mechanical combine harvester—a machine that harvests grain—was invented in the 1830s. In the early 1900s, the horse-drawn plow was a catalyst for introducing more machinery on the farm.


Where did agriculture begin?

The history of agriculture begins in the Fertile Crescent. This area of Western Asia comprises the regions of Mesopotamia and Levant while being confined by the Syrian Desert to the south and the Anatolian Plateau to the north. In the early 1900s, University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted coined the term “Fertile Crescent” …


Where did agriculture originate?

The earliest civilizations based on intensive agriculture arose near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia (now Iraq and Iran) and along the Nile River in Egypt. Improved Technology. For thousands of years, agricultural development was very slow. One of the earliest agricultural tools was fire.


When did people start farming?

About 11,500 years ago , people gradually learned how to grow cereal and root crops, and settled down to a life based on farming. By 2,000 years ago, much of the Earth’s population had become dependent on agriculture.


How many acres of corn do farmers plant?

U.S. industrial farmers may plant a thousand acres of just corn. The practice of specializing in a single crop is known as monoculture.


What is the science of agriculture?

Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. It includes the preparation of plant and animal products for people to use and their distribution to markets. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. Cotton, wool, and leather are all agricultural products.


How big was the average farm in 2007?

The size of an average farm in the United States in 2007 was 449 acres, or about the size of 449 football fields. agriculture. Noun. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). aquaculture.


How did agriculture help people?

Agriculture enabled people to produce surplus food. They could use this extra food when crops failed or trade it for other goods. Food surpluses allowed people to work at other tasks unrelated to farming. Agriculture kept formerly nomadic people near their fields and led to the development of permanent villages.


What was the system of planting used by medieval farmers?

Many medieval European farmers used an open-field system of planting. One field would be planted in spring, another in autumn, and one would be left unplanted, or fallow. This system preserved nutrients in the soil, increasing crop production.


Why is agriculture a cultural phenomenon?

Because it is a cultural phenomenon, agriculture has varied considerably across time and space. Domesticated plants and animals have been (and continue to be) raised at scales ranging from the household to massive commercial operations.


Why do grasses have cultigens?

The grass ( Poaceae ), bean ( Fabaceae ), and nightshade or potato ( Solanaceae) families have produced a disproportionately large number of cultigens because they have characteristics that are particularly amenable to domestication.


Why are domesticated animals more docile than wild animals?

Domesticated animals tend to have developed from species that are social in the wild and that, like plants, could be bred to increase the traits that are advantageous for people. Most domesticated animals are more docile than their wild counterparts, and they often produce more meat, wool, or milk as well.


What happens to plants and animals over time?

Over time, some plants and animals have become domesticated, or dependent on these and other human interventions for their long-term propagation or survival.


Is agriculture an environmental engineer?

Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle ranching in the Americas, and the like—but a more holistic perspective holds that humans are environmental engineers who disrupt terrestrial habitats in specific ways.

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Prehistory


Early Civilization

  • Early civilization can be considered a boom time in agricultural science and technology. Around 5500 BC (7, p26-28), the Sumerian civilization of the Middle East and other early pre Greco-Roman civilizations understood the need for a specialized agricultural workforce for their societies to thrive. It is in this period that we saw the invention of …

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Early to Modern Civilization

  • The Middle East continued to see much innovation in the agricultural industries, something that historians refer to as The Arab Agricultural Revolution (10). This was thanks to the diversity of the local topographies, the crops grown in the Middle East and Indus Valley that European societies coveted, and later acted as a trade bridge between Far East and Europe (11). In Europe, little cha…

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The Americas

  • Mass agricultural practices were not particularly present in North America until the arrival of the European colonists. It’s certainly not true that the Native Americans had no agriculture; indeed, there is evidence for some limited agricultural practices (16) but it was not universal across the tribes. Some were completely nomadic and some were largely static – these were not geographi…

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Modern Farming

  • Modern farming began around the 18thcentury in what is generally referred to as “The British Agricultural Revolution” when several advances and changes were made to farming in a short space of time that saw massive increases in yield and a more efficient process. The three field crop rotation system was replaced with a four field system and sweeping enclosure acts regulat…

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The Ecological Age

  • “Sustainability” is the buzzword today as we look to balance several conflicting needs – to protect the environment and to instigate practices that protects it while providing for the growing needs of the future population growth. Today, our food supply feeds 7 billion people and there is still enough surplus for more going forward (20). We know though that some of these practices hav…

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Origins of Agriculture

  • The origin of agriculture was around ten thousand years ago or approximately four hundred human generations back in time and prehistory, before written records were kept. What is known is based on evidence gathered from archaeological sites. Agriculture started independently in at least three places in the world, each with a distinctive cluster of …

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Ecologic Effects

  • Another theme is to measure the displacement of natural ecosystems of forest and grasslands by plowed cropland that supports an increasing human population. Only about five million people existed worldwide preagriculture, subsisting on hunting and gathering of wild animals and plants. Humans existed like any other wild animals in the biological world. Postagriculture, the human p…

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Loss of Diversity

  • Another theme is to realize how few crops currently feed the human population, considering that preagriculture humankind subsisted on a list of approximately five thousand wild edible plants. The agricultural crop list is short. One-half of the plant calories people consume come from three grasses: rice, wheat, and corn. Just over two dozen food plants account for 75 percent of all pla…

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Selection and Breeding

  • A dominant theme in the history of agriculture has been crop improvement and yield advancement through selection and exploitation of genetic diversity within the species and its close relatives. And now, there is bioengineering where a gene can come from anywhere in the biological world (genetically modified crops). The earliest stages of domesticated crops were pr…

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