What is the major issue in cereal grain agriculture today


Cereals crops such as rice, wheat, and maize accumulate toxic levels of cadmium (Cd). But Cd accumulation retards plant growth and crop productivity. Therefore, the mitigation of Cd stress and prevention of Cd accumulation in cereals is important.


What are the disadvantages of cereals?

Nowadays, cereals are the most important source of energy in the world. In developed countries, about 30% of daily calories come from cereals, while in developing and poor countries they account for more than 60% and 80%, respectively [1]. Cereal-based foods contribute significantly to human exposure to mold metabolites and mycotoxins. …

What are the factors affecting the cultivation of cereals?

The cultivationof cereals varies widely in different countries and depends partly upon the degree of economic development. Other factors include the nature of the soil, the amount of rainfall, and the techniques applied to promote growth. In illustrating production problems, this article uses wheat as the example.

What is the importance of cereal grains to humans?

According to Ranum [47], cereal grains have provided humankind with more nourishment than any other food class. The three most important cereal crops in the world are maize, wheat, and rice [37], accounting for 94% of all cereal consumption in the world [47].

What is cereal farming?

Cereal farming, growing of cereal crops for human food and livestock feed as well as for other uses. Cereal farming, growing of cereal crops for human food and livestock feed as well as for other uses. cereal farming | Overview & Facts | Britannica


What are the factors affecting cereal cultivation?

Factors affecting the establishment percentage include management factors such as depth of sowing, row spacing, seed size and herbicide application as well as environmental factors such as soil moisture and temperature. The presence of pests and diseases also affect crop establishment.

What are the challenges of grain farming?

In addition to the risk of Ug99, current challenges include leaf rust and stripe rust that cause serious losses in U.S. wheat production nearly every year. Rust pathogens evolve rapidly and have overcome many important genes for resistance.

What may be the reason for less cereal production in the farmer’s field?

Because of repeated use of the soil nutrients needed by the cereal crop by growing the same crop for several seasons, these nutrients decline, thereby crop production. Monocropping also creates the spread of pests and disease, which leads to decline in production.

What is the situation of cereal production in the Philippines?

In 2018, cereal production for Philippines was 26.8 million metric tons. Cereal production of Philippines increased from 7.47 million metric tons in 1969 to 26.8 million metric tons in 2018 growing at an average annual rate of 2.92%.

What is the biggest problem facing agriculture today?

Climate Change Major storms and weather events, rising temperatures, and changes in local weather trends all lead to unpredictable seasons for farmers. Climate change affects every crop and every farmer’s ability to survive and build a profitable agricultural business.

What are some current agricultural issues?

Like the previous year, news in agriculture and food in 2021 was dominated by deteriorating food security….Farming Insects for Food and FeedInsects can be farmed without arable land.Insects can be grown within a couple of weeks.The food they need to grow comes from food waste.Insect waste can be used as fertilizer.More items…•

What happens to the soil after growing cereal crops repeatedly in the same field?

Growing the same crop in the same place for many years in a row, known as monocropping, gradually depletes the soil of certain nutrients and selects for a highly competitive pest and weed community.

Which crop is generally grown in between two cereal crops to increase the soil fertility How does it increase the soil fertility?

Leguminous crops like pulses and beans are generally grown between two kinds of cereal crops in crop rotation to restore the fertility of the soil.

How can the farmer increase production in his field?

What Are The Ways To Increase Crop Yield?Quality Of Seeds. Agricultural productivity depends on the quality of seeds with which farmers sow their fields. … Field Productivity Zoning. … Monitoring Crops Growth. … Accurate Weather Prediction. … Regular Scouting. … Crop Protection Methods. … Soil Testing & Its Quality.

What are the major cereal in the Philippines?

Cereals include wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only.

What are the importance of cereals?

In addition to supplying starch and protein, the cereals serve as a rich source of dietary fiber and nutrients. CGIAR research has documented the important contribution of wheat to healthy diets, linking the crop to reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colorectal cancer.

Which is oldest cereal crop?

Considering the evidence we have so far, the oldest cereal in the world is considered to be einkorn (Triticum monococcum). Although, it’s important to note that there are also other ancient grains, that were cultivated thousands of years ago, including rice, amaranth or millet.

What are the factors that affect the cultivation of cereals?

Other factors include the nature of the soil, the amount of rainfall, and the techniques applied to promote growth. In illustrating production problems, this article uses wheat as the example.

What is cereal farming?

Cereal farming. Cereal farming, growing of cereal crops for human food and livestock feed as well as for other uses, including industrial starch and biofuel. Cereals, or grains, are members of the grass family ( Poaceae) cultivated primarily for their starchy dry fruits. Wheat, rice, corn (maize), rye, oats, barley, sorghum, …

How many flowers does wheat have?

Wheat flowers are grouped in spikelets, each bearing from two to nine flowers, or florets. To produce new varieties by cross-fertilization, the cereal breeder artificially transfers the stamen from one variety to the flower of another before self-fertilization takes place.

Why is it important to clean wheat seeds?

Seeds are frequently cleaned to avoid contamination by other seed crops and weeds. They often also are treated with fungicides to prevent disease transmission.

What is tillage in agriculture?

Tillage, the process of preparing soil for cultivation purposes, varies considerably around the world. Mechanized plows are common in commercial cereal farms, while animal-drawn plows or even hand-tillage techniques are often employed on small farms, especially in less-developed countries.

How high can wheat be grown?

Wheat can be cultivated over a wide range of soils and can be successfully grown over large portions of the world, ranging in altitude from sea level to over 3,050 metres (10,000 feet). Annual rainfall of 254 mm (10 inches) is generally considered the minimum, and the soil should be sufficiently fertile.

What is cereal?

Cereals, or grains, are members of the grass family ( Poaceae) cultivated primarily for their starchy dry fruits. Wheat, rice, corn (maize), rye, oats, barley, sorghum, and some of the millets are common cereals. The cultivation of cereals varies widely in different countries and depends partly upon the degree of economic development.

Why are cereals important to humans?

Over the years, cereals have been the major food consumed by humans and have also been used in animal diet and therefore highly commendable for playing a major role in the preservation of human race. Studies have shown that half of the total percentage of calories consumed in the world is from cereals while it is also the most traded agricultural crop at the international market. This motivates the need to assess its utilisation in the past, present and future. This review shows that much driven by the use of cereals are factors like consumption and dietary pattern of a person or country, technological advancement in adding value to it, income status, market forces of demand and supply, level of affluence and policy. The trend in global cereals utilisation since its domestication has indicated an upward one with bulk of it being consumed as food in developing countries while majority of it goes into feeding livestock in developed countries. Evidence from this study also shows that the per capita utilisation of cereals directly for food is exceedingly great in developing countries than developed countries which is an indicator of malnutrition when not balance with other nutrients as it was observed in Bangladesh where calorie intake of an adult is about 90% from cereals. While there is a steady increase in global cereals utilisation due to its discovered industrial use as fuel, increased population and other factors, it will be expedient to focus on its sustainability and environmental issues that are likely to come up as a limitation to meet future demands.

What is the purpose of the chapter on cereals?

This chapter introduces the book’s objectives, set to provide a comprehensive overview of healthy cereal and pseudocereal grains, trends in their consumption and (innovative) processing technologies employed not only to increase their digestibility and palatability, but also to increase their nutritional value and safety. It also emphasizes the challenges in conventional processing methods and how innovative processing can be integrated in the cereal/pseudocereal processing chain to provide an efficient value addition to cereals/pseudocereals and products thereof, in line with evolving consumer expectations.

Why is nitrogen important for agriculture?

As a result, the addition of nitrogen fertilizer is necessary to sustain productivity and yields , especially for cereal crops, the planet’s major calorie suppliers. Given the unsustainability of industrial fertilizer production and application, engineering biological nitrogen fixation directly at the roots of plants has been a grand challenge for biotechnology. Here we design and test a potentially broadly applicable metabolic engineering strategy for the overproduction of ammonia in the diazotrophic symbiont Azospirillum brasilense . Our approach is based on an engineered unidirectional adenylyltransferase (uAT) that post-translationally modifies, and deactivates glutamine synthase, a key regulator of nitrogen metabolism in the cell. We show that this circuit can be controlled inducibly and we leverage the inherent self-contained nature of our post-translational approach to demonstrate that multicopy redundancy can improve strain evolutionary stability. uAT-engineered Azospirillum is capable of producing ammonia at rates of up to 500 μM h ⁻¹ OD 600 ⁻¹ . When grown in co-culture with the model monocot Setaria viridis , we demonstrate that these strains increases the biomass and chlorophyll content of plants up to 54% and 71% respectively relative to WT. Furthermore, we rigorously demonstrate direct transfer of atmospheric nitrogen to extracellular ammonia and then plant biomass using isotopic labeling: after 14 days of co-cultivation with engineered uAT strains, 9% of chlorophyll nitrogen in Setaria seedlings is derived from diazotrophically fixed dinitrogen, whereas no nitrogen is incorporated in plants co-cultivated with WT controls. This rational design for tunable ammonia overproduction is modular and flexible, and we envision could be deployable in a consortium of nitrogen fixing symbiotic diazotrophs for plant fertilization. Importance Statement Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient in modern agriculture. Free living diazotrophs, such as Azospirillum , are common colonizers of cereal grasses and have the ability to fix nitrogen but natively do not release excess ammonia. Here we use a rational engineering approach to generate ammonia excreting strains of Azospirillum . Our design features post-translational control of highly conserved central metabolism, enabling tunability and flexibility of circuit placement. We show that our strains promote the growth and health of the model grass S. viridis and rigorously demonstrate in comparison to WT controls that our engineered strains can transfer nitrogen from ¹⁵ N 2 gas to plant biomass. Unlike previously reported ammonia producing mutants, our rationally designed approach easily lends itself to further engineering opportunities and has the potential to be broadly deployable.

Why is millet flour important?

These are extremely nutritious and are proven to play a pivotal role in preventing and curing several health issues. However, millet flour has poor shelf life due to its high fat content as well as lipase activity which causes rapid development of rancidity and bitterness. Its keeping quality greatly depends on different pre-treatments applied and storage conditions. Scope and approach In the present review, the effect of various processes/treatments like mechanical processing, thermal treatments, fermentation, germination, addition of preservatives, and some novel techniques like gamma irradiation, microwave processing, infrared heating, high-pressure processing, pulsed light processing, and ultrasound processing on storage stability and other nutritional properties of different millet flour was reviewed. Their principle of action, advantages, and disadvantages have also been highlighted. Key findings and conclusions All the technologies emphasized in this review have proven to augment the shelf life of millet flour. However, traditional processes are accompanied by changes in nutritional and functional properties, which necessitate the need for alternatives. Novel thermal and non-thermal techniques were found to cause both microbial decontamination and enzyme inactivation, although their application is limited as far as millet flour is concerned. These techniques are yet to be explored as millets are regaining popularity and have become part of the staple diet of many health-conscious consumers.

How important is maize?

The importance of maize (Zea mays L.) to global agriculture, world economy, and food security is widely known and increasing. Current maize breeding programs are deeply integrated with recent and rapid technological advances in genome sequencing, computational biology, and new genotyping and phenotyping technologies. Transformation and genome editing capabilities are a central hub to an array of advanced molecular and breeding approaches to crop improvement. Tissue culture and somatic embryogenesis play essential and central roles in maize transformation biology. Synergistic applications of maize transformation, advanced genomics, and genome editing provide a potent interdependent triad for functional genomics research and advanced molecular breeding. Implementation of advanced capabilities to transform maize and conduct genome editing will profoundly influence the dynamics of global agriculture ushering in a new era of varietal development and molecular breeding. With over 60.9 Mha planted in 2019 alone, biotech maize accounts for 31% of the world’s maize production. Up to 10% higher yields are achieved using new varieties generated using genetic modification technologies compared to similar conventional varieties. By extension, the impact new varietal releases developed through genome editing will likely be more significant. Advances in transformation and genome editing technologies will facilitate an even wider applicability for the development of new varieties with increasingly complex traits. The introduction of biochemical pathways and the use of synthetic biology have become increasingly more attainable. The future is of genotype independent maize transformation and genome editing, as the working platform will impact world agriculture, global food security, and plant science well into the future.

Is cereal a plant food?

Being the most widely cultivated and consumed plant food, cereals have been known to humans since ancient times . The rich nutritional profile of cereals, namely, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates; together with the abundance of certain secondary metabolites makes cereals an excellent source of high value nutraceuticals and bioactive compounds. This chapter describes the types, characteristics, and food/health applications of the major nutritional and bioactive molecules from cereals.

When will wheat be available in China?

Department of Agriculture export sales of 134,000 metric tons of soft red winter wheat for delivery to China during the 2021/2022 marketing year. The marketing year for wheat began June… June 30, 2021.

When will golden rice be available in the Philippines?

On July 21, 2021, the Philippines became the first country in the world to approve Golden Rice for commercial propagation, which aims to reduce malnutrition. July 23, 2021.

What are the problems farmers face?

Insects, poverty, and lack of irrigation facilities are only a few of the issues that farmers face on a daily basis. Even in developed countries, it is not difficult to spot farmers who lack basic financial and technical support.

Can the earth be made possible by agriculture?

Even if one wants to go all out with their agricultural techniques, this cannot be made possible. The earth can only suffice its subjects with limited resources. Raw materials, water, and land for farming are all available in limited quantities.

Is the storage of crops finite?

The storage facilities for crops, after harvesting, are also finite. The number of people willing to actually go out there are toil in the fields is decreasing day by day. If nothing else, the machinery and equipment needed for farming are also scarce in most countries.

Link to report

This monthly report includes data on U.S. and global trade, production, consumption and stocks, as well as analysis of developments affecting world trade in grains. Covers wheat, rice and coarse grains (corn, barley, sorghum, oats and rye).

Production, Supply and Distribution Online (PS&D)

Data on production, supply and distribution of agricultural commodities for the U.S. and key producing and consuming countries.


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