What is tiling in agriculture

image

Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shoveling, picking, mattock

Mattock

A mattock /ˈmætək/ is a versatile hand tool, used for digging and chopping, similar to the pickaxe. It has a long handle, and a stout head, which combines an axe blade and an adze (cutter mattock) or a pick and an adze (pick mattock).

work, hoeing, and raking. “Tillage” can also mean the land that is tilled. What is tilling in agricultural?

Tile drainage is a form of agricultural drainage system that removes excess sub-surface water from fields to allow sufficient air space within the soil, proper cultivation, and access by heavy machinery to tend and harvest crops.

Full
Answer

What is spot tiling and how can it help your farm?

The tiling contractor can go in and spot tile so that costs aren’t incurred across the whole field. Spot tiling can be especially beneficial for growers that have rolling land where there are low spots but don’t have consistent trouble across the field. Spot tiling is as popular as pattern tiling, especially with today’s thin margins.

Is tiling worth it on a farm?

Does tiling pay? TILE DRAINAGE: “Installing tile is one of the best things you can do to improve the productivity of a farm if the ground needs tile,” says ISU’s Charles Brown. “But if the land doesn’t need tile, you don’t need to pay the extra money to install it.”

What is tilling soil?

Zone tillage is a form of modified deep tillage. This occurs when only narrow strips are tilled, meaning there is soil between the rows left untilled. Zone tillage can agitate the soil and help to reduce soil compaction problems, which improves internal soil drainage. 3. What’s the history of tilling soil?

Is tiling a conservation practice?

Tiling is not a conservation practice. Tiling is a conservation practice and a key to successful implementation of many other conservation practices. Consider that conservation can simply mean that land is left undisturbed as habitat, which meets some environmental goals — but, again, people need to eat.

image


What does tiling mean in farming?

Field tile is tubing or pipe buried in the ground to convey subsurface water to an outlet such as a stream or ditch. Farmers install tile in agricultural fields to make the soil conditions more uniform, dry up wet spots, reduce erosion and prevent crop roots from rotting during wet periods.


How do you tile a field?

1:544:38Farm Basics: Drain Tile 101 (From Ag PhD #569 3/1/09) – YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipIt’s putting a plastic hose that has some tiny little holes in it underneath the soil about threeMoreIt’s putting a plastic hose that has some tiny little holes in it underneath the soil about three feet deep that way the water can move down through three feet of soil filter.


Why do farmers install tile drainage?

While crops — such as the soy and corn the Hoosier state is known for — need water to grow, they don’t do well bogged down in it. The tile systems remove the water so that crops’ roots can spread out and truly take hold in the ground, growing taller and stronger.


How long does tiling in a field last?

The entire drain tile installation cost can be written off in as little as one year or as much as 15 years, while the actual life of the system should be 30 years or more.


What are field tiles?

Field tile is, essentially, the tile that covers the largest space in any room. It’s not border or accent tile (like mosaics), but the tile that occupies the most expansive surface area. Typically, field tile starts in sizes like 2” x 4” and goes up to 24”x24”.


Why is it called field tile?

Farmers who had done this to their fields would consider those lands to be “tiled.” The clay pipes were then referred to as “Drainage Tile” and eventually “Drain Tile.” The plastic pipe used today bears little resemblance to the old Clay Drainage Tile used in the farmers’ fields, however remnants of it can be seen in …


Why is tiling bad for the environment?

However, tile drainage may carry pollutants into streams and groundwater as well as change the hydrology of watersheds. It can also be detrimental to wetland habitat and interfere with the natural flood control that wetlands provide.


How do I tile a drain?

0:124:37Farm Basics #1114 Drain Tile Basics (Air Date 8-11-19) – YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipSo you don’t have to be scared about it if you’re a non farmer. Well. Understanding what drain tileMoreSo you don’t have to be scared about it if you’re a non farmer. Well. Understanding what drain tile actually does is really important when we think about putting in drain tile. It’s not a new concept.


How do drainage tiles work?

Drain tile is essentially a network of porous pipes that run alongside your foundation. These pipes are in place to encourage water to drain away from the foundation and into the network of pipes, instead of seeping through cracks and causing issues in your basement itself.


What is a tile plow?

The Economy Plow installs tile using a pitch plow design. Retract the cylinders to lower into the ground and extend the cylinders to raise out of the ground. Two depth chains and one water level are used to visualize the tile depth and pitch during installation.


How do you drain a farm field?

0:144:45Draining Wet Fields for Better Crops | Maryland Farm & Harvest – YouTubeYouTubeStart of suggested clipEnd of suggested clipThese long black tubes called drainage tile will hopefully help alleviate one of farmer KyleMoreThese long black tubes called drainage tile will hopefully help alleviate one of farmer Kyle Hutchinson’s. Biggest headaches too much water.


How long does drain tile last in a field?

Figure 4. A tile plugged with roots. With care and good management, a tile drainage system will last a lifetime and yield a well-drained soil able to produce a variety of crops.


How does ploughing and tilling help Watter?

Ploughing and tilling makes soil porus which helps watter perculate deeper and retain moisture for longer times, helps seeds to easily germinate and spread roots deep which in turn helps the plant to absorb required nutrients and moisture from the deeper parts of the soil.


What are the different types of tillage?

Depending upon the purpose or necessity, different types of tillage are carried out. They are deep ploughing, subsoiling and year-round tillage. Deep ploughing turns out large sized clods, which are baked by the hot sun when it is done in summer.


What is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and over?

Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shoveling, picking, mattock work, hoeing, and raking. “Tillage” can also mean the land that is tilled.


Why do we turn over soil?

Answer. The turning over of the soil helps to loosen the dirt making it easier to plant new seeds. Tilling is also an effective form of weed control. Tilling also aerates the soil, which many believe is beneficial to crop growth.


Why do farmers till their land?

Historically, farmers have tilled their land after harvest to prepare the ground for next year’s crops. The turning over of the soil helps to loosen the dirt making it easier to plant new seeds. Tilling breaks apart the established weeds and forces them to start anew, making it much easier to control them.


What is the process of breaking down soil?

Tilling is the process by which you can break down the soil and grow crop in it. Farmers normally till the soil according their need or it can say they can till their field according their variety of crop. Tilling can be done by using plough which is made by wood or iron.


What is the practice of aerating the soil to permit moisture and air to permeate?

Tilling is the practice of aerating the soil to permit moisture and air to permeate, allowing seeds to germinate, encouraging root growth, controlling weed growth, and integrating fertilizers into the soil.


What are the disadvantages of tilling soil?

As noted above, one of the primary disadvantages of tilling soil is the potential erosion that it can cause.


Why is tillage so expensive?

Frequent tillage could ultimately cost you due to soil quality, soil productivity, surface water quality, extra wear on machinery, and extra labor requirements.


How to increase yield in garden?

As one of the oldest methods of preparing a garden, tilling soil is an effective way to increase your yield.


What happens when you turn the soil over and over until it breaks up?

Tilling occurs when you turn the soil over and over until it’s broken up.


What is the top layer of soil called?

Tilling loosens and aerates the soil (or the top layer also known as horizon A).


Why does soil erosion occur?

Soil erosion can occur over time if you’re tilling each year because it causes too much stress for the microorganisms that inhabit the soil.


How many types of tillage are there?

There are five main types of tillage.


Why tile fields?

Tiled fields can help crops better use available resources and provide less financial risks if yields remain consistent. Less soil compaction. You want to take the best care of the land as you possibly can, and that means reducing soil compaction.


Why does tile yield increase after installation?

After installing tile, producers may see a yield bump due to less plant stress, less disease, better plant stand, and lower compaction.


Is tile a long term investment?

Long-Term Investment. As far as the financial payoff to put tile in, take into consideration that it is a long-term investment . The investment varies depending on if the land has a main tile line driving directly through the property, or if the tile needs to connect a half mile away to the neighbors main line.


Is spot tiling a good investment?

Spot tiling is as popular as pattern tiling, especially with today’s thin margins. When it comes down to adding value and needing to expand, investing in tile is a solid investment without taking a significant financial risk. Because of the added value of adding tile to your farmland, this will play a part into the overall value …


Who benefits from installing tile?

While an owner-operator reaps the most benefit from installing tile, a tenant can also benefit. If this is an option you’d like to explore, it’s probably best to sit down with your landlord and negotiate a longer rental agreement to ensure you see the benefit of the tile.


Can you tile a whole field?

If a landowner can’t afford to pattern tile the whole field, spot tiling may be something to consider. The tiling contractor can go in and spot tile so that costs aren’t incurred across the whole field. Spot tiling can be especially beneficial for growers that have rolling land where there are low spots but don’t have consistent trouble across the field. Spot tiling is as popular as pattern tiling, especially with today’s thin margins.


What is Iowa’s tiling system?

Iowa’s tiling system consists of a network of drainage lines that feed into large pipes, siphoning excess water from the soil. Without tiling, farming wouldn’t be possible on about half of Iowa’s cropland. Here’s how it works:


What do you need to know about tiling runoff?

Farming 101: What you need to know about tiling runoff. For decades, farmers across Iowa have installed a network of drainage tubes known as tiles under the lush soil to create some of the world’s most productive farmland. But that same underground drainage system is being blamed for environmental problems, including excess nitrates in Iowa’s …


Why is it important to lower the water table in fields?

How it helps. Lowering the water table in fields helps crops to develop a deeper root system and healthier growth. Additionally, removing the excess water from fields makes them easier for farmers to work.


When was the tile infrastructure built?

Much of today’s tile infrastructure was constructed in the 1920s, ’30s and ’40s. It made land suitable for creating farms and also towns and cities, experts say. North-central Iowa in particular has an extensive drainage area:


Do drain tiles cut nitrates?

Drainage tiles have cut in half the average time it takes nitrates to enter Iowa waterways, Keith Schilling, a research engineer at the University of Iowa, said. That flow is even more dramatically accelerated in heavily tiled areas.


What is tiling in conservation?

Tiling is a conservation practice and a key to successful implementation of many other conservation practices. Consider that conservation can simply mean that land is left undisturbed as habitat, which meets some environmental goals — but, again, people need to eat.


What are some myths about farm tiling?

Here are five myths about farm tiling: 1. Tiling is totally unregulated. Tiling is one of the most highly regulated activities affecting farmers. Several federal, state and local agencies have regulatory authority under various federal, state and local laws, rules and ordinances allowing review of drainage projects.


Does tile drainage have nitrates?

Tile drainage also contains nitrates. The key to determining the net effect of tiling lies in understanding how much sediment and phosphorus are reduced relative to the increase in nitrates. In my experience, in most situations the tradeoff is positive, especially considering that people need to eat, and farmers are becoming increasingly aware of this concern and are working ever harder at improving their nitrogen application practices. Solutions beyond the field are also happening, such as denitrification in wetlands and drainage ditches.


Does tile water contain phosphorus?

There is a corresponding reduction in phosphorus losses, though not quite as large due to the presence of a very small amount of dissolved phosphorus contained in tile water. Tile drainage also contains nitrates.


Is tile drainage the most misunderstood practice employed on Minnesota farms?

Based on the number of interactions and the range of questions and comments relating to water issues and agriculture I ’ve had, I would conclude that tile drainage is the most misunderstood practice employed on Minnesota farms.


Is tiling good for farm fields?

MISPERCEPTIONS: Tiling drainage in farm fields has its share of critics. Yet, the science behind drainage shows there is benefit to the practice.


Is tiling bad for soil?

Tiling is bad for soil health. Healthy soils contain both water and oxygen. Many of the most productive soils in the Midwest are not able to drain naturally, starving the microorganisms in the soil of oxygen.


How it works

The tile is plastic tubing with perforations, buried between 3 and 5 feet deep. The perforations pull water that isn’t bound to the soil. Not only does that alleviate the saturation, but the oxygen in the water gets incorporated into the soil as it passes through.


How to determine value

Many resources exist to help calculate cost and expected yield returns.


How tile is installed and maintained

One of the first steps to take if you’re looking into tiling, is to check on a wetland determination with your local Natural Resources Conservation Service staff.


Take the next step

Once tiling is in place, you have more options to add conservation and soil health practices on your land.


How does tile drainage affect the water table?

By installing tile drainage, the water table is effectively lowered and plants can properly develop their roots. The lack of water saturation of soil permits oxygen to remain in the pores of the soil for use by roots. Drain tile prevents the roots from being under the water table during wet periods, which can stress the plants. By removing excess water crops use the water that their roots have access to more effectively. An increase in crop yield can be summarized as forcing plants to develop more roots so that they can absorb more nutrients and water.


How did plastic tile help?

The introduction of plastic tile served to reduce both the cost of tile installation, as well as the amount of labor involved. Rather than set individual sections of cement tile end-to-end in the trench, tile installers had only to unroll a continuous section of lightweight, flexible tile line. Towards the end of the twentieth century, when large, four-wheel-drive tractors became more common on American farms, do-it-yourself tile implements appeared on the market. By making tile installation cheaper and allowing it to be done on the landowner’s schedule, farmers are capable of draining localized wet spots that may not create enough of a problem to merit more costly operations. In this way, farmers may enjoy increases in crop yield while saving on the capital costs of tile installation. Perhaps the most useful implement in drainage history was James B. Hill ‘s Buckeye Traction Ditcher, which laid drainage tiles at a record pace. Hill’s ditching machine drained the Great Black Swamp in Ohio, vast stretches of Louisiana, and Florida’s swampland.


How do tree roots work?

Tree roots of hedgerow and windbreak trees are naturally attracted to the favorable watering conditions that adjacent fields’ tiles or tile lines provide. Hydrotropism plays a role as root hairs at the dynamically probing tips of tree roots respond differentially to moister crevices versus drier ones, exchanging hormonal messages with the rest of the tree that encourage them to concentrate on advancing into such favorable niches. In the perforations of tile drainage lines, just as in cracked or rusting water lines and sewer lines under town streets, these roots find the ideal combination of an entrance to enter and a plentiful water supply behind it. The result is that in any of these pipe systems, blockages sometimes occur and it is necessary to clear them through snaking, rotary-cutter snaking, select digging and pulling, and similar methods. In some regions farmers must do continual maintenance of tile drainage lines to keep them open and operating correctly, with at least some clearing every year in one or another part of the system. : 304–305


Why is drainage important for crops?

Whereas irrigation is the practice of providing additional water to soil when it is naturally too dry, drainage reduces the moisture in soil and thereby increases the amount of air in its pores so as to augment conditions for optimal growth of crops .


What is a C tile?

In the 19th century a “C” shaped channel tile commonly was placed like an arch atop a flat tile, denominated the “mug” and “sole”, respectively. Today, tile drainage is any variation of this original system that functions in the same mode. Commonly HDPE and PVC tubing denominated “tile line” is used, although precast concrete …


What are some examples of governmental incentives to improve land for agriculture?

For example, legislation in Indiana prompted a Federal statute in 1850 that provided for the sale of swamps at discount to farmers contingent on their drainage of the land and improvement of it for agricultural productivity. To facilitate such improvement, most states …


What equipment is needed to install tile?

The installation of the tiles or tile line can involve a trencher ( Ditch Witch ), a mole plough, a backhoe, or other heavy equipment . Soil type greatly affects the efficacy of tile systems, and dictates the extent to which the area must be tiled to ensure sufficient drainage.


What are the costs associated with growing a crop on a tiled field?

Additional variable costs include seed, fertilizer, interest, and hauling, drying and handling the grain you produce if you put tile in and the field produces more bushels.


What are the benefits of tile drainage?

Other advantages of improved drainage include earlier and more timely planting, improved harvesting conditions, less wear and tear on equipment, less power required for field operations, a better plant stand, less plant stress, fewer plant diseases and less soil compaction. Tile reduces the financial risk associated with poorly drained fields.


How long does a tenant need to lease a tile house?

The tenant will need a long-term lease, say seven to 10 years. Cash rent will be fixed for term of the lease or indexed, and the rental rate should reflect untiled land. When the lease expires, the cash rental rate is adjusted to the market. Also, in this situation, the tenant could depreciate the tile.


What is the best way to improve the productivity of a farm?

TILE DRAINAGE: “Installing tile is one of the best things you can do to improve the productivity of a farm if the ground needs tile,” says ISU’s Charles Brown. “But if the land doesn’t need tile, you don’t need to pay the extra money to install it.”.


How much does it cost to install tile?

First, figure the cost of tile and installation. This will vary, says Brown, but as a rule for 3-inch diameter tile, it’s about 60 cents per foot for cost of tile and installation. For 4-inch tile, it’s 80 cents per foot; 5-inch tile, $1 per foot; 6-inch tile, $1.65 per foot; and 8-inch tile, $2.40 per foot.


Can you install tile in fields?

By installing tile in fields or areas of fields where drainage is needed, you can get more consistent yields. Brown has firsthand experience on his family’s farm in northern Wapello County. “It’s no fun getting stuck,” he says, “and no fun lifting up implements to avoid the wet places. Having to farm around wet spots reduces your efficiency.”


Does installing drainage tile in a field make things look better?

Installing drainage tile in a field can make things look better. Wet spots disappear. Crops grow greener, healthier. But does it really pay? Will a tile drainage system put dollars and cents in your pocket? Charles Brown, an Iowa State University Extension farm management specialist in southeast Iowa, addresses that and related questions in workshops he presents on the economics of farm drainage.

image


Controlling Water, Erosion

Image
Iowa’s tiling system consists of a network of drainage lines that feed into large pipes, siphoning excess water from the soil. Without tiling, farming wouldn’t be possible on about half of Iowa’s cropland. Here’s how it works: Installing the tile, historically, was a massive effort, financed mostly by private investment, that by 1…

See more on desmoinesregister.com


How It Helps

  • Lowering the water table in fields helps crops to develop a deeper root system and healthier growth. Additionally, removing the excess water from fields makes them easier for farmers to work.

See more on desmoinesregister.com


The Concern

  • Drainage tiles have cut in half the average time it takes nitrates to enter Iowa waterways, Keith Schilling, a research engineer at the University of Iowa, said. That flow is even more dramatically accelerated in heavily tiled areas. “The tiles in particular short-circuit a lot of the natural processing that would go on as groundwater would slowly move through the system,” he said. T…

See more on desmoinesregister.com


About Nitrates

  1. What are they? Nitrates are forms of nitrogen found in natural ecosystems. They include nitrates and nitrites, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrates are essential plant nu…
  2. Why are they bad? In excessive amounts, nitrates can cause significant water-quality problems. Together with phosphorus, excessive nitrates can lead to low oxygen levels, killin…
  1. What are they? Nitrates are forms of nitrogen found in natural ecosystems. They include nitrates and nitrites, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Nitrates are essential plant nu…
  2. Why are they bad? In excessive amounts, nitrates can cause significant water-quality problems. Together with phosphorus, excessive nitrates can lead to low oxygen levels, killing fish and other aqu…
  3. How much is too much?The federal government requires that nitrates in drinking water not exceed 10 milligrams per liter — a level that without treatment can be deadly to infants 6 months and younge…


Solutions and Lawsuits

  1. What is Iowa doing? The stateis under pressure to reduce the amount of nitrates and phosphorus that make their way into waterways and contribute to the Gulf of Mexico’s dead zone. The state adopted…
  2. What else is happening? Des Moines Water Works filed a lawsuit in March against drainage districts in Sac, Calhoun and Buena Vista counties, charging that drainage tiles there act as …
  1. What is Iowa doing? The stateis under pressure to reduce the amount of nitrates and phosphorus that make their way into waterways and contribute to the Gulf of Mexico’s dead zone. The state adopted…
  2. What else is happening? Des Moines Water Works filed a lawsuit in March against drainage districts in Sac, Calhoun and Buena Vista counties, charging that drainage tiles there act as a conduit, car…
  3. Previous reports, commentary: Iowa Water Quality Issues Special Report

Leave a Comment