What is windbreaker in agriculture

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Windbreaks are linear plantings of trees and shrubs designed to provide economic, environmental and community benefits. The primary purpose of most windbreaks is to slow the wind which creates a more beneficial condition for soils, crops, livestock, wildlife and people.

Full
Answer

What is a windbreak in agriculture?

A windbreak (shelterbelt) is a planting usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted in hedgerows around the edges of fields on farms.

What is a windbreaker?

Windbreakers sometimes include a hood that may be taken of removable and/or stowable. Many windbreakers may also include large pockets on the inside or the outside which allows belongings to be covered from weather such as light wind or rain as mentioned above.

What are windbreakers made of?

It is usually of lightweight construction and characteristically made of a synthetic material. A windbreaker often uses elastic waistbands, and/or armbands, and a zipper to allow adjustments for the current weather conditions.

How are windbreaks used to control soil erosion?

To control soil erosion, windbreaks should be planted to block the prevailing winds during the times of greatest soil exposure-winter and early spring. To recharge soil moisture with drifting snow, windbreaks should be placed perpen- dicular to the prevailing winter winds.

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What does windbreak mean?

Definition of windbreak : a growth of trees or shrubs serving to break the force of wind broadly : a shelter (such as a fence) from the wind.


What is windbreak cropping?

Windbreaks are plantings of single or multiple. rows of trees, shrubs or grass that protect crops, livestock, wildlife or people from wind’s harmful consequences. Historically, Windbreaks were planted for a single purpose, such as protecting homes from cold winds or soil from erosive winds.


How does a wind break work?

The windward air pressure pushes air through and over the windbreak, while the leeward low pressure area behind the windbreak pulls air coming over the windbreak downward, creating tur- bulence and reducing protection downwind.


What are shelterbelts definition?

Definition of shelterbelt : a barrier of trees and shrubs that provides protection (as for crops) from wind and storm and lessens erosion.


What is windbreaks in Agroforestry?

What is it? Windbreaks are linear plantings of trees and shrubs designed to enhance crop production, protect people and livestock, and benefit soil and water conservation. Windbreaks can provide valuable opportunities for vine and tree fruit growers, row crop farmers, livestock producers, and rural homeowners.


What is an example of windbreak?

Northern White Cedar. Another respected windbreak tree is the northern white cedar, a close relative of the eastern red cedar. As its name implies, the northern white cedar is found primarily in the northern United States and Canada, but in their range, they are an exceptional windbreak tree.


What are the two types of windbreaks?

There are two kinds of windbreaks – field windbreaks and farmstead windbreaks. The primary purpose of a field windbreak is to control soil erosion and to prevent crop damage and loss caused by wind.


What are windbreaks made of?

Windbreakers: Windbreakers are made of breathable nylon and are wind and rain resistant. Their construction makes them lighter in weight and more compact. They are also relatively cheap compared to rain, hard shell and insulated jackets.


Which plant is used as windbreak?

Spruce, yew and Douglas fir are all good choices. Arborvitae and Eastern red cedar are also good trees to use in windbreaks. Any sturdy tree or shrub works in the back rows of a windbreak.


What is the difference between windbreaks and shelterbelts?

Windbreaks are such structures which break the wind-flow and reduce wind speed while shelterbelts are rows of trees or shrubs planted for protection of crop against wind. They provide a protective shelter against wind and suitable habitat for birds and honeybees as well as produce cattle feed and fuel wood.


How shelterbelts are useful?

Belts of trees, planted in a rectangular grid pattern or in strips within, and on the periphery of, farmland to act as windbreaks. Shelterbelts are a specific type of agroforestry system that help reduce natural hazards including sandstorms, wind erosion, shifting sand, droughts and frost.


Why are shelterbelts grown?

A windbreak (shelterbelt) is a planting usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted in hedgerows around the edges of fields on farms.


What is windbreak planting?

Windbreaks are linear plantings of trees and shrubs designed to enhance crop production, protect people and livestock, and benefit soil and water conservation. Windbreaks can provide valuable opportunities for vine and tree fruit growers, row crop farmers, livestock producers, and rural homeowners.


Why are windbreaks important for livestock?

Livestock performance. Windbreaks around feedlots have been shown to improve the health and weight gain of cattle and sheep in cold climates.


How do windbreaks help the soil?

Windbreaks are proven effective in reducing wind erosion of light-textured soils. By dispersing snow evenly across fields, windbreaks help make more moisture available for crops.


How much less energy does a windbreak use?

Energy conservation. Rural homes protected by windbreaks need 10-20% less energy for heating and cooling compared to unsheltered homes.


What is an IPM windbreak?

IPM (Integrated Pest Management.) By incorporating plants that attract beneficial insects, windbreaks can also serve to increase biological control of crop insect pests.


Where are windbreaks used?

Windbreaks in Lesja, Norway, also used to collect snow in a dry area.


How does windbreak work?

Windbreaks or “wind fences” are used to reduce wind speeds over erodible areas such as open fields, industrial stockpiles, and dusty industrial operations. As erosion is proportional to wind speed cubed, a reduction of wind speed of 1/2 (for example) will reduce erosion by 87.5%.


What is a windbreak fence made of?

Fences called “windbreaks” are also used. Normally made from cotton, nylon, canvas, and recycled sails, windbreaks tend to have three or more panels held in place with poles that slide into pockets sewn into the panel. The poles are then hammered into the ground and a windbreak is formed.


What is a windbreak in North Dakota?

A windbreak (shelterbelt) is a planting usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion.


Why are windbreaks important?

If designed properly, windbreaks around a home can reduce the cost of heating and cooling and save energy. Windbreaks are also planted to help keep snow from drifting onto roadways or yards. Farmers sometimes use windbreaks to keep snow drifts on farm land that will provide water when the snow melts in the spring.


How does turbulent vertical mixing affect windbreaks?

As a result, turbulent vertical mixing is weaker in the lee of the barrier than it is upwind, and interesting secondary microclimatic effects result. For instance, by day sensible heat rising from the ground due to the absorption of sunlight (see surface energy budget) is mixed upward less efficiently in the lee of a windbreak, with the result that air temperature near ground is somewhat higher in the lee than on the windward side. Of course this effect is attenuated with increasing downwind distance and indeed, beyond about 8 H downstream a zone may exist that is actually cooler than upwind.


How much does wind reduce erosion?

As erosion is proportional to wind speed cubed, a reduction of wind speed of 1/2 (for example) will reduce erosion by 87.5%. Sheltered, windless areas created by windbreaks are called wind shadows.


How it impacts Production

Powerful, cold or warm breezes can be one of the major issues for cultivators, particularly if cultivation is done in tunnels. Wind can cause numerous undesirable impacts, like the expulsion or breaking of the plastic film, infraction or twisting of the passage structure.


Advantages of WindBreaker Nets

Windbreak net offers fundamental security for crops, nurseries, house cultivated creatures and nurseries from ruinous breezes, driving precipitation and floating snow. When raised by securing to wooden fence posts, or by securing to existing steel fencing around grounds, the windbreak cross section will offer support free insurance.


Why Choose GreenPro?

If you wish to get the most out of the windbreaker nets, it is of immense importance to select a reliable and experienced manufacturer. Only a dependable manufacturer can provide the users with the best quality windbreak nets that are ideally suited for the intended purpose of use.


What are windbreaks in agriculture?

Windbreaks are barriers formed by trees and other plants. Farmers plant these barriers around their fields.


How does windbreak work?

For this reason, a windbreak works best if it contains only 60 to 80 percent of the trees and plants that would be needed to make a solid line.


Why are windbreaks important?

Windbreaks not only protect land and crops from the wind. Surplus trees can be cut down and used or sold for wood. Trees reduce the damaging effects of wind and rain. Their roots help protect soil from being washed away. And trees can provide another valuable service for agriculture.


What is a hand planter?

An example is a hand-planter from Brazil. The long, wooden v-shaped tool has a piece of metal on the bottom for breaking up the soil. Opening the arms of a part shaped like the letter V loads seed and fertilizer into the metal tip.


What should be the line between trees and windbreaks?

One line should be large trees. The second line, right next to it, can be shorter trees or other plants with leaves. Locally grown trees and plants are considered the best choices for windbreaks. Studies have shown that some kinds of trees can grow well even if the quality of the land is not very good.


Is farming without machines hard?

I’m Karen Leggett in Washington. Farming without big machines is hard work. Planting and fertilizing alone can take days in the hot sun. Researchers are working to develop simple machines to make life easier for farmers in the developing world. They also would like to help the farmers save money.


What is windbreak?

Windbreaks are barriers used to reduce and redirect wind. They usually consist of trees and shrubs, but may also be perennial or annual crops and grasses, fences, or other materials. The reduction in wind speed behind a windbreak modifies the environmental condi- tions or microclimate in the sheltered zone. University of Nebraska Extension EC 9 …


How does windbreak help?

Most windbreak benefits come about indirectly be- cause of changes in the microclimate of the sheltered zone. One exception is the direct benefit of reducing wind speed to control soil erosion. A well designed windbreak can reduce soil erosion to near zero within 1 OH of the leeward Side of the tree row.


How does continuity affect windbreak efficiency?

The continuity of a windbreak also influences its efficiency. Gaps in a windbreak become funnels that concentrate wind flow, creating areas on the downwind side of the gap in which wind speeds often exceed open field wind velocities (Figure 3). Where there are gaps, the effectiveness of the windbreak is diminished.


What are the characteristics of a windbreak?

Windbreak Characteristics Open Wind Speed 20 mph Deciduous 25-35% Density Effect of height Windbreak height (H) is the most important factor determining the downwind area protected by a wind- break. This value varies from windbreak to windbreak, and increases as the windbreak matures. In multiple- row windbreaks, the height of the tallest tree-row de- termines the value of H. On the windward side of a windbreak, wind speed reductions are measurable upwind for a distance of 2 to 5 times the height of the windbreak (2H to 5H). On the leeward side (the side away from the wind), wind speed reductions occur up to 301-1 downwind of the barrier. For example, in a windbreak where the tallest trees are 30 ft, lower wind speeds are measurable for 60 ft to 150 ft on the windward side, and up to 900 ft on the leeward side. Within this protected zone, the structural characteristics of a windbreak, especially density, determine the extent of wind speed reductions. Effect of density Windbreak density is the ratio of the solid portion of the barrier to the total area of the barrier. Wind flows through the open portions of a windbreak, thus the more solid a windbreak, the less wind passes through. Low pressure develops on the leeward side of very dense windbreaks. This low pressure area behind the windbreak pulls air coming over the wind break down- ward, creating turbulence and reducing protection downwind. As density decreases, the amount of air passing through the windbreak increases, moderating the low pressure and turbulence, and increasing the length of the downwind protected area. While this protected area is larger, the wind speed reductions are not as great. By adjusting windbreak density different wind flow patterns and areas of protection are estab- lished (Figure 1). In designing a windbreak, density should be adjusted to meet landowner objectives. A windbreak density of 40 to 60 percent provides the greatest downwind area of protection and provides excellent soil erosion con- trol. To get even distribution of snow across a field, densities of 25 to 35 percent are most effective, but may not provide sufficient control of soil erosion. Windbreaks designed to catch and store snow in a confined area usually have several rows, and densities in the range of 60 to 80 percent. Farmsteads and live- stock areas needing protection from winter winds require multiple row wind breaks with high densities. In these cases, wind speed reductions are greater but the protected area is smaller. distance m windbreak miles per hour speed 1 OH 13 65% 15H 16 20H 17 85% 30H 20 1000 Open Wind Speed 20 mph Conifer 40-60% Density ce from windbreak miles per hour 6 d speed IOH 10 15H 12 20H 15 75% .30H 19 95% Open Wind Speed 20 mph Multi Row 60-80% Density 5H from windbreak miles per hour 5 IOH 15H 13 20H


How does windbreak density affect wind speed?

The number of rows, the distance between trees, and species composition are factors controlling windbreak density. Increasing the number of windbreak rows or decreasing the distance between trees increases den- sity and provides a more solid barrier to the wind. The species chosen for the windbreak will determine height as well as density, and will influence the length of the sheltered area. The interaction ofheight and density determines the degree of wind speed reduction. and ultimately the length of the protected area. For a given height, the protected area usually increases as density increases. However, if density is below 20 percent, the windbreak does not provide useful wind reductions. If density is above 80 percent, excessive leeward turbulence may reduce windbreak effectiveness beyond 8H. The cross-sectional shape of windbreaks with equal densities has minimal influence on wind velocities within 1 OH of the leeward side of a barrier. Beyond I OH, straight sides provide slightly more protection than slanted sides, because more wind passes through the trees, and extends the protected area farther to the leeward. Effect of orientation Windbreaks are most effective when oriented at right angles to prevailing winds. The purpose and design of each windbreak is unique, thus the orientation of indi- vidual windbreaks depends on the design objectives. Farmsteads and feedlots usually need protection from cold winds and blowing snow or dust. Orienting these windbreaks perpendicular to the troublesome winter wind direction provides the most useful protec- tion. Field crops usually need protection from hot, dry summer winds, abrasive, wind-blown soil particles, or both. The orientation of these windbreaks should be perpendicular to prevailing winds during critical grow- ing periods. Successful field windbreaks should be designed to fit within the farming operation. Consideration should be given to reducing wind erosion, providing crop protec- tion, increasing irrigation efficiency and improving wildlife habitat. Windbreaks protect fall-seeded small grains like winter wheat that may need protection from summer and winter winds. To control soil erosion, windbreaks should be planted to block the prevailing winds during the times of greatest soil exposure-winter and early spring. To recharge soil moisture with drifting snow, windbreaks should be placed perpen- dicular to the prevailing winter winds. Although wind may blow predominantly from one di- rection for a season, it rarely blows exclusively from that direction. As a result, protection is not equal for all areas on the leeward side of a windbreak. As the WINDBREAK – LEG PROTECTED WINDB PROTECTED Figure 2. In areas with variable winds. multiple-leg windbreaks or windbreak systems provide greater protection to the field or farm- stead than single-leg windbreaks. wind changes direction and is no longer blowing di- rectly against the windbreak, the protected area de- creases (See Figure 2). The use of multiple-leg wind- breaks provides a larger protected area than a single windbreak. Again, individual placement depends on the site, the wind direction(s), and the design objec- tives. Effect of length Although the height of a windbreak determines the extent of the protected area downwind, the length of a windbreak determines the amount of total area receiv- ingprotection. For maximum efficiency, the uninter- rupted length of a windbreak should exceed the height by at least 10: l. This ratio reduces the influence of end-turbulence on the total protected area. The continuity of a windbreak also influences its efficiency. Gaps in a windbreak become funnels that concentrate wind flow, creating areas on the downwind side of the gap in which wind speeds often exceed open field wind velocities (Figure 3). Where there are gaps, the effectiveness of the windbreak is diminished. Lanes or field accesses through windbreaks should be located to minimize this effect or if possible avoided al- together.


How does low pressure affect windbreaks?

This low pressure area behind the windbreak pulls air coming over the wind break down- ward, creating turbulence and reducing protection downwind. As density decreases, the amount of air passing through the windbreak increases , moderating the low pressure and turbulence, and increasing the length of the downwind protected area.


What is a multiple leg windbreak?

In areas with variable winds. multiple-leg windbreaks or windbreak systems provide greater protection to the field or farm- stead than single-leg windbreaks. wind changes direction and is no longer blowing di- rectly against the windbreak, the protected area de- creases (See Figure 2).


What is a windbreak?

Windbreaks are trees and shrubs systematically planted adjacent to fields, homesteads, or feedlots as a barrier to reduce or redirect the wind. Overall, windbreaks enhance aesthetics, increase land value, reduce soil erosion, protect buildings and/or equipment and establish wildlife habitat.


How do windbreaks help cattle?

Livestock Windbreaks protect cattle in severe weather conditions by reducing the amount of energy cattle utilize to keep warm, thus increasing weight gains and decreasing the producer’s feed costs. Field Windbreaks protect crops and soil from wind erosion and moisture loss.


What type of windbreaks are recommended by Texas A&M Forest Service?

Six different types of windbreaks are recommended by Texas A&M Forest Service West Texas Nursery for protection: Homestead/Farmstead Wind breaks enhance the aesthetics and increase the heating and cooling efficiency of homes.


Why wear windbreakers?

Brightly colored windbreakers may also be worn by runners as protection from the weather, and as a reflective garment used for safety. A 2012 study demonstrated that adding windbreaker pants and jackets offer a lightweight but effective means of delaying hypothermia if the user is outside walking and encounters unexpected low temperatures.


What is a windbreaker made of?

It is usually of lightweight construction and characteristically made of a synthetic material. A windbreaker often uses elastic waistbands, and/or armbands, and a zipper to allow adjustments for the current weather conditions .


What is a windcheater?

Windcheater is also used to describe a retail item used on the beach and camping to prevent wind from disturbing social enjoyment.


Can windbreaker pants be used for hypothermia?

A 2012 study demonstrated that adding windbreaker pants and jackets offer a lightweight but effective means of delaying hypothermia if the user is outside walking and encounters unexpected low temperatures.


Do windbreakers come with hoods?

may include a type of windbreaker as an interlining that can be removed when desired. Windbreakers sometimes include a hood that may be removable and/or stowable. Many windbreakers may also include large pockets on the inside or the outside which allows belongings to be covered from weather such as light wind or rain as mentioned above. Windbreakers may offer light to moderate insulating protection, more so than a sweater, but less than an overcoat.

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Overview

A windbreak (shelterbelt) is a planting usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion. They are commonly planted in hedgerows around the edges of fields on farms. If designed properly, windbreaks around a home can reduce the cost of heating and cooling and save energy. Windbreaks are also p…


Windbreak aerodynamics

In essence, when the wind encounters a porous obstacle such as a windbreak or shelterbelt, air pressure increases (loosely speaking, air piles up) on the windward side and (conversely) air pressure decreases on the leeward side. As a result, the airstream approaching the barrier is retarded, and a proportion of it is displaced up and over the barrier, resulting in a jet of higher wind speed aloft…


See also

• Agroforestry
• Buffer strip
• Dead hedge
• Desertification
• Energy-efficient landscaping


Bibliography

• Withgott, Jay; Scott Brennan (2008). Environment: The Science Behind the Stories (3rd ed.). San Francisco, California: Pearson Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0131357051.


External links

• National Agroforestry Center (USDA)
• The Bibliography of Aeolian Research

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