What is yield in agriculture

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What does yield mean in agriculture?

Crop yield is a standard measurement of the amount of agricultural production harvested—yield of a crop—per unit of land area. Crop yield is the measure most often used for cereal, grain, or legumes; and typically is measured in bushels, tons, or pounds per acre in the U.S.


Why is agricultural yield important?

Crop yield is the measure of crop produced per area of land. It’s an important metric to understand because it helps us understand food security and also explains why your tomatoes can cost more one year and then less the following year.


What is production and yield?

The difference between yield and production is that yield refers per area harvest and, production is total harvest measured in tonnes per hectare. Crop yields are the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products.


What is crop yield production?

Crop yields are the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded, but are obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested.


How is yield measured?

For stocks, yield is calculated as a security’s price increase plus dividends, divided by the purchase price.


How do you calculate yields?

Estimation methodSelect an area that is representative of the paddock. … Do this 5 times to get an average of the crop (A)Count the number of grains in at least 20 heads or pods and average (B)Using Table 1 determine the grain weight for the crop concerned (C)Yield in t/ha = (A × B × C) / 10,000.


What is yield in irrigation?

Average yield (Ya) is defined as the average (of for instance the past 5 years for irrigated and 10 years for rainfed cropping systems) yield achieved by farmers in a given region under dominant management practices (sowing date, cultivar maturity, and plant density) and soil properties.


What is seed yield?

In agriculture, the yield is a measurement of the amount of a crop grown, or product such as wool, meat or milk produced, per unit area of land. The seed ratio is another way of calculating yields.


What is the yield per acre?

The size of a farm is defined as the total of (net) cultivated area and un- cultivated area. Yield per acre has been obtained by dividing the gross value of output by the gross cultivated area.


What is economic yield?

Economic yield is basically a part or proportion of the biological yield or the dry matter generated from the crops. Therefore,economic yield provides economic benefits to the society as a whole and various communities within the society.


How can agriculture increase yield?

What Are The Ways To Increase Crop Yield?Quality Of Seeds. Agricultural productivity depends on the quality of seeds with which farmers sow their fields. … Field Productivity Zoning. … Monitoring Crops Growth. … Accurate Weather Prediction. … Regular Scouting. … Crop Protection Methods. … Soil Testing & Its Quality.


What is yield estimation?

Crop yield determination is a crucial function in planning for food security of the population of a district or even of the whole country. Agriculture, as the backbone of many developing economies (especially in Africa), provides a substantial portion of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP).


What does “yield” mean in agriculture?

Yield: how many crops a particular field, farm, or area of land produces.


What is crop yield?

Crop yields are the harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded, but are obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested.


How to increase the yield of crops?

The three methods to increase the yield of crops are: Using high yielding variety seeds. Use of modern irrigation methods so as to obtain more amount of water. Crop rotation so as to increase the fertility of the soil.


What is crop harvest?

Answer. A crop harvest is also referred to as crop yield which is a measurement of how much is produced per area. Crop produce is the amount of crops that are yielded as a whole.


How to calculate total yield?

The total yield is calculated from the weight multiplied by the total acreage in production. Farmer estimation: Farmers are asked for their estimation of the total crop harvested. This value is divided by how much land they planted in order to estimate yield.


What is yield in financial terms?

Definition: In financial terms, yield is used to describe a certain amount earned on a security, over a particular period of time. Yield is a measure of cash flow that an investor is getting on the money invested in a security.


Which crop yields the most sugar?

The highest yielding crops are sugar cane, sugar beet, and tomatoes. Sugar cane accounts for about 80% of the world’s sugar production, while sugar beet the remaining 20%.


How does agriculture reduce the yield gap?

Fundamental to reducing the agricultural yield gap is the delivery of reliable, adequate, and relatively stable soil moisture content ( Jackson et al., 2001 ). Globally, humans now appropriate approximately 50% of surface freshwater ( Postel et al., 1996; Jackson et al., 2001 ), with agriculture accounting for roughly 33% of consumptive uses ( Jackson et al., 2001 ). While discussions often focus on these supply-side demands for crop production, in rainfed agricultural regions one of the most notable water-related impacts on ecosystem services is the observed increase in surface runoff and transport of sediment and nutrients into adjacent waterbodies ( Bennett et al., 2001 ). Viewed within a soil disturbance continuum of perennial to conventional tillage systems, changes (generally decreases) in maximum and seasonally averaged leaf area index (LAI) and surface litter mass are associated with changes (again generally decreases) in water interception storage and evapotranspiration ( Chapin et al., 2011 ). Combined reductions to LAI and surface litter reduce the vertical space available to store precipitation, thereby increasing water inputs to the mineral soil surface, increasing water available for either infiltration or runoff ( Chapin et al., 2011 ). Reductions in the canopy and litter layer also increase the energy associated with raindrops as they hit the soil surface, or as water moves across soil, increasing the potential for soil crusting and erosion ( Chapin et al., 2011 ). The discussion that follows focuses on less-explored impacts of agricultural intensification on the soil system, those occurring below the canopy and litter layer, emphasizing feedbacks to the soil system.


Why are antibiotics used in agriculture?

Antimicrobials are extensively employed in treating stock and crops to make them healthier and prevent infections. This overall significantly enhances the agricultural yield of the crop. The exposure of crops to antibiotics is commercially justified as better quality product is developed and furthermore the enhancement in crop yield to feed the increasing population of human is understandable, but still the other side of the scenario remains masked.


How do MCSs affect agriculture?

MCSs have major impacts on populations, as their occurrence, intensity, and size influences both agricultural yields (e.g., Guan et al., 2015) and the hydrological response of catchments ( Vischel and Lebel, 2007; Vischel et al., 2009 ). An illustration of the importance of rainfall variability at mesoscale for hydrology is given in Fig. 4.2. A 13-year reference runoff series was produced by forcing a hydrological model representative of a 5000 km 2 domain in southern Niger ( Massuel et al., 2011) with stochastically simulated reference rainfall series at mesoscale ( Vischel et al., 2009 ). In the reference rainfall series, mean annual occurrence, intensity, and size of MCSs are consistent with MCS characteristics measured in situ over the AMMA-CATCH observatory (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis–Coupling the Tropical Atmosphere and the Hydrological Cycle, Lebel et al., 2009, see also Section 3.2) rain gauge network from years 1990 to 2012. From the rainfall series, drought scenarios were generated by gradually decreasing the mean annual umber of MCS in three different ways. The first way (#1 in Fig. 4.2) considers that rainfall decrease is due to a random reduction of the number of MCS at the core of the rainy season (from July to August). The second one (#2 in Fig. 4.2) is based on a gradual reduction of the number of MCSs from the less intense to the most intense. The third one (#3 in Fig. 4.2) is based on a gradual reduction of the umber of MCSs from the most intense to the less intense. The three scenarios were used to force the hydrological model to assess their impacts on simulated runoff compared to the reference simulated series. In Fig. 4.2, mean annual changes in rainfall are reported on the x-axis and the associated mean annual changes in runoff on the y-axis. This purely numerical experiment shows that the three rainfall scenarios have a completely different impact on the simulated runoff. For instance, for a given decrease of 40% of mean annual rainfall, mean annual runoff decreased by a maximum of 5% for scenario #2, between 30% and 50% for scenario #1 and by more than 85% for scenario #3. Because of the nonlinearity of the rainfall–runoff relationship, a decrease in mean annual rainfall driven by a decreasing occurrence of intense events has much more impact on runoff than a similar decrease in rainfall driven by a decreasing number of small events. This result highlights the importance of documenting rainfall at mesoscale to assessing the hydrological impacts of climate change.


What is tillage in landscapes?

As discussed previously, tillage is a homogenizing practice, both within the soil profile and across the soil surface. Specifically, tillage notably reduces microtopographic differences in surface elevation, thereby reducing surface water storage across the landscape. For example, natural forest ecosystems often possess extensive pit-and-mound topography caused by the uprooting of wind-thrown trees ( Beatty, 2003 ). Mima mounds, circular soil hillocks approximately 1 m in height, are found within natural landscapes on all continents except Antarctica ( Gabet et al., 2003 ), and gilgai, a complex of circular soil mounds and linear ridges and depressions, are common to undisturbed shrink-swell soils, such as Vertisols ( Kishné et al., 2014 ). These and like formations tend to be abundant, often dominant features of pretillage, or unmanaged, landscapes that collectively create undulating soil surfaces supporting a heterogeneous, juxtaposition of drained soils and surface ponding. For example, Ulanova (2000) reported that pit-and-mound topography covered 7–12% of the soil surface in a natural, uneven age spruce forest, and Kishné et al. (2014) estimated that gilgai microtopography in a Texas, United States, pasture held approximately 0.024 m 3 of water m −2, summing to a capture of 43.74 m 3 of water within their 1800 m 2 study area. While relatively few attempts have been made to quantify the impact of these features on surface water storage and runoff, the evidence to date suggests that the homogenizing effects of tillage on the soil surface result in an associated reduction in surface water storage, and a permanent increase in surface runoff.


What are the biophysical constraints of soil?

Soil moisture and oxygen availability are important biophysical constraints on soil communities and microbial-driven soil biogeochemical processes. For example, over prolonged periods, wetter soils typically support larger populations of herbaceous nematodes, oribatid mites, and collembolans ( Todd et al., 1999; Tsiafouli et al., 2005 ), and wetland drainage results in a relatively rapid and large loss of SOC ( Euliss et al., 2006 ). Reciprocally, historic changes to drainage must also be acknowledged for their effect on potential SOC recovery, as evidenced by the strong relationship between SOC accrual rates and soil moisture levels ( O’Brien et al., 2010 ). The relationship between soil moisture and SOC accrual is likely a function of reduced microbial activity in water-saturated soils. For example, von Haden and Dornbush (2014) found that soil moisture was negatively related to root decomposition and positively related to SOC, thus linking soil moisture, decomposition, and SOC accrual potential. Similar to the effects of tillage, soil-moisture control strategies by intensive agriculture in rainfed systems appear to have a homogenizing effect on soil C pools and processes, as evidenced by greater SOC variability (i.e., coefficient of variation) in remnant grasslands compared to younger, restored grasslands ( Kucharik et al., 2006 ). Thus, the effects of intensified agriculture on soil moisture levels have likely contributed to reduced SOC heterogeneity and associated distinct C-hotspot processing points within the landscape, and places underappreciated constraints on SOC accrual potential.


What is microbial fertilizer?

The prototype of microbial fertilizer (MF) was the use of soil microorganisms to enhance agricultural yield due to the benefits of bacteria in the soil. In ancient times, the farmers in Rome found that rice production increased as long as legume plants had been planted in the rice-cropland, which was a result of the enrichment of bacteria ( Zhuang, 2003 ). In the early 1900s, some US and German farmers put the soils that had been planted with legume or alfalfa plants into some newly reclaimed croplands to enhance agricultural production ( Crews and Peoples, 2004 ). In 1838, J. B. Boussingault, a France agricultural chemist, found that N could be fixed by legume plants. He then built the first agricultural field experimental station in 1843 and analyzed relevant parameters ( Manlay et al., 2007 ). Under the conditions of sand culturing legume plants between 1886 and 1888, H. Hellriegal, a German agriculturist, demonstrated that the N in the air could be fixed as long as Rhizobium formed ( Fogarty, 1992 ). A Dutch researcher, M.W. Beijerinck successfully isolated Rhizobium in 1888, representing a breakthrough in terms of microbial fertilizers (Rodelas et al., 1999 ).


What is the biofertilizer used in rice?

A type of fertilizer based on cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was developed and has been applied extensively in rice cropland in Asia since the 1940s ( Irisarri et al., 2001). This biofertilizer still plays an important role in improving rice yield and maintaining soil quality in the long term.


Why is crop yield important?

First, as we mentioned earlier, there are a lot of mouths to feed on our planet and there’s a finite amount of land to grow food on. Being able to estimate crop yield allows us to understand food security, the ability to produce enough food to meet human needs in …


What is the difference between crop yield and yield gap?

Each crop has a potential yield value that a farmer can compare his output to. If his yield falls below the potential yield, the difference is called a yield gap.


Why is crop insurance important?

Why is this important? Well, the most basic level of crop insurance provides payments to farmers who fail to hit 50% of their anticipated crop yield in a given year. This is called catastrophic coverage, and you can see why estimating crop yields is such an important endeavor.


What happens if strawberries are low in yield?

Additionally, if a crop has many years of low crop yield, farmers may switch to growing something else, causing a long-term decrease in availability and higher prices.


Why are subsidies important in agriculture?

As we know, a lot of uncontrollable variables can affect crop yield, and it’s hard to keep people farming without some guarantee of income. Would you work at your desk for 8 hours a day, 7 days a week, 9 months out of the year if you weren’t sure you would have a paycheck at the end? Probably not. To address this issue and also ensure food security, the federal government created the Federal Crop Insurance Program.


What is the metric used to determine the efficiency of food production?

One of the metrics used to determine the efficiency of food production is crop yield. Simply put, crop yield is the amount of crop harvested per area of land. Typically, it is used in reference to corn, cereals, grains, or legumes, …


When was the federal crop insurance program created?

This program was initially rolled out in the 1930s, in response to the Great Depression, but it has evolved over time to meet the needs of farmers.


What is crop yield?

The definition for ‘ crop yield ‘ given by the FAO is ‘Harvested production per unit of harvested area for crop products. In most of the cases yield data are not recorded but obtained by dividing the production data by the data on area harvested. Data on yields of permanent crops are not as reliable as those for temporary crops either because most of the area information may correspond to planted area, as for grapes, or because of the scarcity and unreliability of the area figures reported by the countries, as for example for cocoa and coffee.’ 4


What is achievable yield?

Attainable yields are defined as feasible crop yields based on high-yielding areas of similar climate. They are more conservative than biophysical ‘potential yields’, but are achievable using current technologies and management ( e.g. fertilizers and irrigation).


What is yield gap?

Yield gaps are defined as the different between the actual crop yield and the attainable yield.


How much land was used for cereal production in 2014?

However, if global average cereal yields were to have remained at their 1961 levels, we see the amount of additional land (in blue) which we would have had to convert to arable land if we were to achieve the same levels of cereal production. This ‘spared’ land amounts to 1.26 billion hectares in 2014– roughly equal to the area of Mexico and Europe combined.


How much has the average cereal yield increased since 1961?

Most of our improvements in cereal production have arisen from improvements in yield. The average cereal yield has increased by 175 percent since 1961.


What is the trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields?

This trade-off between land use for agriculture and yields is very clearly exemplified in a comparison between cereal production in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Expansion of cereal production has followed very different paths in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia.#N#Land use for cereal production in South Asia has increased by less than 20 percent since 1961, meanwhile cereal yields have more than tripled – which meant that much more food could be produced in South Asia without an equivalent extension of the agricultural land. This is in strong contrast to Sub-Saharan Africa where the area of land used for cereal production has more than doubled since 1961 and yields have only increased by 80 percent.#N#Click to open interactive version


Which countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production?

Most European, American (both North and Latin American), Asian and Pacific countries have seen a much larger increase in cereal yields relative to area used for production. For many, changes in the arable land have been minimal (or have declined). This is an important contrast to Africa where results are more mixed.

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