- 1 How did agricultural surplus relate to expanded trade during the Middle Ages?
- 2 How to reduce agricultural surpluses in Europe?
- 3 Why do the Elite claim to have a resource surplus?
- 4 What will the future of Agriculture look like?
- 5 What is agriculture surplus?
- 6 What is the benefit of agricultural surplus?
- 7 What did surpluses lead to for farmers?
- 8 What was the impact of surplus agricultural production in the development of civilization?
- 9 What is surplus and how did it lead to the development of civilization?
- 10 Why were industrial and agricultural surpluses a problem for the US economy?
- 11 How did surpluses affect village life?
- 12 How were the common people affected by the surplus?
- 13 How did crop surpluses contribute to the Great Depression?
- 14 How did agriculture change society?
- 15 How did agricultural production improve?
- 16 How did the Agricultural Revolution impact early humans?
- 17 What were the factors that contributed to the formation of the Arabian Peninsula?
- 18 How was the Roman government financed?
- 19 Who designed a government that was larger, more complex, more highly organized, and much more costly?
- 20 Why do rulers and their support population conflict?
- 21 Why are states unstable?
- 22 How did biodiesel become a major industry in Europe?
- 23 Is political collapse a multicausal model?
- 24 How would foreign aid be based on agricultural surpluses?
- 25 What is the objective of foreign aid with agricultural surpluses?
- 26 How quickly can underdeveloped countries organize for foreign aid?
- 27 What countries would benefit from foreign aid?
- 28 How would foreign aid affect the economy?
- 29 What are the deterrents to foreign aid?
- 30 Why is deficit financing economically unsound?
- 31 History
- 32 History
- 33 Social studies
- 34 world History
- 35 History
- 36 History
- 37 social studies
Agricultural surpluses have also been used, of course, to alleviate food shortages due to famine, floods and other adversities, but these emergency measures add little to the positive economic development of the country.
How did agricultural surplus relate to expanded trade during the Middle Ages?
· Agricultural surpluses have also been used, of course, to alleviate food shortages due to famine, floods and other adversities, but these emergency measures add little to the positive economic development of the country.
How to reduce agricultural surpluses in Europe?
Prof. Simon Kuznets is of the view that if agri. production increases it will lead to create agri. surplus. Such surplus contributes to economic development through three stages, as: (i) After …
Why do the Elite claim to have a resource surplus?
· Still Maintaining an Agricultural Trade Surplus. Date: Tue, 07/07/2020 Broadcast: 01 Remark: It’s smaller than it used to be, but the U.S. still has an agricultural trade surplus …
What will the future of Agriculture look like?
product of a surplus, generally agricultural; and the size and dis? tribution of that surplus determined the elevation and spread of the civilization. We have today gone far beyond our …
What is agriculture surplus?
agricultural surplus (countable and uncountable, plural agricultural surpluses) An agricultural production that exceeds the needs of the society for which it is being produced, and may be exported or stored for future times.
What is the benefit of agricultural surplus?
The important point to be recognized is that agricultural surpluses can be used to stimulate a sounder and more rapid economic development than is now taking place in the less advanced countries of the free world.
What did surpluses lead to for farmers?
People who produced their own food could have a steady supply of food year- round because the surplus food could be stored. This meant that they no longer had to travel from place to place. Having surplus food also allowed more people to be fed, so the population of the world began to grow rapidly.
What was the impact of surplus agricultural production in the development of civilization?
The surplus food that agricultural systems could generate allowed for people to live in larger, more permanent villages. Villages were more productive not only agriculturally but creatively.
What is surplus and how did it lead to the development of civilization?
The earliest civilizations developed between 4000 and 3000 BCE, when the rise of agriculture and trade allowed people to have surplus food and economic stability. Many people no longer had to practice farming, allowing a diverse array of professions and interests to flourish in a relatively confined area.
Why were industrial and agricultural surpluses a problem for the US economy?
Why were industrial and agricultural surpluses a problem for the US economy? The average American had limited funds to purchase these items. Smith favored buying farm surpluses, while Hoover believed in funding organizations that would help farmers with the surpluses.
How did surpluses affect village life?
Surpluses and specialization led to growth of villages. Surpluses led to increased trade even between villages. People became artisans and developed social classes. As villages grew larger, people felt the need for laws and leadership which formed governments.
How were the common people affected by the surplus?
The common people were affected by this surplus by being put into cities rather than their property on the farm. This separated families because the men, women, and children were all working long days at the factories rather than the family dynamic that they had when working on the farm together.
How did crop surpluses contribute to the Great Depression?
The onset of the Great Depression after 1929 left many U.S. farmers in financial ruin as prices dropped and they were left with huge surpluses of stock; in California alone in 1932, farmers unable to shift their stock lost nearly 3 million watermelons and 22.4 million pounds of tomatoes to rot.
How did agriculture change society?
When early humans began farming, they were able to produce enough food that they no longer had to migrate to their food source. This meant they could build permanent structures, and develop villages, towns, and eventually even cities. Closely connected to the rise of settled societies was an increase in population.
How did agricultural production improve?
These range from improved seed varieties, genetic enhancement in livestock, advanced machinery that comes equipped with global positioning systems, and robotics, among other innovations. This has enabled a production system that requires considerably less of traditional inputs such as land and labor.
How did the Agricultural Revolution impact early humans?
Agriculture development impacted Neolithic societies in the Near East by trade, steady food source, increase in population, social classes, and the rise of civilization began to form during the Agricultural Revolution, consequently changing life of the Neolithic human.
What were the factors that contributed to the formation of the Arabian Peninsula?
During the early first millennium BC, several factors combined to launch a number of regions in the Arabian peninsula toward complex statehood. Agricultural intensification due to improved irrigation, the production of surpluses under the control of local elites, the domestication of the camel enabling long-distance caravan trade in aromatics, and pressure from outside aggressors (principally Assyria) all contributed to state formation processes in southwestern and northwestern Arabia, while in the Persian Gulf and southeastern Arabia, tributary relations with Assyria on the part of local rulers were documented.
How was the Roman government financed?
Once the phase of conquest was complete, and the accumulated surpluses spent, the Roman government was financed by agricultural taxes that barely sufficed for ordinary administration. When extraordinary expenses arose, typically during wars, the precious metals on hand frequently were insufficient to produce the required coinage. Facing the costs of war with Parthia and rebuilding Rome after the Great Fire, Nero began in 64 ad a policy that later emperors found irresistible. He debased the primary silver coin, the denarius, reducing the alloy from 98 to 93% silver. It was the first step down a slope that resulted two centuries later in a currency that was worthless ( Fig. 4) and a government that was insolvent.
Who designed a government that was larger, more complex, more highly organized, and much more costly?
In the late third and early fourth centuries, Diocletian (284–305) and Constantine (306–337) designed a government that was larger, more complex, more highly organized, and much more costly. They doubled the size of the army, always the major part of imperial costs. To pay for this, the government taxed its citizens more heavily, conscripted their labor, and dictated their occupations. Increasingly more of the empire’s energy was devoted to maintaining the state.
Why do rulers and their support population conflict?
This is because the rulers attempt to centralize political power within the institutions they have direct control over , whereas the rest of the population strives to maintain political power within their more traditional , localized political institutions . Thus, the ruler and his/her centralized bureaucracy are often in conflicting relationships with the more established nobles, farmers, and craft specialists who inhabit the rural zones of the state. To continue to grow, or for that matter exist, the center must extract surplus produce and labor from their support population, and they need to justify the extraction of these resources because these are goods and services that could be put to good use by the various social units inhabiting the rural areas falling within the state’s territorial ambit.
Why are states unstable?
The various sociopolitical models for collapse are firmly grounded in the notion that states are inherently unstable because they are rife with conflicting relationships. One area of perpetual conflict exists within the ranks of the nobility. Among these societal elites the rulers often come into conflict with the rest of the nobility, and the rest of the nobility are invariably at odds with each other, because the various members of the upper class strive for greater wealth and prestige through conflicting claims to the state’s surplus agricultural yields, labor, raw materials, and manufactured goods. The palace intrigue that customarily ensues has been well documented by almost every book ever written about historic states.
How did biodiesel become a major industry in Europe?
Two factors have contributed to an aggressive expansion of the European biodiesel industry. Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy to reduce agricultural surpluses was of primary importance. This policy, which provides a substantial subsidy to non-food crop production, stimulated the use of land for non-food purposes. Secondarily, high fuel taxes in European countries normally constitute 50% or more of the retail price of diesel fuel. In 1995, Western Europe biodiesel production capacity was 1.1 million tons/year, mainly produced through the transesterification process. This added over 80,000 tons of glycerin by-products to the market annually, creating created a large surplus. Germany thus decided to limit the production of biodiesel using the transesterification process. When it is not possible to market the glycerin by-product, one method of disposal of the excess is incineration; however, this creates an environmental risk and results in additional costs. Germany is now focusing on biodiesel production using the cold-pressed rapeseed method to avoid the problem of excess glycerin.
Is political collapse a multicausal model?
However, it is once again advisable to consider political breakdown as one component of a multicausal explanation, because it is clear that economic and ideological factors are also at play in this model.
How would foreign aid be based on agricultural surpluses?
Ideally, a plan of foreign aid based on agricultural surpluses would embrace all the countries of the free world. The advanced countries would be expected to transfer their agricultural surpluses to the underdeveloped countries on a grant basis, while the underdeveloped countries with agricultural surpluses would have to be offered a quid pro quo. Burma and Egypt, for example, could not be expected to join such a program unless they were assured that the use of their present rice and cotton surpluses would redound to their benefit. The countries of the free world might establish a Commodity Exchange Union which would operate to absorb and reallocate the agricultural surpluses of the underdeveloped countries for their mutual economic development. American wheat could be exchanged for Egyptian cotton and the cotton delivered to India for her enhanced economic development effort. In this manner Egypt would receive a greater supply of wheat, which she must normally import, and India a greater supply of cotton.
What is the objective of foreign aid with agricultural surpluses?
The objective of foreign aid with agricultural surpluses should be to supply the underdeveloped country with the food and cloth needed to achieve full employment of its idle manpower as fast as this can be organized administratively. Such an aid program would be possible only under a long-range commitment after the pattern of the Marshall Plan. It would be unfair and probably impossible to ask the underdeveloped countries to launch a program of deficit financing which would be ruinous without an assured supply of food and cloth for a period of years. A minimum commitment of five years, the usual planning period, would be desirable, with a policy statement in the legislation that the program would be continued thereafter if the underdeveloped countries had demonstrated the success of the program.
How quickly can underdeveloped countries organize for foreign aid?
It is difficult to estimate how quickly the underdeveloped countries could organize for such foreign aid. Different results would doubtless obtain in different countries. In the case of India, it would not appear unreasonable to expect 10 million of her idle manpower to be brought into full employment by the end of the Second Five-Year Plan in March 1961. Perhaps she could surpass this goal. Such increased employment would achieve a very satisfactory rate of economic growth. In contrast, India’s present Five-Year Plan, for which finance is not yet assured, is expected to create only about eight million jobs outside agriculture, which will barely absorb the additions to the labor force due to population growth during the period. To deny that underdeveloped countries are capable of increasing the tempo of economic development is unacceptable without admitting defeat from the start. If China can organize for such increased economic activity, so can India once the financial obstacles are mitigated or removed, and providing technical assistance is available.
What countries would benefit from foreign aid?
The countries which export capital goods, such as Japan, Germany and England, whose prosperity and political stability depend upon foreign markets for their manufactures, would also benefit as demand increased and foreign exchange became more available. The anticipated economic growth of the underdeveloped countries under a foreign aid program based on agricultural surpluses would provide the best assurance of export markets for the capital goods of the industrialized countries. It cannot be overemphasized that the aim of the suggested aid program is to increase sharply the tempo of economic growth in underdeveloped areas; and this in turn will increase the demand for both agricultural and manufactured commodities from abroad.
How would foreign aid affect the economy?
A salutary effect of such foreign aid would be its tendency to broaden the market for manufactured goods within the underdeveloped country. As we have seen, approximately one-third of the new wages would be spent on commodities other than food and cloth. With their increased earnings from full employment, workers would soon diversify their consumption toward bicycles, sewing machines, plastic products and other machine-made goods. In the beginning there might be great unfulfilled demand for these goods and prices would rise, but this kind of inflation should be welcome because it would be a powerful stimulant to domestic and foreign private investment. As long as inflation can be controlled with respect to basic consumer goods like food and cloth the underdeveloped country need not be unduly concerned about inflation involving manufactured goods.
What are the deterrents to foreign aid?
At present there are three important deterrents to this form of aid: (a) inadequate development of public services, (b) lack of a broad market for manufactured goods, and (c) the uncertainty of the survival of democratic political institutions. All three deterrents would be substantially diminished by rapid internal economic growth made possible by foreign aid with agricultural surpluses. Although we should not assume that no additional aid would be needed to provide capital goods and technical assistance, these can be provided primarily in the form of easily serviceable loans rather than grants.
Why is deficit financing economically unsound?
The less advanced countries seeking economic development within a democratic framework are thus faced with a dilemma: on the one hand, heavy taxation of agriculture for purposes of economic development is not politically feasible; on the other, deficit financing is economically unsound because of insufficient resources of food and cloth.
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